What is the need to return to the moon?

NASA plans to return humans to the moon with the Artemis program, but why are we returning to the moon after so many years and what is the need for this work?

BingMag.com What is the need to return to the moon?

NASA plans to return humans to the moon with the Artemis program, but why are we returning to the moon after so many years and what is the need for this work?

It was on September 12, 1962 (21 Shahrivar 1341) that John F. Kennedy, the then president of the United States of America, informed the people of this country's plan to send a man to the moon by the end of the decade.

The height of the war It was cold, and after the Soviet Union launched the first satellite and sent the first man into space, America needed a big victory to show its space superiority. "We're choosing to go to the moon because it's a challenge we're willing to accept, a challenge we're not going to put off, and we're going to win," said Nafer at Rice University. p>Now sixty years after this speech, the United States is on the verge of starting its first mission to return to the moon, the "Artemis Program". But why repeat what has already been done?

Criticisms in this field have even increased in recent years, for example from Apollo 11 astronaut Michael Collins, and Robert Robert Zubrin, founder of the Mars Association, which has long supported the US effort to go directly to Mars.

BingMag.com What is the need to return to the moon?

John F. Kennedy's speech at Rice University
Credit: NASA

But NASA believes that the reconquest of the Moon before the trip to the Red Planet This is necessary for a variety of reasons, outlined below.

Long Space Missions

In the Artemis program, NASA is aiming for missions that last a few weeks instead of a few days as in the Apollo program. develop a permanent human presence on Earth's moon.

This will help better understand how to prepare for a multi-year journey to Mars. In deep space, radioactive radiation is much more intense and poses a real threat to human health.

Low Earth orbit, where the International Space Station (ISS) is located, is partially shielded from radiation by the Earth's magnetic field. protected, but not on the moon.

  • How much radiation are astronauts on the moon exposed to on the moon?

Since the first Artemis mission, many experiments have been planned to study the effects of this radiation on living organisms and to evaluate the effectiveness of an anti-radiation vest.

In addition, while the needs of the International Space Station can often To be resupplied from Earth, traveling to the moon is thousands of times more complicated. For this reason, NASA wants to learn how to use the resources available in the place so that there is no need to take everything and save money.

For example, water in the form of ice, which exists in the Pole South of the moon, it has been confirmed, can be turned into rocket fuel by breaking down into hydrogen and oxygen atoms.

Testing new tools

NASA also wants to perfect the technologies used on Mars. test on the moon first.

The first item is the new spacesuits for spacewalks, which have been designed by Axiom Space for the first mission that will land on the surface of the moon in 2025. is.

BingMag.com What is the need to return to the moon?

Testing new technologies is one of the reasons for returning to the moon.
Credit: NASA

Other requirements such as vehicles, both pressurized and unpressurized, to move the astronauts in different areas, as well as suitable habitat to support a continuous presence, including There are things that must be done first Finally, for sustainable access to an energy source, NASA is working on the development of portable nuclear fission systems. With only a few days to travel from Earth, it would be much easier than Mars, which currently takes at least a few months to reach.

Creating a Waypoint

One of the The main pillars of the Artemis program are the construction of a space station in lunar orbit, called the "Lunar Gateway", which will be used to test a relay or way station before traveling to Mars.

" Sean Fuller, responsible for the Gateway program, has announced to AFP that before sending the astronauts on a long journey, all the necessary equipment can be sent there with multiple launches.

He said in this regard. : "It's like stopping at a gas station to make sure you've got everything, and then you're on your way." The discovery of Mars, another reason that made Americans seek to settle on the moon, It is to be able to do this before the Chinese. China plans to have its own astronauts by 2030 send them known as "Taikonaut" to the moon.

  • China raised its national flag on the moon

China is now America's main rival, because Russia's space program is not at its peak. NASA Administrator Bill Nelson said in a recent interview: "We don't want China to suddenly arrive there and say this is our exclusive territory."

For science

While the astronauts of the Apollo missions brought back nearly 400 kilograms of lunar rocks and soil, new samples from the Earth's moon will increase our knowledge about this celestial body and its formation.

Jessica NASA astronaut Jessica Meir said in this regard: "The samples we collected during the Apollo missions changed our view of the solar system, and I think we can expect the same from the Artemis program."

Even according to him, we can expect scientific and technological advances in more fields. Just like the Apollo era.

Cover photo: The Artemis 1 rocket prepares to travel to the moon.
Credit: Eva Marie Uzcategui/AFP via Getty Images, FILE

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