What is immunotherapy and what is its benefit in medical sciences?

Immunotherapy, which is also known as biological therapy in some texts, is an important treatment process for many diseases, including cancer. In general, in immunotherapy, the human body's immune system is suppressed or, in some scenarios, made more active. However, usually in common immunotherapies around the world, doctors are trying to temporarily suppress the patient's immune system by using the correct strategy so that other drugs can be effective. Immunotherapy is used to treat all types of cancers. In this article, while introducing the concepts of immunotherapy in a comprehensive but concise manner, it also talks about the positive and negative effects of this treatment process. or suppressed. Experts in the field of cancer treatment consider the use of immunotherapy as one of the very good options on the table.

BingMag.com What is immunotherapy and what is its benefit in medical sciences?

Immunotherapy, which is also known as biological therapy in some texts, is an important treatment process for many diseases, including cancer. In general, in immunotherapy, the human body's immune system is suppressed or, in some scenarios, made more active. However, usually in common immunotherapies around the world, doctors are trying to temporarily suppress the patient's immune system by using the correct strategy so that other drugs can be effective. Immunotherapy is used to treat all types of cancers. In this article, while introducing the concepts of immunotherapy in a comprehensive but concise manner, it also talks about the positive and negative effects of this treatment process. or suppressed. Experts in the field of cancer treatment consider the use of immunotherapy as one of the very good options on the table.

Immunotherapy benefits the patient in different ways. Some therapeutic processes are used to strengthen the defense system of the body's immune system. While other immunotherapy methods are implemented to help the immune system identify and attack cancer cells. The immune system consists of a set of organs, specialized cells and molecules that protect the living organism against foreign infections and pathogenic agents. Unlike its simple working method on paper, immunotherapy is considered an extremely complicated process; Because some pathogens and cancer cells have the power to hide themselves from the body's immune system. This behavioral characteristic of cells makes the body's immune system think that the pathogens are its own cells and therefore does not attack them.

Types of immunotherapy

BingMag.com What is immunotherapy and what is its benefit in medical sciences?

Immunotherapy will result in a different way in the patient's body based on age, gender, disease severity and other factors. Having said that, immunotherapy has several different types.

Cancer vaccines

Vaccines are injected into patients to significantly prevent the development of cancer in the body of these patients. This class of vaccines will also be beneficial for cancer treatment by strengthening and optimizing the response of the body's immune system to some tumors. Examples of such vaccines to combat the development of cancer are vaccines that prevent infection caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). The HPV virus has the power to cause cervical cancer and other cancers such as throat and mouth in the patient's body.

The first cancer vaccine in the field of immunotherapy called Provenge in 2010 by the Food and Drug Organization The United States of America (FDA) was approved

The first cancer vaccine in the field of immunotherapy called Provenge was approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2010. Provenge vaccine was designed to stimulate the immune system's response against metastatic prostate cancer. One of the important points about this vaccine is the uniqueness of the vaccine for each patient. In very simple terms, the Provenge vaccine is personalized for each patient in different ways. Therefore, in the near future, we can expect that a specific type of cancer vaccine will be prepared for each cancer patient.

Researchers around the world are trying to develop different vaccines to treat different cancers such as brain tumors, melanoma. , breast cancer, kidney, leukemia, and others. Cancer vaccines, along with other treatment processes, can be much more effective for cancer treatment than other immunotherapy methods.

Monoclonal antibodies

BingMag.com What is immunotherapy and what is its benefit in medical sciences?

Antibody, immunoglobulin or antibody, is an important component in the immune system that is responsible for identifying and neutralizing foreign agents such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses. Pathogens are called antigens in the language of immunology. In fact, antibodies have a place to recognize antigens in their structure. It should be noted that each antibody can identify only certain antigens. After binding the antigen to its place in the antibodies, in the next step, the antibodies call other cells to attack the abnormal cells or pathogens.

