The story of strange events that ended in Nobel Physics 2022!

As you may have heard, three physicists named Alain Aspect, John Clauser and Anton Zeilinger won the prize. Nobel Prize in Physics for proving the quantum nature of reality in 2022. These physicists have conducted experiments on the nature of a strange phenomenon called quantum entanglement; A phenomenon that demonstrates the sharing of information between two completely separate particles despite the absence of any conceivable way to communicate!

BingMag.com The story of strange events that ended in Nobel Physics 2022!

As you may have heard, three physicists named Alain Aspect, John Clauser and Anton Zeilinger won the prize. Nobel Prize in Physics for proving the quantum nature of reality in 2022. These physicists have conducted experiments on the nature of a strange phenomenon called quantum entanglement; A phenomenon that demonstrates the sharing of information between two completely separate particles despite the absence of any conceivable way to communicate!

Quantum entanglement versus Albert Einstein

BingMag.com The story of strange events that ended in Nobel Physics 2022!

The story of a phenomenon called longitudinal quantum entanglement at the heart of a fiery conflict in the 1930s between several of the physics giants of that time, Albert Einstein, in a Niels Bohr and Erwin Schrdinger on the other side of the story, which was formed around issues of how the universe works at fundamental levels. Einstein believed that all aspects of reality must have a tangible, fully comprehensible and known existence, and this includes everything from objects like the moon to photons of light! In other words, reality must have precise characteristics that can be discovered through measurement. However, Bohr, Schrdinger and other proponents of the fledgling quantum mechanics at the time believed that reality is fundamentally indeterminate and that a particle has no definite properties until the moment of measurement.

Bohr, Schrdinger and other proponents of the fledgling quantum mechanics at the time They believed that reality is fundamentally uncertain and that a particle does not have specific characteristics until the moment of measurement; While Einstein was against them!

In this regard, it was this entanglement that was presented to the physics community as a decisive way to distinguish between these two possible versions of reality. At that time, a physicist named John Bell proposed a thought experiment that was later better understood by Spee and Klauser with the help of various experimental experiments; This work proved that Schrdinger was right and quantum mechanics is the operating system of the world. In fact, according to Schrdinger, entanglement is not an independent phenomenon in our world, but rather an aspect of quantum mechanics. Therefore, with the experiments conducted by Espe and Klauser, the eyes of the physics community were opened to the depth of Schrdinger's statements, and with the help of these experiments, tools were provided to manipulate and measure the states of entangled particles at far distances from each other! In addition to the philosophical and paradigm-breaking implications of these experiments, with such a discovery, entanglement is poised to power the emerging wave of quantum technologies. In this regard, Professor Zeilinger was at the forefront and presented techniques to achieve stunning feats such as the quantum network, quantum teleportation and quantum encryption.

It is predicted that the research and experiments conducted in The field of quantum entanglement will open doors to another world and even shake the foundations of our understanding of measurements!

If you are among those interested in these special fields, you must know that quantum information science is a lively field among researchers and is rapidly developing, with potential and wide implications in areas such as secure information transmission, computing It has quantum and sensor technologies. In general, it is expected that the research and experiments carried out in this discussion will open doors to another world and even shake the foundation of our understanding of how to understand measurements!

What is quantum entanglement?

BingMag.com The story of strange events that ended in Nobel Physics 2022!

When two particles together form a quantum system regardless of the distance between them, they are called entangled particles in the language of physicists. .

In this regard, in order to understand this type of quantum communication, first consider two electrons. As you know, electrons have a quantum characteristic called spin, which can obtain one of the two values "UP" or "DOWN" at the time of measurement. In fact, measuring the spin of each electron is like tossing a coin that randomly results in a tap or a line (up or down).
Now imagine that two physicists, for example Alan and John, receive a set of coins in the mail. do When each pair of coins arrives, both physicists turn them over at the same time; For example, Alan might see a sequence of outcomes as Lion, Line, Line, Lion, and Line, and John's coins are Lion, Lion, Line, Line, Line. In such a case, it is clear that the results of Alan and John's coin toss have nothing to do with each other.

But if Alan and John repeat the same experiment with a series of entangled electrons instead of coins, a strange result will be obtained. Came. In fact, it is interesting to note that every time Alan measured the spin of the electron up, John found that the spin of his paired electron is down and vice versa! Indeed, it is quite clear that the two acts of measurement are interdependent, almost as if flipping a coin could send a signal to the other (however distant) telling it to instantly produce a result corresponding to its spinning partner in the moment!

You should know, it was Einstein who, along with Boris Podolsky and Nathan Rosen, first discovered quantum entanglement in a paper in 1935 that is not so well-known and somewhat infamous. , They inroduced. In this article, Einstein disparagingly considered entanglement as "spooky action at a distance", which was the inevitable consequence of the nascent theory of quantum mechanics!

According to Einstein, entanglement was the death knell of quantum mechanics! He thought that no measurement should immediately affect another measurement at another location, and that if this happened it would be a clear violation of special relativity! According to Einstein, entanglement was the death knell of quantum mechanics, because it seemed that information could travel faster than the speed of light, and this was a clear violation of Einstein's special relativity. In fact, no measurement on an electron should immediately affect another measurement in distant locations. But contrary to what Einstein and his scientist friends thought, instead of shaking the foundations of quantum mechanics, their paper became the basis of a complete revision of reality and opened a window to a new field of research.

