cyborgs; The future of the human race or a serious threat?

Manfred Kleins and Nathan Klein were two of the scientists who proposed the term cyborg in 1960 and made it popular. From the point of view of these two American scientists, a cyborg is a creature whose body parts are composed of both organic and biomechatronic components. However, after nearly sixty years, this concern has been raised in human societies that whether cyborgs are going to be the future of the human race or we will be destroyed by cyborgs and eventually the human race will be similar to the stories of the movie " Will the Terminator become extinct?

BingMag.com cyborgs; The future of the human race or a serious threat?

Manfred Kleins and Nathan Klein were two of the scientists who proposed the term cyborg in 1960 and made it popular. From the point of view of these two American scientists, a cyborg is a creature whose body parts are composed of both organic and biomechatronic components. However, after nearly sixty years, this concern has been raised in human societies that whether cyborgs are going to be the future of the human race or we will be destroyed by cyborgs and eventually the human race will be similar to the stories of the movie " Will the Terminator become extinct?

When talking about cyborgs, the science of biomechatronics stands out in the first place. Biomechatronics is a science and knowledge that is supposed to combine the two sciences of biology and mechatronics. Mechatronics means mechanical and electronic engineering. Engineers and scientists who are also working on robotics must have appropriate information from the field of biomechatronics; Because biomechatronics is closely related to neuroscience. To build intelligent robots, it is necessary to use neuroscience to build an artificial nervous system properly. Currently, biomechatronics science is used to make prosthetic limbs in the field of medical science engineering.

What is biomechatronics science and how does it work?

BingMag.com cyborgs; The future of the human race or a serious threat?

Biomechatronics, very briefly and usefully, looks at how the human body works and then imitates that mechanism. For example, you can check the leg movement. In order for the sole of the foot to be lifted off the ground and the operation of walking to occur, four different stages must occur in order. In the first step, nerve messages must be sent from the motor center in the brain to the leg muscles. In the second step, the nerve cells in the foot receive this information and after processing, they must send an appropriate response to the brain so that the muscles of the sole of the foot are able to move. In this process, the amount of force required for movement is also determined. It is interesting to know that the human brain applies different forces based on the surface the foot is going to walk on. Accordingly, the nerve cells of the foot muscle spindle sense the amount of force and send the target position back to the brain. Finally, when the sole of the foot is lifted off the ground, signals are sent to the muscles of the foot again so that the muscles return to their original position so that the sole of the foot returns to the ground again. Now imagine that scientists using the science of biomechatronics have to imitate this whole phenomenon correctly and flawlessly.

Biomechatronics requires several tools to work. First of all, a biosensor or biosensors should be made to identify the user's need to move and do something. Biosensors are usually embedded in the nervous system or the muscular system of the body. In the next place, a controlling factor is needed to control the stimulation intensity of biosensors; Because the sensors may be overstimulated, and in this scenario, there must be a means to control and possibly restrain them. Electromechanical sensors can be mentioned among other sensors that should be used. The purpose of making such sensors is to identify and measure information about the mechanics of the device so that this information can be converted into neural signals. Finally, an actuator is needed. This component, which could even be a piece of artificial muscle, is actually a factor in generating power for movement. In the near or far future, these components can easily replace the muscles of the human body. The things we mentioned are actually the components of the body of a simple cyborg.

What is the difference between cyborgs and robots?

BingMag.com cyborgs; The future of the human race or a serious threat?

Cyborgs, in terms of their existence, are something almost similar to the robots that we see in the real world and the cinematic world. However, cyborgs are creatures that have a part of real life in their bodies. In the sense that cyborgs must have one or more types of systems for response and feedback in their system; A system that should be controlled by a real intelligence. When we hear the name cyborgs, the first nature that appears before our eyes is a humanoid nature. However, any type of organism can be made into a cyborg one day, and it does not necessarily mean that cyborgs must be designed in human form.

For example, Bruce Sterling, one of the prominent writers and novelists. In its stories, America proposes the idea of producing a cyborg model similar to a crab. This cyborg is similar to this creature in appearance, but internally and in terms of intelligence, it benefits from a human-like mind. These ideas, i.e. creating an intelligent cyborg with a non-human appearance, have been used many times in the medium of cinema and video games.

