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How to make an appointment with the James Webb Space Telescope?

BingMag.com <b>How</b> to <b>make</b> an <b>appointment</b> with the <b>James</b> <b>Webb</b> <b>Space</b> Telescope?

The Space Telescope Scientific Institute, which schedules the use of the Hubble and James Webb telescopes, takes a relatively new approach without prioritizing the scientific rank of individuals, and Given the importance of a proposed observational plan, it is time for researchers to observe.

The hottest commodity in astronomy these days is time. Especially for using NASA's all-new and ultra-powerful observatory, the James Webb Space Telescope, also known as the JWST, or Web for short. This unique observatory was launched on December 25, 2021 (December 4, 1400) and is scheduled to begin scientific observations by summer. Astronomers are eagerly awaiting that moment, believing that the telescope's sensitivity and infrared observation will give them data that could lead to the discovery of countless mysteries of the universe.

BingMag.com <b>How</b> to <b>make</b> an <b>appointment</b> with the <b>James</b> <b>Webb</b> <b>Space</b> Telescope?

Graphic design of the James Webb Telescope while observing
Credit: Northrop Grumman

But any data, from any A tool is very important for astronomers. "As an observational astronomer, I're totally dependent on when I can get to work with a telescope," said Larissa Markwardt, a PhD student in astronomy at the University of Michigan. "Certainly, if you do not receive any data, it will be difficult." Provided the web, supervised. "In some ways, the proposals I have had so far have not been stressful," he said. He and his colleagues want to use the web to study rocks that, at about the same distance as Neptune, orbit one cluster in front of the planet and the other behind the sun. Scientists call these rocks Trojan asteroids and believe that they contain some of the most primitive materials in the solar system. Last October, NASA launched the "Luci" mission to study Trojan asteroids in Jupiter orbit. But for Neptune's trojans, scientists are still studying these rocks remotely. Marquardt's proposal was one of 266 projects that received valuable telescope time. Thus, during the first year of his scientific career, James Webb will spend more than 24 hours exploring the nine different Neptune Trojans.

This is reassuring news for Marquardt. "These objects are usually very dim, so there was no ground-based telescope that could do this," he said. So we really had to use James Webb and without it, we could not do this project at all. "

BingMag.com <b>How</b> to <b>make</b> an <b>appointment</b> with the <b>James</b> <b>Webb</b> <b>Space</b> Telescope?

Graphic design of the James Webb Space Telescope at Lagrangian Point 2
Credit: NASA

The Neptune Trojan Project is one of 22 studies that James's opportunity They obtained the Web to study the objects of the solar system. Almost all projects are led by a qualified astronomer, but when evaluating the sheer number of proposals for use of the Web in the first year of scientific activity, none of the selection committee knew who a recognized astronomer was and who, like Marquardt, was a graduate student. This is made possible by a system called the Dual-anonymous Proposal Review or DAPR, which hides team members' names from selection experts, and vice versa.

    Provides an Unparalleled Opportunity for Examining Interstellar Guests It is also dedicated to last minute opportunities and when something exciting appears in the sky. But most of the time, which reaches 6,000 hours in the first year, is devoted to a program called the "General Observer Program," in which scientists from around the world request the observatory to be used. JamesWebb's work, scientists requested about 24,500 hours of observation, so selection is a key process. Public observer time is divided by a rigorous process in which more than a dozen anonymous panels of experts review proposals to determine which scientific topic should be prioritized. The SpaceTelescope Science Institute (STScI) in Baltimore has been managing this process for the Hubble SpaceTelescope for decades and is now doing the same for the Web. "We started with a much simpler process and had no defined criteria, we just told the panel members that if you found the project interesting, exciting and transformative, we would suggest from 1 to Give it 5 points.

    But in the 2010s, the question arose as to whether the STScI knew How many proposals were being made by male astronomers and How many by female astronomers. But the institute did not know that according to Alveisi and his colleagues, collecting demographic data from the proposals is not legally permissible. But the Office of Science became interested, and Neill Reid, now the institute's assistant director of science, decided to look into it. He thus analyzed a decade of valuable Hubble proposals on the front page. The numbers were completely one-sided. He found that each year, proposals led by a male lead researcher were more likely to receive a follow-up turn than those led by a female lead researcher. In a few years, the success rate of women was almost equal to that of men, but in the end they were almost twice as likely to achieve observation time with Hubble.

    BingMag.com <b>How</b> to <b>make</b> an <b>appointment</b> with the <b>James</b> <b>Webb</b> <b>Space</b> Telescope?p id="caption-attachment-1064924" class="wp-caption-text"> Hubble SpaceTelescope in Earth Orbit
    Credit: NASA

    Thus, Reid has been providing additional data for several years Analyzed to see if factors such as career stage or academic subdivision make a difference in this process. But men were still more likely to spend time observing. "A lot of people were anticipating this," Reed said. "But while it was clear, it was shocking."

