What is the standard model of physics?

The "Standard Model of Particle Physics" is currently the best theory for scientists to describe the most basic components The world is counting. This is the name given to the theory of elementary particles and how they interact in the 1970s, thus encompassing everything that had been known about subatomic particles up to that time and predicting the existence of extra particles.

BingMag.com What is the standard model of physics?

The "Standard Model of Particle Physics" is currently the best theory for scientists to describe the most basic components The world is counting. This is the name given to the theory of elementary particles and how they interact in the 1970s, thus encompassing everything that had been known about subatomic particles up to that time and predicting the existence of extra particles.

quarks (which make protons and neutrons) and leptons (including electrons) eventually cause The formation of all known materials in the universe, and how force-carrying particles belonging to the broader group of bosons (intermediate particles) affect quarks and leptons.

Structure of the standard model of physics

As mentioned, this model states that all ordinary matter, including each atom in the periodic table of elements, consists of only three types of particles: quarks, leptons, and intermediates.

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Credit: MissMJ, Cush/Teronika

These 17 basic particles of physics are themselves divided into two main groups. They are either building blocks of matter called fermions or intermediates between particles, called bosons. In the standard model there are a total of twelve fermions and five bosons with a specific name. The English "Paul Dirac" and the Austrian "Wolfgang Pauli" have been described as the "Exclusion Principle" and state that fermions cannot occupy the same place together. Or, more scientifically speaking, no two fermions can be described as identical quantum numbers.

This classification includes six types of quarks (up, down, charm, surprise, head, bottom). strong> and six types of leptons (electrons, neutrino electrons, muons, neutrino muons, tau, neutrino tau) . Leptons and quarks are fermions, and things like protons, neutrons, atoms, molecules, humans, and walls are made of them. This is consistent with our macroscopic observations of matter in everyday life. That people can not pass through walls unless the wall is removed from their path. Or several bosons can be described by identical quantum numbers. The statistical laws that bosons follow were first described by the Indian Satyendra Bose and Albert Einstein. They are bosons. Photons, as particles that make up light and other forms of electromagnetic radiation, are the bosons we have the most direct experience with. In everyday life, we never see rays of light colliding with each other, but photons are like phantoms and pass through each other without interaction.

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Stem particles in nature

Credit: DOE

To express the state of these stem particles, a characteristic of them must be possible It is a measure, and for this reason it is said that these particles have an angular momentum of spin (S) and an intrinsic spin quantum number (s). In other words, their measurable quantity has the same unit of angular momentum. They seem like mathematical points, so their spin is just a good label to measure them from a mathematical point of view and is not a description of existing reality.

Now that each of these particles has been well described, their behavior can be examined. Is. Quarks are connected in threes or pairs. The triplets are called "Baryons", which comes from the Greek word meaning It is taken seriously and the twins are called "Meson", which is derived from the Greek word meaning middle. These single, double, or triple sets of quarks are commonly referred to as "hadrons," meaning "thick". They are not and are considered subtle against hadrons. Leptons were originally considered light particles and hadrons were heavy, until the discovery of the Lepton tau particle in 1975, which is about twice the mass of a proton, broke the law.

An important subset of leptons is the neutrinos , which are also called electron neutrinos, muon neutrinos, and tau neutrinos. Neutrinos have very little mass and interact so poorly with other particles that they are very difficult to detect. For this reason, they are called neutrinos, meaning "small neutrals."

Description of the fundamental forces of nature

An explanation of three of the four fundamental forces of nature is included in the standard model of particle physics. : Electromagnetism, strong force and weak force. Each force exerted between particles is due to the properties of that particle, which include charge for electromagnetism, color for strong nuclear force, and taste for weak nuclear force.

"Charge" It is a property of a substance that causes electrical and magnetic phenomena, in other words electromagnetic . The charge is quantized, meaning that it can only exist in discrete quantities with definite constraints that are a multiple of the base charge (the charge of one electron equals 19 ^ 10 1.6 coulombs).