Cyborgs will have a feature that normal robots do not have. Cyborgs are actually a bridge between matter and mind be. At present, the creation and production of a completely human-like mind is an almost impossible category, which is only possible in movies and series such as the "Westworld" series. With all these interpretations, many scientists have a different view of cyborgs and consider them just a product model like other man-made products. On the other hand, scientists like Helisi believe that cyborgs will be a part of us humans and we should look at them with human eyes and deal with many of their emotions; Because the unilateral behavior of us humans can have bad consequences in the future.

Are cyborgs supposed to be social beings?

BingMag.com cyborgs; The future of the human race or a serious threat?

Another question that occupies our minds is whether cyborgs are social or not. Humans are inherently social beings. Since cyborgs are supposed to be made from humans, will they be socialized too? In simple language, if a human uses an artificial heart pacemaker or any other electronic device in his body, he is considered a cyborg; Because, for example, a cardiac pacemaker measures the required voltage and then completes an electrical stimulus by sending and receiving a signal so that the human heart contracts permanently. Artificial implants that are placed inside the cochlear part of the ear is another example that turns humans into a kind of cyborg; Because these artificial devices determine the process of hearing by converting mechanical information into neural information. Therefore, at the same time, there are cyborgs in the society who follow their normal life. This group of humans can also be called primary cyborgs.

Apart from the definitions that exist for primary cyborgs, in the near future it will be possible to produce cyborgs that have far more powers by adding new components. . For example, if components related to the Internet, computers or mass communication methods are connected to cyborgs, they can have stronger and better communication with the outside world. Just as a computer system with Internet protocols can communicate with other computers, it seems that cyborgs will eventually find this capability with other species.

Edgar Allan Poe; The first creative mind to think about cyborgs

BingMag.com cyborgs; The future of the human race or a serious threat?

It is interesting to know that the idea of creating a human-centered organism in The nature of a car dates back to a long time ago. Edgar Allan Poe, the famous American novelist, writer and poet, in one of his short stories titled "The Man Who Was Abused", describes a man who lives by adding an extra prosthesis to his body. Science-fiction writers later used this idea more and expanded the concept of cyborgs. For example, Jean de la Haier tells the story of a cyborg hero named Nyctalope, or Edmund Hamilton discusses cyborgs in a space story. Finally, Manfred Kleins and Nathan Klein as two scientists. In 1960, they defined and defined the term cyborg. According to their definitions, a cyborg is a living being with a human nature that has the ability to survive in extraterrestrial environments. These definitions were passed from hand to hand and finally reflected by the New York Times media. At that time, Kleins and Klein presented a more complete concept of the cyborg in an article: A cyborg is necessarily a human-machine system whose process of controlling the mechanisms of its human parts is controlled by drugs or regulatory devices, so that the human is in an environment different from a human environment. To be able to live normally. This is the most complete definition of a cyborg to date. Maybe Edgar Allan Poe didn't even think at that time that the imaginative idea of his mind would one day be implemented.

Cyborg tissues in tissue engineering science

BingMag.com cyborgs; The future of the human race or a serious threat?

A real cyborg tissue created by Harvard scientists in 2012

Scientists are trying to use nano Carbon tubes make artificial cyborg tissues. Also, the exploitation of fungal and plant cells is used in this direction to make an artificial tissue in order to produce new materials for mechanical and electrical purposes. In 2013, a scientist named Di Giacomo and his colleagues were able to create a cyborg fabric that did not require much production cost and was considered a very unique product in terms of mechanical properties. In this type of cyborg, the cells were combined with multi-walled carbon nanotubes to create a material with a very good viscosity.

The focus of researchers to make a living cyborg tissue is more on the cell wall; Because the sensor process undergoes important changes in this way. For example, in a study, scientists have been able to use yeast cells called Candida albicans, which The human digestive tract lives, to create cyborg tissue materials that use the temperature detection feature. /2208/22641-7.jpg" class="content-pics" alt="BingMag.com cyborgs; The future of the human race or a serious threat?" title="BingMag.com cyborgs; The future of the human race or a serious threat?" loading="lazy">

In the discussion of making prostheses and artificial limbs, the C-Leg system, which was invented by the Otto Buck Health Center, located in Germany, has been able to be a useful alternative to the human leg. . Patients who suffer from amputation for various reasons use this artificial prosthesis. The sensors in the C-Leg help the patient to walk in a balanced and natural way. The creation of the C-Leg is the first solid step towards making cyborgs.

