The aperture is one of the main pillars of photography. The other two most important are shutter speed and ISO. These three together form a photographic triangle and are undoubtedly the main aspects of photography. In this article, we try to teach you everything about the camera aperture and how it works.
What is an aperture?
First, it's best to define an aperture. The aperture can be considered as an aperture in the lens that allows light to enter the camera. To better understand the mechanism of the aperture, you can imagine your eyes. As you move from bright to dark (and vice versa), your iris shrinks and controls the size of your pupil.
In photography, the aperture can be considered the "pupil" of your camera. You zoom in and out to control the amount of light entering the camera's sensors. The image below shows the aperture of a lens.
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aperture can also control image depth and add more dimension to your photo. At one end of the continuum, the aperture gives you a shallow background image, and at the other end of the continuum, you have deep, clear images in which everything is clearly visible to the end of the image horizon. In addition, as mentioned, it also adjusts the aperture of the image, making your photos brighter or darker.
How does aperture affect exposure?
aperture has several effects on your image. One of the most important is controlling the brightness of your images. By resizing the aperture, the amount of light entering the camera's sensors will also change, and so will the exposure of your image. So the image will be brighter. On the other hand, a smaller aperture does the opposite and the images will be darker. Take a look at the picture below and you will notice the difference between them.
In dark, indoor and light environments, it is best to use a larger aperture and absorb as much light as possible. This is exactly why our human eyes open and widen in the dark.
How Does aperture affect image depth?
Another major effect of aperture is image depth control. Image depth refers to the amount of transparency of objects near and far from the camera. Some images are shallow, meaning the background of the images is not well defined and fades. This will make the subject more visible. On the other hand, some images are deep, meaning that both the subject and the background are clearly visible.
This image has a small image depth. In other words, it is taken with a large aperture and can be called a shallow image.
As you can see in the picture above, the girl's face is quite clear, but the background is not clear and has disappeared. In fact, the focus is entirely on the girl. aperture selection plays a very important role in this. The photographer deliberately used a large aperture to create a shallow image effect. This helps the photographer to focus the viewer on the subject. If a smaller aperture were used in this image, it would not be possible to separate the subject and the background.
Sometimes you can think of several objects as the background and the subject behind them. Give. By adjusting the focus, you can blur the background and add some effect to the image. Keep in mind that more aperture causes more blurring in the background or foreground. As you can see in the image below, we have also used the large aperture to blur the background objects.
When, as in the image above, the foreground or background is blurred and out of focus, the rest of the image and subject matter are more noticeable and are often referred to as "bokeh" letters. Of course, bokeh is one of the features of lenses that, by using a large aperture and bringing the camera closer to the subject, blurs the background and focuses more on the subject.
On the other hand, small aperture > Leads to minor blurring of the background. This feature is perfect for some photography styles such as nature, landscape and architecture photography. In the screenshot below, a small aperture is used to insert the foreground and background as neatly and clearly as possible.
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Use a very small aperture (F/16) to eliminate background blur And recording a sufficient amount of depth from the top of the image
In the image below, you can have a brief comparison between small and large apertures. In these pictures, the difference between using these two aperture modes can be well understood.
Comparison between using small aperture (left) and large aperture (right)
As you can see in the photo on the left, the focus is only on the lizard's head and it is clear . Both the background and the background are blurred in this photo. While in the image on the right (small aperture), all corners of the image are transparent.
What do you mean by F-Stop and F-Number?
By the way, the aperture We introduced the general form in the form of "small" and "big". However, this can be shown more accurately and quantitatively. To do this, we use the known numbers F-Number and F-Stop, in which F is placed before the number. For example: F/8
You may have noticed these numbers on your camera before. You can see these numbers on the screen or camera viewfinder, and your aperture is probably one of the numbers f2, f3, f3.5, f8, or other numbers. Some cameras delete the decimal point and insert only F2 or F3. Some other cameras may write f/2 or f/3 and there is no difference.
, F-stops can be considered as aperture size. A topic that can be pursued professionally and has many small points. However, beginner and applied mastery is not difficult either. It works, these are the aperture adjustment numbers. But you have to be very careful to understand everything: smaller numbers indicate a large aperture and larger numbers indicate a smaller aperture.
For example, aperture size in F/2 Larger than f/4 and much larger than f/11. Many people are wrong about this. They think that a larger number means a larger aperture. But you should always keep this important point in photography in mind. You can see this in the image below.
As mentioned, this tuning style is exactly On the contrary, it is What people expect and therefore can be very deceptive for novice photographers. However, while this may seem misleading, there is a logic behind it that you can better understand: aperture is a fraction!
So, when you choose F/16 aperture as an example, you can imagine that you have chosen a value of one-sixteenth! Therefore, when we express numbers in fractions, the larger the denominator, the smaller our number. Likewise, larger F-stops mean smaller apertures. You can see this clearly in the image below.
So, when photographers have a large aperture for style Some recommend photography, they mean choose something around F/1.4, f/2 or f/2.8. On the other hand, when it is recommended to use a small aperture, it is better to use values such as F/8, F/11 or F/16.
