Black holes are areas in space where gravity It is a powerful measure from which nothing can escape. This cosmic phenomenon is so significant that it won the Nobel Prize in Physics last year.
Half of the 2020 Nobel Prize in Physics went to Roger Penrose for his mathematical work on black holes They are the inevitable result of Einstein's theory of gravity. Andrea Ghez and Reinhard Genzel jointly won the other half of the award for providing strong evidence of a black hole at the center of our galaxy.
Scary Black Holes
Black holes are scary for three reasons. If you fall into a black hole left after a star dies, you will be shattered. Also, the huge black holes at the center of all galaxies have an insatiable appetite and devour everything, and on the other hand, black holes are places where the laws of physics fade.
The year studies black holes and focuses specifically on large mass black holes located at the center of galaxies. Most of the time they are inactive, but when they are active and devour stars and gases, the area near the black holes can be brighter than the rest of the galaxy.
Galaxies that have active black holes are called quasars. be. With all that we have learned about black holes over the past few decades, there are still many secrets about them.
Tablets of material spinning around a supermassive black
Credit: ESA/Hubble, M. Kornmesser
Death from a black hole
Black holes are expected to form with the death of a massive star. At the end of a star's atomic fuel, its nucleus collapses into the densest state of matter imaginable, that is, a hundred times denser than the atom's nucleus, or in other words, collapses. The density of this mass is such that protons, neutrons, and electrons are no longer separate particles.
Because black holes absorb even light and are dark, they appear as they orbit an ordinary star. Ordinary stellar properties allow astronomers to determine the properties of its dark companion, the black hole. The X-ray is located in the constellation of Swan (Chicken). Since then, about 50 black holes have been discovered in star systems where a normal star orbits a black hole. These specimens are the closest of the 10 million black holes expected to be scattered throughout the Milky Way galaxy.
Black holes are actually tombs of matter. Nothing, not even light, can escape them. According to the idea put forward by Stephen Hawking in A Brief History of Time, the fate of anyone who falls into a black hole will be a painful "spaghettification." In the process of being strung or spaghetti, the intense gravity of a person's black hole separates, and the bones, muscles, arteries, and even molecules of the individual disintegrate. As Dante puts it in "Divine Comedy" these words for the gates of hell: "Let go of hope, all who enter here."
A hungry animal in every galaxy
Nature knows how to make a black hole in an astonishing range of masses: from the bodies of stars several times the mass of the sun to monsters tens of billions of times their mass as different as an apple. The Great Pyramid is Giza.
It was in recent years that astronomers published the first image of a black hole and its event horizon, which has been shown in more detail in recent months. A giant 7 billion times the mass of the Sun at the center of the elliptical galaxy M87.
The first image of a black hole in the heart of the M87 galaxy
exposed by the glowing gas around it.
Credit: Event Horizon Telescope
- A clearer picture of the M87 galaxy center black hole released
This black hole is more than a thousand times larger than the central black hole of our galaxy, which was discovered last year by Nobel laureates in physics. They did it themselves. These black holes are mostly dark, but when their gravity attracts satellites and surrounding gases, they will have intense activity and emit large amounts of radiation.
Large black holes are also dangerous to approach from two directions. are. If you get too close to them, it will pull you in, and if they are active in their quasar phase, you will be exploded by high-energy radiation.
But how bright is a Quasar? Imagine hanging out at a big city like Los Angeles at night. Approximately 100 million lights from cars, homes, and city streets match the stars of a galaxy. In this comparison, a black hole in its active state is like a 1-inch-diameter light source in downtown Los Angeles that glows hundreds or thousands of times brighter than the city of light. Quasars are arguably the brightest objects in the universe.
Strange Large Mass Black Holes
The largest black holes ever discovered are 40 billion times more massive than the Sun, or 20 times the mass of the entire solar system. These very heavy objects revolve around themselves every three months, so that their outer edges move at half the speed of light.
Like all black holes, very large black holes are obscured by an event horizon. . At their centers there is a singularity, a point in space whose density is infinite. We can not understand inside the black hole because the laws of physics are broken in it. Time stands on the event horizon and gravity reaches infinity in singularity.
- How Prohibited Black Holes Form?
The good news about massive black holes is that you You can survive by falling into a black hole. Although their gravity is stronger, their tensile force is weaker than a small black hole and will not kill you. The bad news, on the other hand, is that the event horizon is the edge of the abyss. Nothing can escape the event horizon, so you can not get out of it or report your experience.
According to Stephen Hawking, black holes are slowly evaporating. In the distant future of the universe, black holes will be the last remaining objects long after all the stars have died and galaxies have disappeared from view due to the cosmic acceleration.
Evaporation of the most massive black holes will take unimaginable years. It is estimated that it takes 10 to the power of 100 years (or 10 plus 100 zeros thereafter) for these black holes to evaporate. The scariest objects in the universe are almost eternal.
Cover photo: Graphic design of a black hole devouring companion
Source: The Conversation