Special implants are used to embed in the brain tissue so that a patient suffering from acquired blindness can see the outside world with his eyes again. William Dubel was the first scientist who worked in this field to treat blindness using this technology and was able to achieve results. This researcher was able to cure the patient's blindness by implanting 68 electrodes in the part of the cerebral cortex that is related to vision. Of course, the treatment of this patient does not mean complete vision. The double was only able to make the patient see only a gray aura of the world around him with very low resolution.

The first cyborg with a human form was created by a doctor and scientist named Philip Kennedy in 1997. Kennedy treats a Vietnam War veteran suffering from a heart attack. By obtaining the patient's satisfaction, by designing and implanting a neurotrophic electrode in the person's brain, Kennedy was able to do something so that he could move his body. Although the surgery was successful and made a lot of noise in the media, the patient died five years later.

The second generation double implant for the treatment of blindness was developed in 2002, so that this device has better vision. to give as a gift to patients. The second-generation double implant was a remarkable success, and the tested patient was able to drive for a short time in the institution's environment using the device. According to many scientists, bodyNET can replace smartphones in the future. It remains to be seen how much the researchers can optimize this software

In 2002, another scientist named Kevin Warwick conducted an interesting yet frightening experiment in the field of creating an advanced cyborg. He inserted nearly 100 electrodes into his neural device to connect his nervous system to the Internet. Warwick has successfully achieved his goal. By connecting to the Internet, he was able to control a robotic arm through the Internet. With further research, he managed to identify the distance to different objects remotely by using infrared waves. Finally, by implanting electrodes in his wife's nervous system, Warwick was able to create the first direct electronic communication between the nervous systems of two human bodies. Warwick's achievements in those years have paved the way for the creation of advanced cyborgs with the development of radiotelegraphy technology.

Many scientists have worked on various prostheses and implants, but one of the most important human inventions in the field of cyborgs is none other than Making a miniature camera that is actually a prosthetic eye. At the age of 36, a scientist named Spence managed to make a miniature camera model in the form of an artificial eye that can record everything. However, the image resolution of the eyepiece camera was not at the level and size of the current smartphone cameras. The feature that made this invention more buzz was the ability to transfer video data to a computer. This camera could transmit data to a computer in another location at the same time as it records. Although the artificial eye could not restore the patient's vision, this invention is making a lot of noise. In such a way that Time magazine called this invention one of the best creations of humanity in 2009.

In software science and programming, Stanford University scientists have been able to create an application called bodyNET, which is a kind of human interaction with devices. It represents electronic. This technology, which is based on elastic semi-conducting materials, has the power to be embedded in the human body, for example in the subcutaneous tissue. According to many scientists, bodyNET can replace smartphones in the future. It should be seen how far the researchers can optimize this software.

Step by step to reach the position of cyborgs

BingMag.com cyborgs; The future of the human race or a serious threat?

Mankind has achieved important achievements in the fields of engineering and medicine over the past fifty years, but telemetric devices and biosensors that can be implanted in the human body are still at the beginning of their journey. However, as mentioned earlier, certain basic devices have been designed and built so that human life can have a better quality.

Telemetric devices are currently another important concern of medical science engineers these days. By using these devices, the health status of the patient can be checked observed with an electronic device; In such a way that information such as blood pressure, heart rate and other vital signs are automatically transmitted by these devices to the health and treatment center of the desired region.

With all these interpretations, just making different electronic devices The challenge of making cyborgs is not the only one; Because if all the components of cyborgs are made correctly and perfectly, it is necessary for an agent or organization to be able to fully monitor these devices; Because in the worst case scenario, different companies can have sinister goals and ulterior motives for their creations and products. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is trying to establish favorable rules for manufacturing and monitoring this category of products. Laws and regulation that ensure cyborgs are created only to serve humans. Now we just have to wait to see how the cyborgs will develop in the end. Will human societies live in peace in the future or will the extinction of humanity be marked by cyborgs with the establishment of an organization similar to the Skynet organization in the "Terminator" movie series?

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.