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7 contexts through which Einstein changed the world

BingMag.com 7 <b>contexts</b> <b>through</b> <b>which</b> <b>Einstein</b> <b>changed</b> the world

Today is the anniversary of the death of Albert Einstein, who saddened the world, and especially the scientific community, with his departure on April 18, 1955. Albert Einstein, one of the most famous scientists of all time, and whose name is almost synonymous with the word "genius", changed the world in many ways and affected human life.

Space-time

BingMag.com 7 <b>contexts</b> <b>through</b> <b>which</b> <b>Einstein</b> <b>changed</b> the world

Graphic design of travel with fraction From the Speed of Light
Credit: NASA

One of Einstein's first achievements at the age of 26 was his theory of "Special Relativity". This nomenclature is because it refers to relative motion in a particular case where gravitational forces are considered insignificant. This may seem like no-brainer, but it was one of the greatest scientific revolutions in history that changed the way physicists think about space and time.

In fact, Einstein merged them into a space-time continuum. One of the reasons we think space and time are so completely different is that we measure them in different units, such as meters and seconds, respectively, but Einstein showed how they can really be converted, through the speed of light, to almost 300,000. Kilometers per second are interconnected.

Perhaps the most famous consequence of special relativity is that nothing can move faster than light. But it also means that as you approach the speed of light, everything starts to behave very strangely.

If you could see a spacecraft traveling at 80% of the speed of light, 40% shorter It has been around since it was seen in a static state. And if you could see inside, it would seem that everything was moving slowly, and according to Georgia State University, it would take a minute, 100 seconds. This means that the faster a spacecraft travels, the later its occupants age.

Einstein's equation E=mc2

BingMag.com 7 <b>contexts</b> <b>through</b> <b>which</b> <b>Einstein</b> <b>changed</b> the world

Einstein's equation
Credit: Victor Habbick Visions/Science Photo Library/Getty Images

An unexpected consequence of special relativity was Einstein's famous equation E=mc2, which is probably the only mathematical formula that has become a cultural symbol. This equation expresses the equivalence of mass (m) and energy (E), two physical parameters previously thought to be completely separate.

In classical physics, mass measures the amount of matter in an object. , While energy is a property that the body has due to motion and forces acting on it. In addition, energy can exist in the complete absence of matter; For example, in light or radio waves.

However, Einstein's equation states that mass and energy are essentially one thing. Multiply the mass by the square of the speed of light (c ^ 2), which is a very large number, to see that the units are the same.

This means an object that moves faster, just because it is improving It is to bring energy, its mass increases. It also means that even an inert object has a lot of energy trapped inside it.

This concept is not only an amazing idea, it also has practical applications in the world of high-energy particle physics. According to the European Council for Nuclear Research (CERN), if energetic enough energetic particles collide violently, the energy from the collision can create new material in the form of extra particles. .

3. Lasers

BingMag.com 7 <b>contexts</b> <b>through</b> <b>which</b> <b>Einstein</b> <b>changed</b> the world

Stages of induction radiation in the laser
Credit: Encyclopaedia Britannica/UIG/Getty Images

Lasers are one of the most essential parts of modern technology and are used in everything from bar code readers and laser pointers to holograms and fiber optic communications. Although lasers are not usually associated with Einstein, it was he who eventually made them possible to produce them. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation, and according to the American Physical Society, induced radiation is a concept developed by Einstein more than 40 years ago.

In 1917, Einstein wrote a paper on theory He wrote Quantum Radiation, in which he explained, among other things, how a photon of light passing through a substance could stimulate the emission of more photons.

He found that new photons were in the same direction and frequency. And move in the same phase as the original photons. This results in a cascading effect and more and more similar photons are produced. While other scientists were slow to recognize the enormous scientific potential of induced radiation, Einstein, as a theorist, did not advance the idea any further.

But eventually the world came to the conclusion, and still does today. People are finding new uses for lasers; From anti-UAV weapons to ultra-fast computers.

