Ever since Max Planck introduced the quantum idea to the world, physicists have questioned whether reality is a sandy substance (an allusion to the nature of matter particles) or Water-like (an allusion to the wave nature of matter) were always debated. Mr. Planck's famous discovery in 1900 that energy is discrete in nature (at least when absorbed or dissipated) led him to name the smallest particles of energy "Quanta". In fact, Planck believed that when light is emitted from fire, the smallest particles of energy become continuous waves, just as water, like human perception, looks like a uniform, clear liquid. Einstein, on the other hand, insisted that quanta of light move in space alone and behave like particles later called photons. But what role did Niels Bohr play in this?
The principle of complementarity and its margins
In experiments designed to observe waves, you only see the waves. You will see and this is beyond the use of electrons or light! In the same vein, in experiments designed to observe the behavior of particles, you see only particles; But the interesting part of the story is that in no experiment can you see both at the same time. Bohr called this view the principle of complementarity!
According to this principle, Slobodan Perovi, a professor of philosophy, recently acknowledged in From Data to Quanta: From Data to Quanta Bohr's success has been questioned by some physicists, philosophers, and even scientific writers! In fact, he argues that the principle of complementarity has been ridiculed as an incoherent appendage of vague philosophy expressed in incomprehensible language. But as the research of this professor of philosophy shows, such criticisms are seldom rooted in a deep understanding of Bohr's views. Various experiments were his beacon. Provich argues that Bohr's principle did not contaminate his philosophical knowledge, and that it was the philosophical prejudices of his opponents that led to the errors, misunderstandings, and misconceptions about physics presented by Bohr. Provich also points out in this book that Bohr cannot be understood by trying to understand his mental philosophy, because philosophy did not lead him to the principle of complementarity, but various experimental experiments were his beacon.
The paradox of the wave and Particles of matter and the deep understanding of Niels Bohr
Bohr's motivation for understanding the paradox of waves and particles of matter with a deep commitment to The overall understanding of the empirical evidence is strengthened. This was the approach taken by the young Bohr when he developed his atomic model in 1913. In fact, various boron experiments at the time showed properties of the atom that seemed inconsistent with what we already knew. But Bohr formed such empirical clues to form a leading theory that was a completely new understanding of the atom and its structure. Started by previous experiments. As you know, spectral lines (the specific colored lines of light emitted by atoms!) Have led to the scientific hypothesis that some of the vibrational processes of the atom itself or its components lead to electromagnetic radiation with precise patterns.
On the other hand, other hypotheses about the structure of the atom could not explain such lines! It was then that the famous Ernest Rutherford, based on experiments he performed in his own laboratory, concluded that most of the atomic space was empty. In fact, from Radford's point of view, the atom contained a dense, small central nucleus that contained most of the atom's mass, and light electrons spun at a distance from the center. But this hypothesis did not correspond to the exact patterns of the spectral lines. On the other hand, according to physical principles, such a structure would be unstable for the atom, and if it were, the atom would collapse in less than a millisecond.
Used to build a leading hypothesis. He matched Rutherford's spectral lines and atomic nuclei into a new atomic model! In fact, the Bohr model was as follows Those electrons maintain the stability of the atom, but can jump from one orbit to another, emitting specific patterns of spectral lines during these jumps.
Is a wave, in the early 1920s other experiments, such as X-rays, showed that very energetic light could collide with electrons; It is as if both particles (momentum and energy were constant in collisions, as they should be for particles)! Thus, Bohr's theory of complementarity seemed to be the only way forward for the scientific community.In general, Niels Bohr's view has been misinterpreted, and you should know that he never said that observations make reality. Throughout the book, Provich describes how Bohr's view has been misinterpreted. In fact, from the author's point of view, Bohr's views are misleadingly intertwined with the views of others (such as John von Neumann and Werner Heisenberg), and his philosophy is misrepresented as something unrealistic! Remember that Bohr never said that observations make reality. Therefore, great care must be taken when talking about the principle of complementarity. It is blond itself. In fact, this book is a subtle and enlightening account of the interaction of experiment and theory in the construction of a scientific process, which we recommend reading to all those interested and readers of this article.
- Is the reality of the world anything different? What is our current understanding of it?
Source: Science News