# What effect does the golden ratio have on the beauty of the face? Practically nothing!

According to the claim of a cosmetic surgeon named Julian De Silva, Amber Heard has one of the most beautiful faces in the world! You have probably seen this claim on social networks or posts with beauty content; But you may ask yourself, what is this claim based on? Well, according to De Silva, Heard scored very high on the Golden Ratio test. In general, this test evaluates the beauty of people's faces based on how close the ratios of different parts of their faces are to the golden ratio. But is there really a formula to recognize beauty?

According to the claim of a cosmetic surgeon named Julian De Silva, Amber Heard has one of the most beautiful faces in the world! You have probably seen this claim on social networks or posts with beauty content; But you may ask yourself, what is this claim based on? Well, according to De Silva, Heard scored very high on the Golden Ratio test. In general, this test evaluates the beauty of people's faces based on how close the ratios of different parts of their faces are to the golden ratio. But is there really a formula to recognize beauty?

- Followers of the Pythagorean school and the golden ratio
- The realm of Plato's ideals
- The myth of ratio Golden in ancient art
- Marquardt mask and the golden ratio
- The golden ratio test was rejected!

## Followers of the school Pythagoras and the golden ratio

The followers of the Pythagorean school, who were called Pythagoreans, first used the golden ratio about 2400 years ago. They discovered what was also called the Divine Proportion. This ratio has a value of 1.618 and is represented by the name Phi (Greek symbol ). Pythagoreans were a mystical sect of mathematicians who believed that many numbers have mystical, philosophical and even moral significance. These people had chosen pentagons (Pythagoreans) as their symbol, because with its pentagonal symmetry, it was considered as a symbol of health for this sect!

Pentagons are mathematically attractive shapes, not only This is because they show a strange value of phi; Rather, as you can see in the pentagonal image in the section below, the four black and bold lines grow by the size of in each step; Therefore, the long horizontal line indicated in the figure, , is greater than the length of the bold side.

The pentagon represents the golden ratio!

Similarly, consider six circles of the same size arranged in two rows of three, and then in They are placed inside a bigger circle like the picture below. In such a case, the radius of the large circle is times larger than the diameter of the small circles! wp-caption-text">Displaying the value of phi in circles

The golden ratio even to the famous sequence of Fibonacci numbers (13, 34, 21, 8, 5, 3, 2, 1, 1) "Fibonacci "number sequence" is also related and as the numbers get bigger, the ratio between one number and the next number gets closer and closer to . For example: 1.625=8/13, 1.615=13/21, 1.619=21/34 and so on!

Fibonacci numbers and the discussion of the golden ratio are amazing in mathematics. are common, also these numbers can be seen in nature and the beautiful ovaries of some flowers, pine cones and arms of spiral galaxies.

Fibonacci sequence in sunflowers

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## The realm of Plato's ideals

h2>Greek philosopher Plato (423-347 BC) influenced by the Pythagoreans and their love for beautiful mathematics, presented the physical world around us as an incomplete plan of a realm more beautiful and real than its truth. This means that there are no perfect triangles or pentagons in real life! According to Plato, these truths and ideals can only be observed in a logical world or a world with perfect symmetry and order.

It is interesting to know that Plato's ideals are strongly influenced by Western thought, including modern science and presuppositions. The universal laws of nature were influential, such as Isaac Newton's laws of motion or Albert Einstein's equation (E=mc2). In this regard, one of the promoters of Plato's ideas was a mathematician in the Renaissance period named Luca Pacioli. In 1509, Pacioli published a written trilogy about the golden ratio entitled Divina Proportione with illustrations by Leonardo da Vinci. It is not surprising that very soon this work attracted the attention of many fans of the golden ratio! Pacioli also promoted the Platonic idea that mathematical proportions govern the human body. Da Vinci also showed this ideal idea in his famous picture, the Vitruvian Man!

Vitruvian Man Sketch by Leonardo da Vinci: This sketch is a full-length portrait of the Italian architect Vitruvius, drawn in ink on paper, showing the naked body of a man in two different poses, simultaneously It is surrounded by a circle and a square.

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## The legend of the golden ratio in ancient art

Adolf Seizing Adolph Zeising" in the books he published between 1854 and 1884 He expanded the idea that all visible beauty is related to proportions, especially the golden ratio, in fact, from his point of view, the golden ratio flows not only in the body, but also in nature, art, music and architecture. As a result, this led to the popular claim that ancient Greek art and architecture had the golden ratio and were therefore beautiful. But as Mario Livio explains in his book "Golden Ratio" this is considered a myth and there are no reports in the art of the ancient Greeks that refer to the golden ratio outside of mathematics and numbers! In general, new studies show that is very rarely seen in ancient Greek art and architecture.

Besides this case, it is interesting to know that claims about the Parthenon temple in Athens, which in 2017 was the most beautiful The building of the world was chosen, it existed. In fact, some claimed that the reason for the beauty of this temple is the presence of the golden ratio or among its ratios; But careful calculations show that this claim is false. Despite all these interpretations, the myth of the golden ratio continues to be promoted in art, architecture, photography, and plastic surgery for its supposed visual beauty.

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## Marquardt mask and the golden ratio

One of those who promoted the golden ratio as a criterion for determining ideal beauty was a cosmetic surgeon named Stephen R. Marquardt is Stephen R. Marquardt. In fact, it was in 2002 that Marquardt claimed that the golden ratio determines the beautiful proportions of your face. For example, he claimed that a beautiful face has a mouth times wider than the nose. In this regard, Marquardt made a geometric face mask that represented the ideal proportions of the face for cosmetic surgeons. In fact, this mask was an indicator for performing beauty procedures in the best way!

Marquardt mask

The surgeon also claimed that this mask could be used to accurately assess beauty in people, so it didn't take long for the golden ratio test to become popular and spread. Marquardt's claims were very influential at the time, but it didn't take long for scientific facts to turn the tables.

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## Golden Ratio Experiment Rejected!

Marquardt measured the ratio of attractive faces, actors and models in movies and series in order to check and prove his point. So his research was on a select group of people that led to his claims and his mask. But not only Marquardt's claims were not proven, but his golden ratio test was also rejected!

The golden ratio test to determine beauty only represents the facial features of a small population of women in northwestern Europe, and its population includes people from other places. The world is not like the Middle East, India, East Asia, etc.!

In general, studies show that the Marquardt mask is not a suitable indicator for determining beauty in people from South Africa or East Asia; Also, this mask is not true for South Indians! In fact, this test is more representative of the facial features of a small population of Northwestern European women. In general, although facial proportions may be related to facial beauty, these proportions also depend on biological and cultural factors; Therefore, this test is statistically significantly invalid.

Of course, we cannot deny the claim that the presence of symmetry on both sides of the face or skin texture does not affect beauty; But you should know that there is currently no evidence that the golden ratio determines facial beauty or any visual beauty. To emphasize this point, you can test this issue yourself! Just take a look at the figure below, in the figure below there are rectangles with ratios of :1, 3:2, 1.414:1, 4:3 and :1:1; Can you guess which one is more beautiful by seeing these shapes?

- Can the theory of universe Did you consider parallelism as a scientific topic?

Source: science alert