The most powerful human eye in space, the James Webb Space Telescope, is slowly entering the first cycle of scientific observations and is set to reveal secrets from the farthest and most invisible parts of the universe; Secrets such as the long-standing problem of dark matter. The launcher carried the largest and most sophisticated Space Telescope ever built: the James Webb Space Telescope. Since then, the Web Telescope has orbited about 1.5 million people. One mile from the ground, it has opened its large tennis-sized sunshade, aligned its 18 main mirror sections, and now has just one more critical step to the final alignment, and is expected to capture the first images. Start science by summer.
Over the next decade, James Webb will make advanced observations to help scientists answer important questions in astronomy; Questions about the nature of dark matter. Hot, hot or cold Not directly viewed so far. Scientists can understand the presence of dark matter only by observing its gravitational effects on ordinary matter.
Various theories have suggested different types of dark matter particles. dark matter, considered hot or hot, moved so fast in the early universe that gravity could not limit them. cold dark matter candidates, on the other hand, are thought to have moved so slowly that gravity has transformed them into small structures of dark matter that eventually merge into larger, more massive structures. Matthew Walker "Computer simulations have been testing the way these structures form and grow for decades under the hypothesis of cold dark matter," said Matthew Walker, an associate professor of physics at Carnegie Mellon University.
Small bubbles form and come together after colliding with other bubbles, constantly accumulating around each other until large structures such as the Milky Way galaxy are formed. These gravitational bubbles of dark matter are known as "Halo".
- Use the James Webb Space Telescope? NASA Lets Take a Turn!
But if there are no stars in these invisible matter bubbles, How can we even try to identify them? ? For this purpose, Nuremberg and his team of nearly 20 scientists in the United States, Canada, Britain, Switzerland, Spain, Belgium, and Chile use a phenomenon called the gravitational lens.
Gravitational Lensing, based on Albert Einstein's theory of general relativity, states that matter bends space-time, and therefore any light it encounters. If light travels to Earth from a distant source in the universe and passes by a massive object, such as a dark matter bubble, the light bends around it, and if this intermediate mass is massive enough, the light is deflected in such a way that sometimes Up to four images of the same light source appear around the mass of the lens. Dust accretion tablets (included in the gravitational lens) will measure. Recognizing these small halos would be a victory for the theory of cold dark matter, and not recognizing them would mean that there was no cold dark matter.
As the universe expands, it is stretched along its path, and its wavelengths tend to be in the infrared range. Intermediate infrared wavelengths that are almost impossible to observe with ground-based telescopes. "We will observe with the reddest frequency bands that James Webb can support," Nuremberg stressed. And older Space telescopes, which can see in the middle infrared, have the ability to distinguish lenses. They do not have a variety. But making these observations in the mid-infrared spectrum requires a high degree of resolution that only James Webb can provide.
Daniel Gilman, a postdoctoral researcher at the University of Toronto and "The kind of data we can get using JWST is more unique and much more powerful or more accurate than the kind of data we can get from Hubble or ground-based telescopes," said one team researcher.
"This is going to be a big scientific step forward," Nuremberg noted. But his team did not ask for observation time because they will use the data that James Webb collects for other programs.
Walker's research uses archival data to search inside dwarf galaxies to find massive binary stars; Orbits of two stars orbiting each other at relatively large distances, on the scale of 1 Pars, slightly less than the distance between the Sun and our nearest neighbor, Proxima Centauri.
Walker Kaft: They are far apart, they are very fragile systems. If, for example, a small halo of dark matter passes by a vast binary system, it can exchange energy with one or both stars in that system, and only a fraction of a percentage increase in the energy of each star is needed to "So if the Walker team finds massive binary stars, we can logically be sure that those halos of dark galactic cold matter do not exist." And that's basically a real problem for the cold dark matter model. Likes the project. "I think this research in particular is really interesting because the current framework for what we consider to be the structure of dark matter is the cold dark matter model, and the research that Professor Walker is doing could potentially invalidate it."darkmatter. But it still does not prove that they are extinct, as they may never have formed in these dwarf galaxies in the first place.
Capturing high-quality images and detecting source pairs with very little resolution is an ideal tool for this exploration, and thanks to the 6.5-meter-diameter main mirror, it will see farther than any other Telescope ever built. "I think James Webb gives us a new and really powerful perspective," said Jorge Pearrubia, a professor at the University of Edinburgh and one of the team's researchers. But even if it fails, we will find other ways.
In fact, there are many other techniques that scientists use to search for dark matter, including direct searches by physics experiments. And now while waiting for James Webb to open his eyes, Nuremberg and Walker are both using gravitational lenses and extensive binary methods on Hubble Space Telescope data.
James Webb's future scientific plans may be more secret Examine dark matter, whether through a gravitational lens or perhaps by observing the evolution of galaxies, which scientists can then compare to theories of dark matter. " We have no shortage of darkness. "But what we lack is observations that allow us to examine these theories in detail, and that is what James Webb is going to bring us."
Cover Photo: Graphic Design by Cosmic Complexities
Credit: Sandbox Studio, Chicago with Olena Shmahalo