How does the phone camera work?

Even if we are not very good at photography, in the end we cannot hide the importance of phone camera quality. Around 2008, social networking became massively popular, and a high-quality phone camera became a vital feature for many users. But how exactly do the cameras inside smartphones work? We will discuss this issue further.

BingMag.com How does the phone camera work?

Even if we are not very good at photography, in the end we cannot hide the importance of phone camera quality. Around 2008, social networking became massively popular, and a high-quality phone camera became a vital feature for many users. But how exactly do the cameras inside smartphones work? We will discuss this issue further.

Although several important parts are used to make a phone camera, these types of cameras basically consist of three main parts. The first important part is the lens that directs the light towards the sensor. The second most important part is naturally the sensor that converts light photons into an electrical signal. Finally, we must mention the third important part, the software, which creates the final image by converting electrical signals.

Lens

BingMag.com How does the phone camera work?

Light must pass through the lens to reach the sensor. Of course, there is a very small opening on the lens called the aperture. In simple words, the bigger this aperture is, the more light goes to the sensor, and as a result, you get better photos. The F unit is used to measure this valve, and the smaller the number of F is, the larger the valve is. Therefore, the F/1.7 aperture has a larger size than the F/2.0 aperture.

When the light enters the camera module, the lens collects the incoming light and directs it to the sensor. Due to the nature of light, different colors are refracted when passing through the lens, and as a result, to solve this problem and other such problems, several lenses are installed on the sensor so that the best possible image is available to the user.

Focus

BingMag.com How does the phone camera work?

In the field of autofocus We deal with two main types passive and active. The passive type is all software and for this purpose only the data received from the sensor is used. In this field, there are various techniques and systems, but the contrast-based system is widely used. There is also a type of focus based on fuzzy detection, which provides better and more accurate performance. We should also mention the active autofocus system, which uses a piece of hardware. These types of sensors are used to determine the distance between the phone and the subject in order to focus with better speed and accuracy. There are many differences in the field of sensors used for this work.

Sensor

BingMag.com How does the phone camera work?

The camera sensor is a very thin piece of silicon that is responsible for converting photons (light) into electrons (electrical signals). This conversion happens in hundreds of photosites placed inside the sensor. If no light reaches the photosite, the sensor registers the desired pixel as black. If too many photons enter the pixel, the desired color will be white. The number of shades the sensor can capture is known as bit depth.

So how exactly does a phone camera sensor capture color photos? At the top of each photosite is a color filter that allows only green, red, and blue light to pass through. Therefore, the pixels placed under this filter create images consisting of green, blue and red colors based on different levels of brightness. Finally, these images are converted into full-color images with software algorithms. Of course, only one type of color filter is used, and some companies are innovating in this field.

When buying a phone, you should pay attention to the size of the sensor and the size of the pixels inside it. The inch unit is used to measure the sensor. The bigger the sensor, naturally, it can capture better photos. The micrometer unit is also used to measure photosites, and when a photosite is larger, it can absorb more light, and as a result, the final photo will be better. Of course, the small size of the photosites does not necessarily mean low photo quality, but in any case, if photography in dimly lit environments is very important to you, it is better to pay attention to the size of the photosites.

Camera shaker>

BingMag.com How does the phone camera work?

When you want to take a good photo, slight camera shake can lead to much better results. Considering that we cannot use a tripod in different situations, the camera's stabilizer feature can significantly reduce hand shake. In the field of camera stabilizers, we have two main types: optical and electronic.

Optical stabilizers can detect even the smallest movements by using a gyroscope, and as a result, by using small motors or electric magnets, lenses and The sensor is partially moved to neutralize hand vibration. Especially in low-light environments where the slightest hand shake can significantly reduce the quality of photos and videos, the importance of the optical stabilizer doubles.

On the other hand, the electronic or digital stabilizer uses software algorithms for this. . For this reason, the phone tries to stack different frames so that the image or video has less quality loss, but in the end, the result based on this system is not so ideal. use both methods, especially for video recording, this hybrid approach is remarkably fruitful.

Software

After the sensor It did its job of converting light into electrical signals, now the Image Signal Processor (ISP) steps in to turn this data into visible images. At first, a black and white image goes to the ISP, and this processor must convert it into a color image based on the color filter used. Finally, we can see the photo or video. It should be noted that each company uses different algorithms for this task, and therefore even if two phones use the same hardware for the camera, the photos taken by them will not be the same.

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