What is sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)?

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, also known as SIDS, is one of the rarest diseases among humans today. What is the mechanism of this disease? Is it a sex-related and genetic disease? Is there a special treatment for sudden infant death syndrome?

BingMag.com What is sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)?

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, also known as SIDS, is one of the rarest diseases among humans today. What is the mechanism of this disease? Is it a sex-related and genetic disease? Is there a special treatment for sudden infant death syndrome?

According to the reports of the Ministry of Health in England, nearly two hundred babies die suddenly and unexpectedly every year. In the United States, it is reported that approximately 3,600 babies per year have had such an experience and die from SIDS at once without any underlying disease. Despite the fact that this disease is one of the rarest complications at the international level, the increase in statistics compared to previous years has caused concern among people. Unfortunately, there has not been a recent study on the rate of infant mortality due to SIDS in Iran, so that we can have the frequency of patients in Iran as well. However, SIDS, or sudden infant death in sleep, has spread more globally.

What is the cause of sudden infant death in sleep (SIDS)?

Discovering the cause of SIDS is one of the concerns of doctors and medical researchers. Despite many studies in this field, the main cause of the disease remains unknown. In any case, it seems that the mechanism of sudden infant death syndrome in sleep is closely related to the infant's inability to wake up. In such a situation, it has been found that the oxygen level gradually drops and the brain has difficulty in controlling breathing. Finally, the accumulation of carbon dioxide in the baby's blood will cause acidification of the environment inside the body and then death. At least this is what is generally accepted by scientists. According to the statistics, it seems that male babies are more prone to death due to SIDS than girls. is resting, there is a fear in their mind that their beloved baby will not wake up again. However, it does not seem that every baby is susceptible to this disease. Currently, with the researches that have been done and the comparisons that have been made between medical records in this field, three backgrounds have been considered for contracting this rare disease. A baby is born prematurely. Also, babies who have a very low birth weight are more likely to suffer from SIDS. Most of the babies affected by this syndrome were between the first and fourth months. However, the risk of developing this complication is not defined only and exclusively in this period of time. It should also be noted that babies can get this disease in their first year of life. However, the highest risk for infection is reported between the first and fourth months. Unfortunately, in families where one of their children has already suffered from this disorder and passed away, the possibility of the next child suffering from SIDS is still high. For this reason, the genetic issues surrounding this syndrome are another thing that researchers are studying.

Of course, the mother may have pre-pregnancy conditions that increase the risk of this syndrome in the baby. Increasing. Usually, mothers who use cigarettes and other drugs on a daily basis, alcoholics, as well as women who have not yet experienced 20 years of age, have a higher risk of SIDS in their children.

Hypotheses and propositions Misconceptions about sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)

BingMag.com What is sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)?

Generally about any disease, information and statements It is promoted in different ways, which is completely wrong. There are several points about SIDS that have no scientific explanation or support. On the other hand, usually when a person is infected with a rare disease and then dies, people and experts will be present at the place who, after obtaining permission from the guardian, will perform an autopsy on the patient in order to take a step to understand the cause of the disease. For this reason, some hypotheses and false propositions about SIDS can be clearly rejected.

Vaccines cause SIDS

At the time of this writing, there is still no information or study from No peer-reviewed journal has been found to suggest a link between vaccines and SIDS. Currently, we can only say with certainty that babies in the first six months of their lives are highly susceptible to this syndrome. Since this interval is exactly the same interval that most babies should receive the triple vaccines, some have started the rumor that the vaccines can cause this syndrome. Apart from these cases, vaccination is used to increase the strength of the body's immune system. For this purpose Vaccines are likely to be effective in preventing disorders and diseases, not causing an extremely rare disease.

SIDS is contagious

SIDS is not contagious at all. Also, there is no infection in the body of babies that has the ability to spread to others. When we talk about contagion, a substance or particle must leave the patient's body and enter another person's body. When nothing is seen to be exchanged between two living organisms, the proposition that SIDS is contagious is clearly disproven. In the same way, scientists have been able to reach a conclusion that the healthier the baby is, the less likely it is to get SIDS. This hypothesis can be considered acceptable and reasonable.

Continuous and intelligent monitoring of vital signs prevents babies from SIDS

vital signs mean body temperature, heart rate, oxygen level and blood pressure Some people believe that if all vital signs of the baby are continuously monitored, it will be possible for the treatment staff to prevent the death of the baby. However, research has shown that monitoring heart rate and oxygen levels cannot prevent SIDS. Sometimes the monitoring device is too sensitive and it reports wrong warnings. Parents also get worried when they see these kinds of warnings, which is often unnecessary.

Proper care to deal with sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)

BingMag.com What is sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)?

If you have recently had a child and are worried about the health of your baby, you can pay attention to some recommendations about this syndrome so that the risk of SIDS in the baby is less. Be:

It will be very good for parents to be in the same bedroom with their baby. Accordingly, the baby's crib should be kept in the parents' bedroom for at least 6 months. On the other hand, sleeping on the back is the best sleeping position for babies. It is completely normal for your baby to show changes in its position while sleeping. Many other babies also behave like this and you should not worry. Newborn babies sleep nearly 16 hours a day. This issue can be a very good practice for parents to teach their children the habit of sleeping right from birth; Because most deaths due to SIDS occur when the baby is sleeping or resting.