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How to choose the right aperture?
Now that we are more familiar with the aperture category, we have to ask how to figure out What number to use. Is the aperture suitable? To answer this question, let's go back to the subject of exposure and image depth, two of the main effects of aperture on your image. In the image below, you can see the change in exposure of the image in a range of common aperture values:
In darker environments you are going to shoot, it is better to use a larger aperture such as F/2.8 to give your photo a good exposure. In the picture below you can see the recommended aperture values suitable for photography in low light environments.
We address the issue of background depth and image. If you remember, a larger image depth (such as F/2.8) means more background blur and is suitable for shallow portrait images. Values such as F/8, f/11 or f/16 help you capture background and foreground details more clearly; Therefore, a small aperture is more suitable for capturing images of landscapes and structures of architecture and architecture.
If your photo was too dark or too light, do not worry. In most cases, you can also adjust the shutter speed and light Adjust the photo using it. Shutter speed is another key variable of image exposure; Therefore, increasing or decreasing the shutter speed can also affect the brightness or darkness of the image. Accordingly, we recommend that you select the aperture manually to determine the depth of the image. On the other hand, set the shutter speed to auto so that your image exposure is not affected either.
Right: Large aperture and shallow image depth; Left image: Small aperture and high image depth
In the table below, we will have an overview of all of the above: 2.0 Large half F/1.4 light enters Low F/2.8 Large half F/2 light enters Low F/4.0 Normal half Medium F/2.8 Light enters approximately low F/5.6 Normal Half enters F/2.6 4 light enters Medium F/8.0 Normal and medium half F/5.6 Light enters relatively high F/11.0 Small Half F/8 light enters High F/16.0 Small Half F/11 Light enters High F/22.0 Too small half F/16 light enters too much
How to adjust the camera aperture
If you want to adjust the camera aperture manually, which we strongly recommend, 2 A variety of camera modes will work for you: aperture-priority and Manual. aperture Priority is displayed on most cameras with the "A" or "AV" symbols. Manual mode is also displayed with the letter M. These modes are usually adjusted by a rotating knob on the top of the camera. For more information on these modes, you can read the full introduction to Camera modes.
In aperture priority mode, you adjust the aperture value and the camera automatically adjusts the shutter speed. This will ensure that your photo does not have exposure problems. But if you select Manual mode, you will have to adjust the aperture size and shutter speed.
Minimum and Maximum aperture Size of a Camera
Each lens has limitations on the magnification and reduction of the aperture; Therefore, it is better to take a look at the specifications and technical specifications of your lens, because the minimum and maximum aperture size are usually listed in this section. Maximum aperture size is most important to most people. Because it shows how much light your camera can capture and how it works in low light and dark environments.
A lens with a maximum aperture of F/1.4 or F/1.8 can be considered a fast lens. . Because compared to a slow lens (for example, with a maximum aperture of F/4.0), more light can enter the camera. This is why lenses with large apertures are usually more expensive. The maximum aperture of the lens is so important that it is included in the name of the lens.
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Now, at least the aperture is not so important. Because most modern lenses can offer F/16 at a minimum. It is very rare to find a need for less than F/16 in everyday photography. Here's how it affects your images, let's take a look at the different f-stops and how they work.
f/0.95 to F/1.4 - These are examples of maximum apertures known as fast only in lenses There are new and professional ones that allow users to get as much light as possible in the camera. Using this aperture is suitable for shooting in low light environments, indoors, from the night sky and.. With such a wide aperture, you can capture very shallow depth of field, even when shooting close-ups, and separate the subject completely from the background.
F/1.8 to F/2.0 - Some lenses More typically, they offer a maximum aperture of up to F/1.8. Therefore, it is possible to use them for indoor and outdoor photography. However, this aperture range can also capture beautiful photos and is invaluable. Shooting with settings can create enough depth of field and show the subject at a good distance. However, you can still feel the beautiful bokeh effect.
F/2.8 to F/4 Most professional or semi-professional zoom lenses are limited to this F-stop range. Although these lenses are not as powerful in terms of lighting as F/1.4 lenses, they generally have the ability to shake and stabilize the image, which makes them more valuable. This feature makes it possible to capture better and less shaky photos in low light environments. This range can also create enough image depth to separate subjects from the background Or capture sharp, clear, high-depth images.
F/2.6 to F/8 - This aperture size is suitable for landscape, building, and architectural photography. This area is also suitable for taking group photos of a large number of people. aperture size of F/5.6 is one of the best choices for capturing clear photos. F/8 can also provide some depth of field.
F/11 to F/16 - These lenses are commonly used to photograph landscapes, buildings, and macro (close-up) photography. In this case, too much image depth can be created. But you have to be very careful when using F/8 and above. Because the image resolution is gradually decreasing.
F/22 and less - Use this aperture only when you know exactly why. Resolution at F/22 and smaller apertures is drastically reduced. Therefore, avoid using it as much as possible. If you need more image depth, you should increase your distance from the subject or use special techniques such as Focus stacking technique.