Researchers can create identical antibodies in the laboratory environment. and use them to treat cancer patients. These types of antibodies are called monoclonal antibodies. Monoclonal antibodies can be used to block factors called checkpoint molecules such as CTLA-4, PD-1 and PD-L1. This process in monoclonal antibodies makes the cells much stronger Destroy tumor cells naturally. Other monoclonal antibody molecules bind to antigens and block them. These antigens are vital for the growth and spread of cancer cells. Some other monoclonal antibodies contain a radioactive substance, drug or a deadly poison that can destroy cancer cells in this way.

Cell therapy

BingMag.com What is immunotherapy and what is its benefit in medical sciences?

In this method, healthy human cells are transferred to diseased cells so that their function is maintained or if the cell activity is defective, it is improved by this method. Stem cell transplantation and the therapeutic process called CAR T-Cell therapy are prominent examples of this method. T cells have the ability to fight cancer cells by creating cellular immunity. Also, in another new strategy, stem cells can be transplanted to the damaged tissue so that the repair process takes place.

Cell therapy started in the 19th century; Just when researchers were focusing on animal models to prevent a disease or even treat a disorder. Although there was no positive impact from the studies in the beginning, further research in the middle of the 20th century led to the use of human cells in a better way. In the midst of this, human cells were used to prevent organ transplant rejection after surgery. Fortunately, with the success of bone marrow transplantation, cell therapy has become more popular in order to improve the patient's condition in many different autoimmune diseases as well as cancer.

Immune system regulators

Drugs in discussion There are immunotherapies that regulate and even strengthen parts of the immune system. Checkpoint inhibitors and cytokines are among the most important regulators of the immune system. Immune regulators are available in three types: natural, synthetic, and recombinant.

Oncolytic virus therapy

Viruses are modified in the laboratory that can kill cancer cells without harming the adjacent healthy cells. Get infected and then destroy. Some viruses exist in nature, while others evolve in a laboratory environment.

How does immunotherapy work?

BingMag.com What is immunotherapy and what is its benefit in medical sciences?

There are several different types of immunotherapy that are used to treat cancer. The two main types are checkpoint inhibitors and cellular immunotherapy.

Many cancer immunotherapies rely on the activation of T cells. T cells are components of the immune system that attach to specific markers of tumor cells and attack them. One way for cancer cells to escape the T-cell's clutches is to send multiple false signals to the checkpoint immune cell to pretend to be harmless. For this purpose, a group of chemical drugs called immune checkpoint inhibitors block all these fake signals so that the immune system is not fooled by such tactics from cancer cells.

In 2018, an American immunologist named James Allison and Tasuko Hanjo, a Japanese immunologist, both won the Nobel Prize for their activities in the development of checkpoint inhibitors. and Tasuko Hanjo, a Japanese immunologist, both won the Nobel Prize for their work in developing checkpoint inhibitors.

Another type of immunotherapy is known as cellular immunotherapy. This type actually uses the idea of a Trojan horse to overcome cancer. Immune cells are taken from the patient's body, changed and transformed in a laboratory environment, and finally returned to the patient's body in large quantities to help the immune system fight cancer.

An example. In this context, as mentioned before, it is CAR T cell therapy. In this process, the patient's T cells are taken and a gene called chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) is added to it. When the modified T cells are transferred back into the body as CAR T cells, the cells are supercharged to recognize and then fight cancer cells. This treatment process gives new hope to adults and children with blood cancers such as leukemia and lymphoma.

Benefits of immunotherapy

BingMag.com What is immunotherapy and what is its benefit in medical sciences?

Besides immunotherapy, there are other less troublesome treatments for cancer. However, one of the most important advantages of immunotherapy is its few side effects. On the other hand, the lasting effect of immunotherapy in the patient's body is much higher than other methods. Even in some medical records, it is mentioned that the patient has a very advanced cancer, but with immunotherapy, the tumors have been completely destroyed.