Bell's Mind Experiment

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BingMag.com The story of strange events that ended in Nobel Physics 2022!

In the 1930s, physicists such as Bohr, Schrdinger and other pioneers of quantum mechanics were looking for a theory that experiments with atoms and describe subatomic particles more accurately than any other theory. In this regard, Einstein believed that quantum mechanics is only one way among various ways to reach a more complete picture of physics, which should be philosophically aligned with classical physics.

Albert discussed two entangled electrons that exhibit opposite spins, he suspected, because in his view some hidden variable was responsible for the formation of such an arrangement of spins in the entangled electrons. In other words, what in quantum mechanics appears to be a random result of measurements, actually results from some deterministic description that remains unknown and creates a ghostly connection between particles. Based on this idea in 1964, John Stewart Bell proposed an experiment that could resolve this debate.

The general idea of this thought experiment was that if two physicists spin entangled particles along their axes They will measure different things, not just spin up and down, but sometimes randomly, they will detect the spin of particles left and right or in other directions. According to this mind experiment, if Einstein was right and particles secretly had predetermined spins, then the act of changing the axis of measurement should have no effect on the result! In addition, Bell's calculations showed that if the universe obeys quantum mechanics and entanglement, as strange and ghostly as it seems, shifting the axis beyond what is seen in classical theories such as relativity could lead to correlated spin measurements.

BingMag.com The story of strange events that ended in Nobel Physics 2022!

Physicists and the Measurement of Quantum Entanglement

John Klauser, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory And UCLA graduate student Stuart Friedman was among the first to take Bell's experiment from theory to the lab. During this research, Klauser realized that the experiment would be more feasible if it involved polarized photons of light (rather than electrons). It is interesting to know that, like the electron spin direction parameter, the photon polarization can take one of two values in relation to the filtering direction. For example, polarized sunglasses have the ability to block photons polarized in one direction and pass photons polarized in another direction.

At first, physicists including Richard Feynman argued that Quantum mechanics does not require further experimental proof, they tried to dissuade Klauser from pursuing Bell's experiment further, but Bell personally encouraged Klauser to finish the research. Until finally, in 1972, Klauser and Friedman succeeded in realizing Bell's experiment. In this experiment, pairs of entangled photons were produced and lenses were used to measure their direction of polarization.

Unsure of what he would achieve, Klauser bet $2 that his experiment proved Einstein's words right. will prove But to his surprise, his results confirmed Bell's prediction of Einstein's, because the states of the photons were correlated in a way that precluded any Einsteinian hidden variables. Although Klosser lost the two-dollar bet, it was a great victory for quantum mechanics thanks to the great efforts of him and his colleagues.
He said in an interview years later:
"Honestly, My experiment proved that Einstein was wrong, I was so upset!

But Klauser's evidence was still not very solid! Because he had used lenses with fixed orientations that provided the space for entering the gap or loophole. In fact, the loophole was that if a hidden variable aligned the polarization of the photons in a way that depended on the position of the lenses, Einstein's words would be confirmed! and conducted a series of more rigorous experiments in Paris, culminating in a complex experiment in 1982. In Speh's experiment, the direction of the lenses was randomly changed in billionths of a second (the time it takes photons to fly from the source to the lens). Naturally, such a mechanism would change the initial configuration of the lens, and it was a sign that the position of the lenses has no effect on any hidden process in the polarization adjustment at the moment of photon emission; So once again, the experiment ended in favor of Bell and quantum mechanics.

Of course, the most microscopic challenges were still at their feet (physicists are very, very strict!)! One of these cases was whether the presence of a hidden and non-random process that was somehow set up at the beginning of the experiment could determine how the lenses changed position. To answer this question, in an experiment in 2017, Anton Zeilinger led a team that used the color of photons emitted from distant stars hundreds of years ago to determine the settings of their experiment. In this case, if a cosmic conspiracy is responsible for the entanglement illusion, it must have started centuries before the experimenters were born!

What's the point of entanglement?

BingMag.com The story of strange events that ended in Nobel Physics 2022!

It's been almost 90 years since Einstein tried to destroy quantum mechanics by highlighting the absurdity of a phenomenon like entanglement, and this phenomenon is much more than fodder today. There have been philosophical discussions. In fact, quantum entanglement is driving the booming field of quantum information science these days. In this regard, physicists have realized that entangled pairs can be used as a special quantum source to achieve new and surprising things.

According to what was said, Zeilinger was one of the central figures who tried to provide He pioneered technological miracles using quantum entanglement. In 1997, he and his colleagues were the first to achieve a feat called quantum teleportation, which uses a precise measurement protocol on entangled particles to transfer the polarization direction from one particle to another (without changing its direction from They used it.

Of course, according to Zeilinger himself, the use of quantum telemetry is currently not like Star Trek movies or anything else where you transfer a person from one place to another; Rather, the point of realizing this experiment is that by using entanglement, you can transfer all the information carried by an object to another place!

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