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# Worm making guide; An impossible mission

Suppose you bought a spaceship (the latest model) from SpaceX and you want to start a five-year tour of the galaxy. But there is a big problem; The space is large, so large that even with the fastest spacecraft imaginable, it takes several years to reach an interesting point by wandering in the interstellar void. So what is the solution? The solution is to build a wormhole!

• Method one: The Einstein-Rosen Bridge
• Problems building a wormhole Paul Einstein-Rosen
• Method Two: The Morris-Thorne Bridge
• Worm-making problems with Paul Morris-Thorne
• Method 3: The Exotic Energy Bridge
• The Last Word

## The First Method: The Einstein-Rosen Bridge )

The wormhole is a shortcut! A special tunnel that is a bridge in space-time. With it, you can escape from the tedious space travel immersed in absolute darkness and quickly reach for fun things. The existence of wormholes has always been a major part of science fiction, but you should know that wormholes are also rooted in scientific facts. So, in this article, we are going to provide you with a guide to making a wormhole so that you can use it to make your way to infinite space shorter and more attractive!

In the first step, you should know that the concept of a wormhole It is fully covered in the mathematics of general relativity (GR). In fact, general relativity is considered the language of gravity, which, despite Albert Einstein's genius, is relatively straightforward in mathematics. In general, Einstein proved in his theory of general relativity that what we feel as the force of gravity is, in fact, the feeling we perceive when we move through the ridges and waves (up and down) of space-time.

Clarifies the nature of gravity!

Of course, it should be noted that all these ridges and waves arise from the distribution of matter and energy in the same space-time. In other words, matter tells space-time how to bend; At the same time, space-time bending determines the motion of matter!

Now if we want to build a tunnel (wormhole) in our space, we have to create a premise of matter or energy To bend our spaceship according to what has been proposed, and at the same time ensure that the tunnel we are looking at appears by bending our spaceship. In fact, you can use general relativity as a guide to find solutions to the equations that would allow the wormhole to exist. At first glance, you might think that the easiest way to build a wormhole is to build a black hole. In fact, black holes can be thought of as holes in space-time itself.

As you know, a black hole is a point of infinite density, or singularity, entangled with a one-way obstacle called an event horizon. When we try to cross the event horizon of a black hole, the onslaught of gravity is so overwhelming that nothing, not even light, can escape, and everything is drawn into it!

Going into a black hole It is more than a one-way trip; In fact, this journey is a step into the highway, straight to hell (singularity). We guarantee that after entering the black hole, you will reach eternal singularity!

A true picture of a black hole

The solution to a black hole in general relativity is provided in answer to a simple question; What if we bring matter to such a high density that no other force can withstand it? ; We will have a black hole!

But the more interesting part is that the existence of black holes is not the only answer to this question. In fact, the mathematics governing the equations of general relativity makes it possible for something completely opposite to a black hole to exist. This is known as a white hole.

In general, white holes also have a singularity at their center, except that their event horizon works in the opposite direction to the black hole. In other words, nothing can enter the white hole and whatever is formed inside it is ejected faster than the speed of light!

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## Problems making a Wormhole with Paul Einstein-Rosen

However, there are two small problems with this method of making a wormhole! First, it can be said that white holes do not exist very likely, because they are very unstable in terms of energy. In fact, the problem is on the horizon of their reverse event. Because they can never have anything from the outside in and they constantly throw everything out.

With the death of stars within a certain mass range, a black hole forms. In fact, black holes are the last stage in the life of some stars! Of course, our sun is not one of these and is too small to become a black hole!

A white hole is exactly the same as a black hole, except that it moves back in time. So the formation and evolution of a white hole is similar to a black hole. In fact, the white hole throws out so much mass (or energy) that it loses enough mass to form a star on its own! Of course, you should know that you can not make a star, because you like it; Because such a procedure violates the second law of thermodynamics. So it is not possible to build a white hole, and without a pair of black holes and white holes, there would be virtually no wormholes.

So you have to continue your journey into the wormhole by moving from a one-way range. The problem is that the nature of the event horizon is such that you can not get out of it once you enter it. So no matter what happens, you will see the singularity in the center and you will be swallowed up. The information in this section comes from the same math that allows the wormhole to exist in the first place, so there is no way out of this trap!

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## Method Two: The Morris-Thorne Bridge

By placing the wormhole entrance above the event horizon, we can have a functional and stable tunnel!