    The institute decided to reverse this trend. In general, astronomers have a lot of ideas for using the Hubble Space Telescope, which is even beyond its current capabilities, and STScI has more flexibility to perform different experiments than NASA, for example. So STScI decided to see if, for example, it could change the ratios by moving the lead researcher's name from the first page of the proposal to the second page or listing all the team members in alphabetical order, instead of highlighting the lead researcher. But that didn't work either. There was no mentality or change of attitude towards the proposals. People were still talking about the proposals under the name of the lead researcher, for example, Jennifer's proposal or Matthew's proposal. "It was clear that from their point of view, the proposal and the researcher were a single issue, and that was not what we wanted to achieve."

    So Reid enlisted the help of other sources. "Scientists always think we can do things alone," he said. "But we got to the point where we said we needed to get help from experts in this field." Finally, he decided to make a leap and not give the names of the researchers to the members of the selection panel in any way. "We expected this decision to be controversial at first," Strollger said.

    And so it was. "In many cases, this decision went beyond traditional boundaries, so the target community was divided into two groups," he added. Many saw this as right and called it a great way to reduce inequality. "There were other people who said I spent and I got credit for my job, but you basically take that power away from me." The institute created a solution in the system to alleviate the concerns of scientists. "There was a concern in the scientific community about what would happen if someone made a proposal that was not eligible at all," Reed said.

    So after ranking anonymous proposals, panel members could select the scientists they selected. Check and make sure they are eligible. "We never said you could not give these people time, so I think this approach reassures the scientific community and reassures NASA that the selection process does not involve crazy people in the telescope to use the telescope."

    BingMag.com <b>How</b> to <b>make</b> an <b>appointment</b> with the <b>James</b> <b>Webb</b> <b>Space</b> Telescope?

    Integrating James Webb mirrors during construction
    Credit: NASA/Chris Gunn

    But these new conditions were not uncommon only for scientists who wanted to use Hubble, and so were scientists who evaluated the proposals. According to Alvesi, many of them were hesitant to enter the first discussions of anonymous dualism, but Eventually they got used to the new trend. "They feel comfortable because they only talk about science, not teams. In this way, they can focus on the best scientific research.

    And this approach has now equated acceptance rates between male-led and female-led proposals Is. In one year, women were more likely to win observation time than their male counterparts. .

    Receiving James Webb's turn

    Thus, it is not possible for ordinary people to directly use the telescope's facilities and even its raw data, and so what is announced to them is the results of data analysis. Sometimes, like taking a first photo, it can take a short time, but sometimes, like the results of their discoveries and simulations, it can be very time consuming and requires the work of researchers and academics on the data.

    It can only be done by an expert, and a researcher must have a great deal of knowledge in astronomy and astrophysics. In this way, he can take the time to write a good proposal with enough justification and explanation to convince the experts to choose his plan. Given, sufficient explanations are provided for researchers to submit their research projects in specific cycles announced by the institute, using the tools provided. If selected by the experts of the Space Telescope Scientific Institute, no other activity is needed until the use of the James Webb.

    From the Institute of Basic Sciences is cooperating with one of the accepted projects in the field of star evolution and has succeeded in receiving the observation turn.

    BingMag.com <b>How</b> to <b>make</b> an <b>appointment</b> with the <b>James</b> <b>Webb</b> <b>Space</b> Telescope?

    The Moment of Separation of the James Webb Telescope from the Launcher
    Credit: Arianespace/ESA/NASA

    Towards the Future

    Howthis approach adapts to other areas.

    Strolger "I was somewhat expecting other observatories to ask us about the new approach, and that is exactly what happened," he said. "But I did not expect the Particle Accelerator Centers to contact me and ask How to convince the target community of this." Conclude. It can even be said that gender analyzes are flawed because they are based on apparent gender rather than self-proclaimed identity. Collect and analyze and share only general statistics with the Office of Health Sciences. These statistics allow the institute to examine inequality in other characteristics because, according to Alois, "gender is just the tip of the iceberg."

    BingMag.com <b>How</b> to <b>make</b> an <b>appointment</b> with the <b>James</b> <b>Webb</b> <b>Space</b> Telescope?

    Graphic Design by James Webb
    Credit: NASA/UKRI

    But one of the features that outsiders can easily do Determine the career stage of the scientists and the year they received their doctorate, or even examine whether they were SRScI observers for the first time. "Thus, although gender data was initially motivated by the shift to an anonymous dual approach, it has had a greater impact on new groundbreaking researchers and novice scientists such as Marquardt, who are proposing much faster than the old system."

    Astronomers, however, are still learning to trust this new process, even when their proposals are rejected. Marquardt said that while no one has confronted him directly, he knows that some of his colleagues may quietly doubt his ability to use James Webb properly.

    " That you only have observation time because they are trying to push more marginalized people. But I wrote a really good proposal and that's why I took the time. Incidentally my name "It was not on the proposal so that they could not make assumptions or judgments about my work based on my personality." "I think you should have a chance to do it." Ann Feild (STScI)

    Sources: Space, ISNA

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