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How does the Parker probe survive the hellish heat of the sun?

BingMag.com <b>How</b> <b>does</b> the <b>Parker</b> <b>probe</b> <b>survive</b> the <b>hellish</b> <b>heat</b> of the sun?

The fastest man-made device, the only instrument that touches the sun, and the only spacecraft named after a living scientist. These are just some of the honors of the Parker spacecraft. The spacecraft has an amazing shield to dive into the hell of a million degrees of the sun, which we will take a look at its engineering in this article.

Parker Solar probe in mid-2018 to study the heat waves And the energetic particles of the Sun's atmosphere were thrown into space, the way these waves move and the reason for their acceleration. These winds are a continuous stream of charged particles of protons and electrons and a magnetic field that are thrown from the surface of the sun to the solar system and sometimes reach speeds of 1.6 million kilometers per second.

These winds are from the structure of the atmosphere They come from the outside or the corona of the sun, but their exact mechanism is not clear. When winds intensify above a certain level, they pass through a magnetic field around the earth, damaging positioning systems, satellites, and communications systems and disrupting their function.

The main purpose of the Parker probe is to solve the high temperature problem. The top of the area known as the sun is relative to its surface, which has long occupied the minds of researchers. The Sun's corona is the area around the star where the winds and solar particles are released from gravity and the magnetic field. And while the star's surface temperature does not exceed 5,500 degrees, it's interesting that its corona temperature reaches one million degrees Celsius. The Parker probe entered the corona in May this year and spent five hours collecting data on solar particles, wind plasma, electric and magnetic fields and solar radiation.

BingMag.com <b>How</b> <b>does</b> the <b>Parker</b> <b>probe</b> <b>survive</b> the <b>hellish</b> <b>heat</b> of the sun?

Different parts of the Parker probe

The Parker probe is much larger than other spacecraft It is small. The spacecraft is about the size of a car, but on an exciting journey up to 6 million kilometers closer to the sun and will withstand temperatures of 1400 degrees Celsius. This distance may seem like a long way, but it is about one tenth of the distance from the sun to Mercury, and it will bring a lot of traction to this small spacecraft. Faced with it. As we said, this spacecraft with a speed of 600,000 kilometers per hour has achieved the record of the fastest man-made. This speed is so great that it will take you from New York to Tokyo in a minute, but at the same time it will cause a lot of force to enter the spacecraft, because it has to pass through a huge cloud of asteroid and comet debris that if it collides It can be disabled by a spacecraft.

This collision is like driving at breakneck speed in a terrifying sandstorm that creates a plasma explosion with each collision. Building a spacecraft that survives these collisions and the hellish heat of the sun without the fate of Icarus is the result of a stunning engineering that consists of three main parts: the heat shield, the Faraday cup, and the liquid cooling system.

Researchers at the Harvard-Stimson Astrophysics Center in Cambridge have built two main parts of the Parker probe shields. The first part, called the Faraday probe because of its cup-like appearance, is mounted on the outside and absorbs some of the sun's plasma. BingMag.com <b>How</b> <b>does</b> the <b>Parker</b> <b>probe</b> <b>survive</b> the <b>hellish</b> <b>heat</b> of the sun? p id =" caption-attachment-1028870 "class =" wp-caption-text "> A model of the Faraday probe cup

When the sun reaches a temperature of 1800 degrees Celsius, it is fried like a fireball. To better understand this heat, you need to know that volcanic lava has about the same heat. As a result, the probe armor shield is made of titanium, zirconium and molybdenum and blue agate. The body of the cup, which collects charged particles to determine the flow rate, is capable of withstanding temperatures up to 2,300 degrees. The electric field-producing chips of this cup are made of tungsten, which can Withstand a staggering temperature of 3400 degrees. Niobium is also used in the construction of the wires used in this equipment, which will not melt up to 2470 degrees. The wires are also housed inside a blue agate arm that has a very high resistance to heat and impact.

Another important part of the Parker probe heat shield is the "thermal protection system" installed in front of it. In addition to heat, this shield must have high resistance to dust particles at a speed of thousands of kilometers. The heat conditions in the vicinity of the sun are such that it will not melt if the shield gets too hot, but will evaporate directly like a piece of dry ice, so the heat shield had to be carefully constructed and the slightest mistake could have thwarted the multimillion-dollar mission.

Researchers have spent 8 years designing this heat shield. At a research center in France, they used thousands of mirrors to reflect sunlight and focus on small points to test their material at extremely high temperatures.

The thickness of this heat shield is 12 cm and It has a layered structure. The middle layer is made of carbon foam, which is used in medicine and bone replacement. The thinner outer layer of the shield is also made of a special carbon-carbon compound that has a very high resistance to heat.

4.4 meters weighs only 72.5 kg. The side of the shield facing the sun has a bright white color with a special formula that largely reflects the sun's waves. NASA invited researchers from Johns Hopkins University to produce this glossy layer, and after much research, they agreed to use glossy aluminum oxide. The heat shield reacts and turns gray. To prevent this, the engineers added a layer of tungsten less than a hair thicker between the outer coating and the carbon foam.

BingMag.com <b>How</b> <b>does</b> the <b>Parker</b> <b>probe</b> <b>survive</b> the <b>hellish</b> <b>heat</b> of the sun?

heat protection system

They also added some nanoscale impurities to the exterior coating, making it both more glossy and better inhibitory. Aluminum oxide beads help with heat exposure. The result of this special design is that even if the white side of the shield heats up to more than 1300 degrees, the temperature of the back layer does not exceed 300 degrees.

The shield may have holes in contact with dust. But its resistance to particles being released from the bow at speeds of hundreds of thousands of kilometers, like arrows, has been admirable. The velocity and energy of these particles are such that after colliding with ionization of the body, a small plasma explosion is formed into a particle with a small part of the steam shield.

The third part that protects the Parker probe against heat It is a liquid cooling system that is not unlike what we see in cars. This system, with pure water under pressure and a very resistant radiator, circulates the coolant throughout the probe, thereby lowering the Parker temperature.

Several sensors are installed on the body of the probe, which are measured by The positioning position is adjusted so that the equipment is not exposed to direct heat as much as possible. Even solar panels can be retracted and placed behind a shield if the probe is too close to the sun and the temperature is too high. The result of all these innovations is the precise operation of a man-made object at a temperature close to the depths of hell. Eventually, Parker will reach a distance of 6 million kilometers from the surface, and by embracing this star, it will flare up dramatically and become part of the solar wind.

Tags: how, does, parker, probe, survive, hellish, heat, sun

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