Black holes and wormholes

BingMag.com 7 <b>contexts</b> <b>through</b> <b>which</b> <b>Einstein</b> <b>changed</b> the world

Graphic design of a wormhole

Einstein's special theory of relativity showed that space-time can do very strange things even in the absence of gravitational fields. But this is only the tip of the iceberg, and Einstein eventually succeeded in adding gravity to the theory in his theory of "public relativity." He found that large objects such as planets and stars actually bend the structure of space-time, and this distortion creates effects that we perceive as gravity.

Einstein explained general relativity through a complex set of equations which have a variety of applications. Perhaps the most famous answer to Einstein's equations came from Karl Schwarzschild's solution in 1916; A black hole.

Even more bizarre is the solution that Einstein himself devised in 1935 in collaboration with Nathan Rosen, allowing shortcuts to be made possible. Described one point in space-time to another. Formerly known as the Einstein-Rosen Stairs, they are now known to all fans of science fiction as the Wormholes.

5. Expansion of the universe

BingMag.com 7 <b>contexts</b> <b>through</b> <b>which</b> <b>Einstein</b> <b>changed</b> the world

Graphic design of the expansion of the universe

One of the first things Einstein did with his equations of general relativity in 1915 was to generalize them to the universe. But the answer he got was wrong in his opinion. His work showed that the texture of space itself is in a state of constant expansion, pulling galaxies along with it, so that the distance between them is constantly increasing. Common sense dictated to Einstein that this could not be true, so he added something called a cosmic constant to his equations to produce a static, well-behaved world.

But in 1929 Edwin's observations Edwin Hubble from other galaxies showed that the universe is really expanding. Apparently exactly as Einstein's early equations had predicted. This seemed to be the end of the cosmic fixed work that Einstein later described as his biggest mistake.

But it was not really the end of the story. Based on more accurate measurements of cosmic expansion, we now know that cosmic expansion increases in the absence of a cosmological constant, rather than slowing it down. So it seems that Einstein's mistake was not so much wrong in the end!

6.

BingMag.com 7 <b>contexts</b> <b>through</b> <b>which</b> <b>Einstein</b> <b>changed</b> the world

Credit: Universal History Archive/Universal Images Group/Getty Images

Einstein is sometimes credited with inventing nuclear weapons with the equation E=mc2, but according to the Einstein-Online website, the Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics The bond between the two is very weak at best.

The key element here is nuclear fission, in which Einstein had no direct involvement. Nevertheless, he played an important role in the development of the first atomic bomb. In 1939, a number of his colleagues informed him of the possibility of a nuclear fission and the unfortunate consequences that would occur if Nazi Germany acquired the weapons.

Finally, according to the Atomic Heritage Foundation, he was convinced that He expressed these concerns in a letter to the then President of the United States, "Franklin D. Roosevelt (Franklin D. Roosevelt). The end result of Einstein's letter was the founding of the Manhattan Project, which eventually produced the atomic bombs against Japan at the end of world War II.

Although many famous physicists worked on the Manhattan Project, Einstein was not among them. According to the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH), he was denied a security clearance because of his leftist political views. But it was not a big loss for Einstein, his only concern was to prevent the monopoly of technology for the Nazis.

In a 1947 interview with Newsweek, Einstein emphasized: I have never tried in this field. "

7. Gravitational waves

BingMag.com 7 <b>contexts</b> <b>through</b> <b>which</b> <b>Einstein</b> <b>changed</b> the world

Graphic design of gravitational waves
Credit: R. Hurt/Caltech-JPL

Einstein in 1955 He died, but his vast scientific legacy continues to make headlines even in the 21st century. This happened in February 2016 with the announcement of the discovery of "gravitational waves" (Gravitational Waves), another consequence of general relativity.

Gravitational waves are small shocks in the fabric of space Time is published, and although it is often said explicitly that Einstein predicted their existence, it was in fact his equations that made it possible to predict them.

Einstein never worked entirely on the fact that Are gravitational waves predicted or ruled out by his theory, and it took decades of research for astronomers to figure it out in any way.

(LIGO) in Hanford, Washington and Livingston, Louisiana. The discovery of gravitational waves, in addition to another victory for Einstein's theory of general relativity, has given astronomers new tools for observing the universe, including rare events such as the merger of black holes.

Photo by Albert Einstein Credit: HUJI p>


Source: Live Science

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