One of Einstein's most spectacular rings ever seen in space, called the Molten Ring, helped scientists figure out what was in a galaxy. Observe what happened in the early days of the universe.
Some time ago, Hubble displayed a spectacular image of an Einstein ring. Known as the "Molten Ring", light particles, which are actually light drawn and distorted by gravitational fields, show an enlarged image of a galaxy whose light has traveled 9.4 billion years to We reach. This magnification now gives us rare information about the formation of a stellar birthplace while the universe was still in its infancy.
The early evolution of the universe is a difficult time to identify and understand. As we have seen, an explosion occurred 13.8 billion years ago, and as we know, the first light appeared about 1 billion years later after the BigBang. The journey of light has since faded and its light source is small, and much dust has obscured it.
Even the brightest objects are difficult to see through this sea of space-time, so there is a huge gap in our understanding of how the universe was formed from primitive cosmic soup. But sometimes the universe itself helps us to detect these faint and distant lights, and that is when a massive object is placed between us and the distant object, and due to the gravitational curvature of space-time around a closer object, a magnifying effect occurs. p>
Every light that passes through this space-time range follows this curvature and enters our telescopes in a magnified and multiple way. This light forms images known as Einstein rings because such a property was predicted by Albert Einstein.
This phenomenon itself is called "gravitational lensing" and during Not only does it give us an amazing picture, but it also gives us brilliant opportunities to combine the magnifying capabilities of telescopes with cosmic capabilities and see things that were not otherwise clear or not seen at all.
Graphic design of gravitational lens
Credit: NASA, ESA & L. Calada
The Molten Ring, officially called the GAL-CLUS-022058s, is an Einstein ring magnified by a gravitational field around a large galaxy cluster in the form of The constellation "Fornax" takes place. The gravitational pull of this cosmic cluster is so strong that the distant galaxy is seen not only as four distorted images, but also 20 times larger.
When this amazing cosmic phenomenon is combined with the power of the Hubble Space Telescope, The images are as accurate and clear as observations made with a telescope with an aperture of 48 meters. A team of researchers led by Anastasio Daz-Snchez of the Universidad Politcnica de Cartagena in Spain used these images to find that galaxy light traveled 9.4 billion light-years. This means that the light of the galaxy has come to us from a time when star formation occurred at an extraordinary rate and is a thousand times faster than the formation of stars in today's Milky Way galaxy. Familiarity with this period of star formation in the history of the universe can help us understand how modern galaxies evolve because we usually cannot see these distant galaxies well due to their great distances and obscurity by gas and dust.
Image of a distant galaxy passing through a gravitational lens
as four images Distortion is seen.
Credit: Daz-Snchez et al., ApJ, 2021
Using Hubble images, researchers were able to model the effect of a gravitational lens from multiple spots and images in a ring. The melt, to reach the original shape of the galaxy that created it. "Such a model can only be achieved with Hubble imaging," Diaz-Sanchez said. Hubble helped us identify four duplicate images and star clusters of galaxies. , Which is the relationship between the mass of the galaxy and the rate of star formation, and new stars are born at a rate of 70 to 170 times the mass of the Sun per year. In contrast, the Milky Way galaxy has a rate of star formation only several times the mass of the Sun per year. Reveal them.
Cover Photo: Molten Ring
Credit: Saurabh Jha/Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey
Source: Science Alert