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Scientists managed to measure the distribution of dark matter 12 billion years ago

BingMag.com <b>Scientists</b> <b>managed</b> to <b>measure</b> the <b>distribution</b> of <b>dark</b> <b>matter</b> 12 <b>billion</b> <b>years</b> ago

For the first time, Scientists were able to measure the distribution of dark matter structure 12 billion years ago, based on fossils left over from the Big Bang, and the oldest Identify the signs of this mysterious substance.

Dark matter is a hypothetical form of matter that, according to research, should outnumber the normal matter that makes up our universe by a ratio of five to one. This matter is invisible to our observational instruments, and its effects can only be seen through gravity.

A standard approach to detecting dark matter measures its distribution by observing how it distorts the light of distant galaxies. Although this method is effective, it also has limitations; Including how far it can look back, which in most cases covers up to 8 billion years ago, but now this amount has been extended to 12 billion years ago. They indent and bend the light, thus acting as a single lens for objects further behind them. The largest of them can create spectacular images of distant galaxies through the lens. Even smaller ones, although they cause smaller distortions, but by measuring them, it is possible to reconstruct the mass distribution in a lensed galaxy and thereby detect invisible dark matter.

This approach works as long as there are many bright background galaxies. exist and their light is deflected towards our observation instruments. For this reason, a deeper look at the universe much further in the past will have one limitation: that the first galaxies formed only a few hundred million years after the big bang and were not bright enough.

Now according to the article Published in "Physical Review Letters" (Physical Review Letters), a collaboration of Nagoya University Scientists used the same approach but in a new way and managed to reveal the distribution of dark matter around galaxies 12 billion years ago. This time, Scientists weren't looking for the distortion of light from distant galaxies, but instead looked at the first light in the universe, the cosmic microwave background (CMB).

CMB is an emission that permeates the entire universe. About 380,000 years after the Big Bang, the universe finally cooled enough for its light to travel without being absorbed by existing matter, and so these waves were freely emitted. As the universe expands, their wavelengths have been extended to microwaves, but they are still affected by the gravity of massive objects. Now, by measuring the amount of distortion caused by the passage through gravitational lensing, researchers were able to measure the distribution of dark matter at much more distant times and somewhere deeper in space. Masami Ouchi from the University of Tokyo, who many of these observations, said: "If we wanted to look at dark matter around distant galaxies, it would be a strange idea, and no one would confirm that we could do such a thing."

He added. : "But after talking about an example of a large distant galaxy, Hironao (supervisor of this research) pointed out that it might be possible to look at the dark matter around these galaxies with cosmic microwave background waves."

"Yuichi Harikan" (Yuichi Harikane) from the University of Tokyo's Cosmic Ray Research Institute also noted: "Most researchers use reference galaxies to measure the distribution of dark matter from today to 8 billion years ago. But we can look back even further because we used the cosmic microwave background to measure dark matter, and for the first time we measured dark matter almost at the time of the first moments of the universe."

The most interesting discovery in This research is a mass measurement of dark matter. According to the standard model of cosmology, or Lambda-CDM, which underlies our understanding of the universe, dark matter forms overdense regions where galaxies form over time. But the mass measurement in this study is less than theoretically predicted.

  • Hidden bridges between galaxies revealed in new map of dark matter

"Hironao Miyatake" (Hironao Miyatake), head of this research from Nagoya University, also said: "Our findings are still unclear. But if that's true, the whole model seems to be flawed the further back in time you go. This is exciting because if the result holds over time, the uncertainties are reduced and this could indicate an improvement in the model that may provide insight into the nature of dark matter itself.

Andrs Plazas Malagon Princeton University researcher Plazas Malagn also stated: "At this stage, we will try to get better data to see if the Lambda-CDM model is really able to explain the observations we have in the world." And we may need to revise the assumptions in this model."

European Space Agency used the Cosmic Microwave Background and Subaru Telescope observations. Currently, only one-third of the HSC data has been analyzed, so the research team is now working to complete it.

Cover photo: A graphic design of research into the structure of dark matter 12 billion years ago
Credit: Reiko Matsushita

Source: IFL Science

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