According to some reports, it seems that using a pacifier can prevent the baby from getting SIDS. Of course, if the baby has just been born and depends on the mother's breast, it is better to wait three to four weeks and then give the pacifier to the baby. Do not attach the pacifier to clothes or around the baby's neck in any way; Because there is a possibility of child suffocation in this scenario. There is nothing wrong if the pacifier falls out of the child's mouth while sleeping.

Excessive increase in the baby's body temperature has been found to increase the risk of SIDS syndrome. For this reason, when the baby is sleeping, the body temperature of the baby should not be raised at once with blankets and other wearables. If you have no idea if the baby is overheated or not, pay attention to signs such as excessive sweating. The signs of heat stroke in babies are easy to understand.

Breastfeeding is one of the most important points that reduces the risk of SIDS. It is also obvious that babies who are breastfed have higher brain function and immune system than other babies. Parents often do not know that breastfeeding a baby through the breast reduces the incidence of digestive and respiratory infections. If the baby is susceptible to these diseases, the risk of SIDS will be high. On the other hand, babies who are continuously breastfed wake up easier.

Is sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) hereditary?

BingMag.com What is sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)?

This is a question that has arisen for many researchers and researchers and they have organized various studies to find the answer. In 2021, Christian Keven and his colleagues have conducted a study to find the genetic factors involved in SIDS.

Researchers, while not receiving accurate and generalizable findings in this study, have come to the conclusion that genetic testing should be done. become a routine for SIDS patients. Before the tests become a routine, it is necessary to organize several other studies to discover the genes involved in the emergence of SIDS, so that the desired information can be extracted in this way. However, there are challenges in this field that are publicly considered important obstacles for research in the field of genetics. For example, infant mortality cannot be classified so easily; Because many infant deaths are not reported and the cause of death is not mentioned in their medical records.

The next important challenge is the cause of death. In many scenarios, the baby is caught in SIDS due to environmental reasons. The most common cause of environmental death in this The background is sleeping on the baby's stomach. Since the body systems of a newborn baby do not yet work properly and like adults, it is extremely dangerous to sleep on the baby's stomach. For this reason, linking such deaths to genetics is considered almost irrelevant.

According to Keon and his colleagues, if one can find a case of SIDS and then obtain samples from it for DNA extraction, one can He took steps to discover the cause. However, there are still limitations in the laboratory field; Because parents usually do not show interest in autopsy and necessary sampling after the death of their baby. Currently, the only solution for extracting DNA is to receive a blood clot from babies, which is not particularly difficult and can be performed very quickly on laboratory procedures.

Apart from the ethical issues of laboratory research, due to the lack of variety In the genetic samples of SIDS babies, it is not possible to obtain a single result that can be attributed to the entire target population. Publicly, a person who is researching SIDS patients in Europe, for example, does not know about the genetic mechanism of the people of the Middle East. Maybe racial differences are an important issue that has been overlooked by researchers. For this reason, usually the review articles that deal with the genetic causes of SIDS are low-level articles with little data that the data and propositions of the article cannot be generalized to other communities at all.

A genetic mutation; Possible cause of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) The cause of SIDS disease was arranged by the scientists of the University of Washington, USA, who reached significant results. Scientists have followed a clue in this field; A clue leading to the defect of a functional protein in the mitochondrial organelle. This protein causes an important metabolic abnormality in the heart due to a genetic mutation on the HADHA gene.

In babies with a genetic mutation on the HADHA gene, a disorder occurs in their metabolism. Their bodies can't break down the lipids in breast milk, and that's why babies die from heart attacks early in their lives. Lipids are molecules that include fats, cholesterol, and fatty acids. Despite this important discovery, the scientists of this study have admitted that this mutation may be only one of the causes of SIDS in babies, and there are still other reasons that we are not aware of.

If we accept the assumption Assuming that most SIDS deaths are due to this genetic defect, what should be done to treat it? On this basis, should we wait for the baby to suffer from this condition sooner or later, because the enzymes inside his body cannot break down the fat? Unfortunately, at the time of writing this article, no specific treatment process has been proposed yet. Is. However, the discovery of the HADHA genetic mutation has opened an important window for treatment. At present, only one drug called Elamipretide has attracted the attention of scientists. Alamipertide is a chemical drug that irritates the organs, especially the heart, which is deficient in oxygenation. This drug can help break down lipids to some extent. On the other hand, this strategy has also been proposed in Western countries so that pregnant women can be genetically screened so that if a defect or mutation occurs in their gene, it can be recorded in their file. Undoubtedly, if genetic screening is promoted in all societies during pregnancy, the incidence of newborns with various diseases as well as rare abnormalities will be significantly reduced. On the other hand, SIDS treatment requires a better and more accurate understanding of the molecular and genetic mechanism of this condition. At present, the HADHA gene and the mitochondrial organelle have been able to give very important clues to researchers to search for the exact and true cause of SIDS in a more focused way. It is hoped that one day this disease will be removed from the list of concerns of medical scientists.

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