It is quite true that you can build something (a tunnel) that bridges two remote areas in space-time, and of course you can look at your intelligence with a little surprise and pride. Because all you have to do is pull yourself apart like a rubber band, pull it apart, and move faster than the speed of light! So there is a need for a second condition to make a wormhole, and that is the principle of stability that allows anything to pass through its throat without breaking down. In 1988, two physicists, Michael Morris and Cape Thorne, delved deeper into the mathematics of general relativity, finding a way to build a stable, practical, and transient wormhole, which is to place the wormhole input above the event horizon.

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## Problems building a wormhole with Paul Morris-Thorne

To build a usable Worm only to You need simple substances that are nothing but negative matter, sometimes called exotic matter. Negative matter is a negatively charged substance that, when placed in equations, has the amazing property of enlarging the wormhole input sufficiently. At the same time, it eliminates the instability of the wormhole that results from normal matter.

Dark (the mysterious form of matter that forms part of the universe!) Is different.

A negative substance is a substance with a negative mass! Imagine picking up a bowling ball and weighing less than 6 kg; Or pay a negative two kilograms of meat to get a juicy steak from the butcher! Sounds weird, doesn't it?

Of course, because it's weird!

No example of negative matter has ever appeared anywhere in the universe, and If one day such matter is observed, everything we know about physics, It will completely collapse. For example, if I give you a ball made of negative matter and you kick it, it will move in the opposite direction of your shot. If you release it, it will fly upwards.

The existence of a negative substance violates the laws of momentum and energy!

Also, if you put a negative substance next to a positive substance, the negative substance will put pressure on the normal substance, while the normal substance will also put pressure on it. In such a case, they will move at infinitely high speeds without any external forces. Remember that the presence of a negative substance violates the laws of conservation of momentum and energy and can cause a lot of trouble for physicists and physicists!

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## Method 3: The Exotic Energy Bridge

Universe to negative energy , Allows existence and, as you know, energy and matter are two sides of the same coin (the popular formula E=mc2 represents this principle). In this regard, it is interesting to know that the most accessible form of negative energy is in the vacuum of spacetime. Modern physics sees the world through the lens of quantum field science, whose fields are submerged throughout space-time. The quantum fields in space-time overlap and interact in complex and interesting ways.

For example, you can energize different parts of the field to make it move, which is what happens. In the everyday world, we know it as a moving particle. More precisely, for every known particle in nature, there is a corresponding field! A photon field (commonly known as an electromagnetic field), an electron field, a high quark field, etc.

Now that you are familiar with the field nature of space-time in terms of quantum fields, you should know that if Take a piece of space-time and remove all its particles, you will get a complete vacuum with the corresponding fields of all the particles removed. Since the fields are constantly vibrating, there is some pure energy in them.

This excessive amount of energy means that you can create clever scenarios for local (point) energy reduction. . All you have to do is locally separate everything except the infinite amount of energy, in which case you will have negative energy coupes!

One of the most fascinating parts of negative energy physics Is the study of a phenomenon called the Casimir effect, named after the Dutch physicist Hendrik Casimir. If you take two parallel metal plates and place them very close to each other, you can limit the types of vibrations between the plates. Of course, it is true that there is still an infinite amount of vibration between two plates, but it is certainly less than the vibrations outside the plates.

The absorption force displayed between two parallel plates shows a trace of negative energy!

During this experiment, using precise mathematical tricks, you can subtract these two infinite values from each other and discover the negative energy that appears as an absorption force between the plates. The Casimir effect is a real phenomenon that has been measured in the laboratory. So it can be concluded that negative energy is a reality in our world.

Oh, I forgot, naturally where there is negative energy, there is a possibility of creating permanent and permeable wormholes. There is only one problem, you have to solve the biggest unsolved problem of physics to get the hope back. Physicists are convinced that the ultimate answer to making wormholes in the unknown realm of quantum gravity is the science that lies between quantum mechanics and general relativity.

Casimir's effect

General relativity tells us that wormholes may occur, but only if the conditions are right ( That is, negative energy) appears, it happens. Quantum field theory tells us how to make negative energy, but it does not say anything about matching gravity with fields, and to date we have no theory about quantum gravity.

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## The Last Word

Finally, it may be interesting to know that research on the nature of quantum fields near the event horizon and around black holes has shown that making A stable wormhole is possible by deforming it. But these wormholes must be extremely small (no longer than 10 to the power of minus 35 meters!).

Physicists are generally fascinated by wormholes (like all other phenomena in nature), because they can be Use a powerful lab title to study quantum gravity. On the other hand, such a phenomenon is really fascinating, so although I still do not fully recommend planning a trip to the Andromeda Galaxy, I can not rule out this trip as a possibility.

• Is the reality of the world something different from our current understanding of it?

Source: ars TECHNICA

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