Particles such as Electrons, muons, and tau, which exist independently, carry a multiple of the base charge, while quarks have a fraction of the base charge, but these particles also always join together in groups that eventually form a multiple of the base charge. For this reason, no one has ever directly measured the fraction of an electric charge.

Because opposite charges are absorbed, electrons tend to attach to protons and form atoms that are completely neutral. For this reason, we usually do not understand the electrical nature of matter.

Charged particles interact by exchanging photons that carry electromagnetic force. The mathematical model used to describe the interaction of charged particles through the exchange of photons is called "quantum electrodynamics" (QED).

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The four fundamental forces of nature
Credit: Science News for Students

Quarks but because of a feature called color (Color) are known, they stick together. It is merely a statement to better understand their properties and not a real color. Imagine that red, blue, and green light together form neutral white light, and so do the two complementary lights. Thus, a triple baryon can be thought of as consisting of three red, green, and blue quarks, and a binary meson can be considered as a colored quark and a contrasting quark, which together form color-neutral particles.

Colored particles But they are joined by gluons. The color of gluons is described in a more complex way than quarks. Six gluons have two colors, one has four colors and the other has six colors. Gluons bind quarks together, but they also stick together, so they do nothing beyond the atomic nucleus. The mathematical model used to describe the interaction of colored particles through the exchange of gluons is known as "quantum chromodynamics" (QCD). Because they lead to forces in the nucleus of the atom that are stronger than the electromagnetic force. Without strong force, every nucleus would crumble.

Fermions are now known to be the only "flavor" to distinguish themselves from each other. This title should not be confused with the real taste. Flavored particles have a weak interaction through the exchange of W or Z bosons (intermediate vector bosons) that carry weak force. For example, when a neutron is decomposed into a proton, a W boson is responsible. (QFD) is known, but the term is not commonly used by physicists. At higher energies, the weak and electromagnetic forces become more and more similar, and for this reason their mathematical model is known as the "electroweak theory" (EWT), which is a practical name for the "weak force" theory./p>

Limitations of the Standard Model

Despite its success in explaining the world, the standard model has its limitations. As mentioned, this model describes three of the four fundamental forces governing the universe: electromagnetic, strong nuclear force, weak nuclear force.

Electromagnetism is carried by photons and includes the interaction of electric fields and magnetic fields Is. The strong nuclear force generated by the gluons binds the nuclei of the atoms together to keep them stable. The weak force carried by the W and Z bosons also triggers nuclear reactions that have been supplying energy to the sun and other stars for billions of years. The fourth fundamental force is gravity, but it is not adequately explained by the standard model.

On the other hand, the Higgs boson charges quarks, charged leptons (such as electrons), and the W and Z bosons, but we still do not know if The Higgs boson also charges neutrinos, which are ghost-like particles that rarely interact with other materials in the universe.

Physicists also know that about 95% of the universe is not made of ordinary matter as we know it. Rather, most of the universe is composed of dark matter and dark energy that are not included in the standard model. The standard is not explained.

Participation in the standard model of particle physics

In the past, various scientists and research centers have been involved in research on the standard model of physics, and especially in recent years, one of the most important They can be taken to the CERN Research Center in northeastern Geneva, Switzerland, near the French border, as well as to the US Department of Energy. (DOE) noted.

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Large Hadron Collider CERN: CERN: CERN

So far, five of the six types of quarks, one type of lepton and all three neutrinos have been discovered in US Department of Energy laboratories. Researchers under the auspices of the DOE Office of Science have also often collaborated with scientists from around the world on the explorations and measurements of the Higgs boson that modified the standard model.

They make precision of the standard model and continue to measure the properties of particles and improve the interactions between them. . These studies may also provide insight into what types of particles and unknown forces can explain dark matter and dark energy, or explain what happened to antimatter after the Big Bang. p>

Cover photo: Graphic design of subatomic particles
Credit: Geralt, Pixabay

Sources: Physics Hypertextbook, DOE

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