Maybe the question arises whether Can immunotherapy be used to fight other diseases besides cancer or not? In response, it should be said that although the main goal of immunotherapy is to fight cancer cells, this therapeutic process is also used to treat and improve the condition of the disease and other autoimmune disorders. Researchers are trying to use this therapeutic process for genetic disorders, infections and inflammations, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, as well as regenerative medicine.

Side effects of immunotherapy

BingMag.com What is immunotherapy and what is its benefit in medical sciences?

Immunotherapy has fewer side effects than other treatment methods; Because in this method, only the body's immune system is targeted and the treatment process does not affect the cells of other systems. However, many side effects have been reported by patients during the immunotherapy process. These complications can affect any tissue or organ in the body. Also, the severity of side effects can range from mild to severe. In some situations, the side effects of immunotherapy may endanger the patient's life.

If the disorder and side effects of immunotherapy can be recognized as soon as possible, the development of side effects can be prevented with common methods such as prescribing various drugs. took For example, immunosuppressive drugs such as steroids are prescribed in many cases. Therefore, every patient who experiences immunotherapy must be constantly monitored by a doctor so that side effects or reactions to the treatment do not occur in the patient's body.

Although immunotherapy is used in many Sometimes it is useful, in some types of tumors, this method does not have the necessary efficiency; Because cancers are not supposed to be exactly alike due to environmental, biological and genetic factors. Therefore, immunotherapy has different consequences in different people.

Important researches that have been done around immunotherapy so far

BingMag.com What is immunotherapy and what is its benefit in medical sciences?

Many immunotherapies have been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and are used today to treat cancer and some other medical procedures. However, more research at the molecular level is needed to understand the mechanism of the immune system in a deeper way so that new therapeutic processes can be devised. To discover the ability of T cells to kill dangerous tumor cells. Researchers at the University of Chicago Cancer Center discovered that the immune system may be able to defend against tumors at first, but this process stops later for some reason. For this purpose, cancer cells grow. Biological processes are highly needed to prevent the occurrence of autoimmune diseases such as lupus or rheumatoid arthritis. Checking the immune response in the body can prevent the escape of cancer cells from the body's defense system.

The round-the-clock efforts of Dr. Frank Fitch in the late 1980s led to the discovery of the ability of T cells to kill dangerous tumor cells. For more than two decades, Chicago researchers have been testing cancer vaccines to boost antigen-specific T cells. These cells are actually special white blood cells that can detect antigens or small protein parts on the surface of some cancer cells. Scientists have also observed that some people were able to have very high levels of these T cells in their blood before receiving the vaccine. For this reason, the vaccine is not effective on some people.

Scientists have uncovered some different factors in the patient's response to immunotherapy. Thomas Gajefski, a professor of pathology and medicine, recently found that the bacteria in a person's gut may affect some immunotherapies.

Another environmental factor of tumors that plays a vital role is the cell environment where the tumor grows. . The surrounding environment of the tumor includes tissue, blood vessels, immune cells, fibroblasts and other components that interact with the tumor cells. These components play an important role in tumor behavior as well as their vulnerability to some drugs. Gajewski uses the term T-cell tumor inflammatory milieu to describe a group of specific tumors in patients that respond more readily to immunotherapy. In any case, no matter how much or little, immunotherapy can have a positive effect on the condition of patients.

Is immunotherapy really successful in treating the disease?

FDA organization since early 2017 Milady approved four checkpoint inhibitor drugs for use in immunotherapy. However, it is interesting to know that immunotherapy for cancer was recognized in Western countries in 2011. More than seventy immunotherapy drugs are under production for clinical use. With the progress and expansion of the immunotherapy process, several companies were established in the field of cancer treatment in America, the shares of each One of these companies has a price of more than one hundred million dollars and even more. With all these interpretations, only 15-20% of patients can obtain beneficial and continuous results from immunotherapy. Scientists are trying to discover new biomarkers to better understand the mechanism of the human body's immune system. Despite the fact that this is a very complicated, costly and time-consuming process, we can imagine a better future for the field of immunotherapy.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *