What is the CRISPR technique and what is its benefit for treating diseases?

The world of medical science is trying to reach a point where the gene, the smallest component of the human body, can be easily repaired. Anyway, no matter how much care is taken of the body's cells and tissues, eventually the body's cells will suffer defects. Researchers in the field of genetics and tissue engineering from one point onward, in addition to finding new ways of cell signaling sequence to treat disease, also turned to genetic editing. Because of this, the CRISPR technique emerged and is now spreading day by day in all parts of the world.

BingMag.com What is the CRISPR technique and what is its benefit for treating diseases?

The world of medical science is trying to reach a point where the gene, the smallest component of the human body, can be easily repaired. Anyway, no matter how much care is taken of the body's cells and tissues, eventually the body's cells will suffer defects. Researchers in the field of genetics and tissue engineering from one point onward, in addition to finding new ways of cell signaling sequence to treat disease, also turned to genetic editing. Because of this, the CRISPR technique emerged and is now spreading day by day in all parts of the world.

The operation and mechanism of the CRISPR technique looks easy on paper, but in practice There are important challenges and crises ahead. Based on the CRISPR gene editing technique, first a part of defective DNA is found inside a cell, and then the desired genetic part is repaired based on interactions. The CRISPR technique can also turn some genes on and others off. Turning on the gene means that the DNA enters the cycle of replication, then transcription and finally translation to finally create a protein product. Sometimes the presence or absence of a protein can lead to a new disease. With the use of CRISPR, it is possible to prevent the emergence of a disease at the very beginning.

Since 2012, the CRISPR technique has been publicly used to edit genetic information, and however, it is still That form has not been significantly expanded for clinical matters and is still only favored by laboratory studies.

What exactly does Crisper technology mean? palindromic repeats means "short palindromic repeats with regular cluster spacing". If we want to define CRISPR in a very simple language, CRISPR refers to a family of DNA sequences in the genome of prokaryotic organisms such as bacteria and archaebacteria. These sequences are derived from fragments of DNA from bacteriophages that previously infected the prokaryote. CRISPR sequencing is routinely used to identify and degrade DNA from similar bacteriophages during infections. Since these sequences play an important role in the antiviral defense system in prokaryotes, an acquired immunity is conferred to this form of organisms. CRISPR sequence is present in almost 50% of bacterial genome. It is interesting to know that this percentage is much higher in archaebacteria.

What is CRISPR-associated protein 9?

CRISPR-associated protein 9, also abbreviated as Cas9 It is referred to as an enzyme that, using the CRISPR sequence as a guide, tries to identify and then cleave a specific part of the DNA strand. If the CRISPR sequence joins its complement in the DNA strand, the strand is likely to be cleaved by the Cas9 enzyme. Cas9 enzymes and CRISPR sequences are together known as CRISPR-Caspase 9; A completely advanced technology that can be used to edit genes inside the organism.

The use of CRISPR-Caspase 9 technology was gradually exploited in newer fields. In such a way that CRISPR-Caspase 9 technique is currently used in biology research, manufacturing and production of products in the field of biotechnology and treatment of many diseases. Jennifer Dodna and Emmanuel Carpentier, two researchers and discoverers of this technology, have finally won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2020.

BingMag.com What is the CRISPR technique and what is its benefit for treating diseases?

CRISPR technique is not only aimed at humans and this technology is also used for genetic modification of plants and animals. In fact, it is interesting to know that many people around the world are consuming foods that have been edited by CRISPR.

CRISPR technology is already transforming medical science. This technology not only helps researchers to cure diseases, but with a smart genetic modification, many diseases can even be prevented. Medical science is moving in this direction so that children's genetics can be controlled from the very beginning of life. Rumor has it that China is conducting research to produce Crispy babies. The news that in the past few years was able to cause a lot of negative reactions; Because researches on animal and human embryos are considered unethical. However, the purpose of the research in China was to inactivate a gene called CCR5 in cells, to protect the body against a dangerous disease called AIDS. Although inactivating this gene does not necessarily mean complete immunity against AIDS, the success of this approach could be a big step in the prevention of AIDS, as well as the exploitation of the CRISPR technique. With all these interpretations, the researchers of this research have not published a negative result from this project to date.

Cas proteins; The key to a better understanding of CRISPR technique

In fact, if the researchers If they can learn more about the Cas proteins found in bacteria, they can better understand CRISPR. This protein can be easily programmed and bind to a specific genomic sequence. This protein only needs a piece of RNA as a guide to be able to carry out the search process. When the Cas9 protein is added to a cell along with a piece of RNA, this protein is directed towards the double-stranded DNA. It can bind to at least one sequence containing 20 base pairs. This DNA sequence is actually complementary to the guide RNA sequence. What happens after the connection is reported somewhat differently. The Cas9 protein cuts a part of the desired DNA. When the cut region is repaired, mutations are introduced, often resulting in the inactivation of a gene. After reaching this stage, it can be claimed that a genetic editing has occurred by CRISPR technology.

CRISPR can also be used to make more precise changes, for example replacing a part of a defective gene with a healthy part. to be However, this process has more challenges and is a more difficult process. Researchers have been able to create special Cas proteins that, after being injected into the cell, do not act with the intention of cutting DNA, but only turn on or off a series of genes. Genetically activating CRISPRs are called CRISPRa and CRISPRi silencing CRISPRs. Researchers use this group of CRISPRs in more studies and maybe one day we will be able to obtain complete immunity against dangerous diseases through the CRISPR technique. In the near future, the CRISPR technique could play a much broader role in vaccination programs as well as the creation of new drugs.

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Source: Sammobile

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