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New Juno spacecraft data reveals amazing details of Jupiter

New findings from NASA's Juno probe orbiting Jupiter provide a more complete and amazing picture of the structure of the planet's distinctive, colorful and vast atmospheric features.

Researchers have made several A new article has been published in Science and the Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, and supplementary articles have been published in two recent issues of Geophysical Research Letters. "This new observation of Juno opens up a treasure trove of new information about the mysterious and visible features of Jupiter," said Lori Glaze, NASA's director of planetary science. "Each article sheds light on various aspects of Jupiter's atmospheric processes, and this is a prime example of the work of international scientific teams that enhance our understanding of the solar system." During each of the spacecraft's 37 orbits near the planet, they explored a range of specialized instruments from Jupiter's turbulent clouds and the world beneath them.

" "Previously, Juno surprised us with signs that Jupiter's atmospheric phenomena were deeper than expected," said the lead author of an article in the journal Science on the depth of Jupiter's vortices. "We have now begun to put all these pieces together from Juno's findings to have the first real understanding of how Jupiter's beautiful, rough atmosphere works in three dimensions."

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Juno 's Microwave Radiometer (MWR) allows mission scientists to explore Jupiter's clouds and explore the structure of its numerous vortex storms. The most famous of these storms is the Great Anticyclone, known as the Great Red Spot. The spot is more transverse than Earth and has attracted the attention of scientists since its discovery about two centuries ago. , While at the bottom they are colder and have a higher density. But anticyclones or anticyclones that rotate in the opposite direction of the storm are the opposite, colder at the top and warmer at the bottom.

BingMag.com New Juno spacecraft data reveals amazing details of Jupiter

Comparing the depth and dimensions of Jupiter's large red spot with the dimensions of the earth
Credit: JunoCam Image data: NASA/JPL-Caltech/SwRI/MSSS; JunoCam Image processing by Kevin M. Gill (CC BY); Earth Image: NASA

These findings also show that these storms are much higher than expected, some extending up to 100 kilometers below the clouds and others, like the Great Red Spot, more than 350 kilometers below the clouds. According to this amazing discovery, below the depths warmed by sunlight, vortices cover areas behind which water condenses and clouds form.

The huge height and size of the large red spot means that The concentration of Jupiter's atmospheric mass in the storm can potentially be detected by instruments that study Jupiter's gravitational field. Thus, Juno's two near passes over Jupiter's most famous point provided an opportunity to search for the storm's gravitational signature and complete the MWR results in depth.

Jupiter was moving, scientists using NASA's far-space network tracking antenna from a distance of more than 650 million kilometers were able to measure speed changes as small as 0.01 millimeters per second. This accurate measurement allowed the research team to determine the depth of the Great Red Spot up to about 500 km below the clouds. The author of an article on gravitational flights over the Great Red Spot said: "The accuracy required to obtain the gravity of the Great Red Spot during the July 2019 flight is astounding. "The ability to complement MWR findings deep in the clouds gives us great confidence that future gravitational experiments on Jupiter will yield equally attractive results."

BingMag.com New Juno spacecraft data reveals amazing details of Jupiter

Large red spot activity on Jupiter
Credit: Gerald Eichstadt/Justin Cowart/NASA/JPL-Caltech/SwRI/MSSS

Belts and Areas

Jupiter, in addition to storms and counter-cycles, is due to its distinctive belts and areas, the white and red bands of clouds that revolve around the planet. It is famous. Strong east-west winds moving in the opposite direction separate the strips. Juno had previously discovered that these winds, or jet streams, were about 3,200 kilometers deep. They arrive. Researchers are still trying to solve the mystery of how these jet streams form. The data collected by the Juno MWR over several transitions, however, may provide a clue: that atmospheric ammonia gas rises and falls significantly with the observed currents. "Following Ammonia, we found rotating cells in both the northern and southern hemispheres that we thought were like Ferrel C cells," said Keren Duer, a graduate student at the Weizmann Institute and lead author of an article on Jupiter-like Ferrel-like cells. ) That control most of the climate change on the planet Earth. "While the Earth has one Ferrel cell in each hemisphere, Jupiter has eight cells, each at least 30 times larger than the Earth sample." They move under Jupiter clouds. At shallow depths, Jupiter's belts are brighter in the microwave range than their regions, but at deeper levels, beneath clouds of water, the opposite is true of the Earth's oceans.

BingMag.com New Juno spacecraft data reveals amazing details of Jupiter

Jupiter details from the perspective of the Hubble Space Telescope; Jupiter's belts and areas are clearly visible in this photo.
Credit: NASA, ESA, A. Simon (Goddard Space Flight Center), and MH Wong (University of California, Berkeley) and the OPAL team

Polar Tornadoes

Juno had previously discovered the polygonal arrangement of giant tornadoes at both poles of Jupiter, eight in an octagonal arrangement to the north and five in a pentagonal pattern. They are located in the south. Now, five years later, mission scientists using observations from the Juno Infrared Aurora Mapping Survey (JIRAM) tool have determined that these atmospheric phenomena are very persistent and have remained in place.

Alessandra Mora "Jupiter tornadoes affect each other's motion and cause them to oscillate in equilibrium," said Alessandro Mura, a Juno researcher at the National Institute of Astrophysics in Rome and co-author of an article on fluctuations and stability in Jupiter's polar rotations. In Jupiter polar storms, the behavior of these slow fluctuations indicates that they have deep roots. It pushes them back. This explains the balance of storms and the different numbers at each pole.

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Cover Photo: Jupiter in Visible Light (Right) and Infrared (Left)
Credit: International Gemini Observatory/NOIRLab/NSF/AURA/NASA/ESA, MH Wong and I. de Pater (UC Berkeley) et al.

Source: SciTechDaily

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