cancer; Definitions, basic concepts and common mistakes

It can be confidently claimed that one of the biggest concerns of scientists in the field of medical sciences is the treatment of cancer; Because cancer is not only limited to one nation, race and a specific region. Currently, mankind has made every effort to overcome this disease in any way possible. In a report, the International Institute for Cancer Research announced that more than 18 million cancer patients were diagnosed in 2020. Apart from the sad news, the number 18 million is a combination of both men and women. Having said that, it is interesting to know that men seem to be more prone to cancer than women. cancer; Definitions, basic concepts and common mistakes

It can be confidently claimed that one of the biggest concerns of scientists in the field of medical sciences is the treatment of cancer; Because cancer is not only limited to one nation, race and a specific region. Currently, mankind has made every effort to overcome this disease in any way possible. In a report, the International Institute for Cancer Research announced that more than 18 million cancer patients were diagnosed in 2020. Apart from the sad news, the number 18 million is a combination of both men and women. Having said that, it is interesting to know that men seem to be more prone to cancer than women.

Researchers all over the world are trying to prevent cancer. According to the statistics of the International Cancer Institute, nearly forty percent of cancer cases could be easily closed from the beginning by eliminating risk factors related to diet and physical activity, at the very beginning of diagnosis. However, reducing the incidence of cancer requires relative awareness at the community level by governments. What exactly causes a person to get cancer? Is it possible to stop the spread of the disease? Has a definitive cure for cancer finally been discovered? In this article, the answer to the questions that are stuck in your mind is going to be mentioned. Before providing the answers, it is better to first gain a better understanding of cancer and the processes that occur in the body. Cancer is derived from the Greek word Karkinos, which means crab. Since the appearance and shape of the causative agent plays an important role in naming most diseases, the word kanser, which means crab, is used to describe cancer. It means that the abnormal cells are attached to a part of the body tissue of the living organism, just like a crab. At least this is the description given by Hippocrates in ancient Greece about this fatal disease.

Cells normally and a normal routine must reproduce in the body of living organisms, whether human or other animals. The reproduction process is an extremely complex process and if there is an important disturbance in this process, it is possible to create abnormal cells. Fortunately, the body's immune system constantly fights with these cells and destroys them if necessary. Also, the human body system is set in such a way that if an abnormal cell is created, this group of cells will start the process of self-destruction through a series of molecular interactions. The process of self-destruction of cells due to various internal and external stimuli is called apoptosis. The beginning of the cancer scenario starts exactly from the point when the abnormal cell does not go through the process of apoptosis for some reason and the immune system of the body does not recognize this defect properly. Abnormal cells gradually multiply and produce similar samples in the desired location. A collection of abnormal cells that are almost similar to each other is called a tumor.

Types of cancer tumors

Cancer tumors are generally divided into two categories: benign tumor and malignant tumor. . In the benign type, tumor cells usually remain in the place where they are located and just continue to multiply. In order to remove benign tumors, the doctor can perform surgery to cut the tumor tissue from the site and remove it from the body. However, benign tumors, depending on environmental conditions and stress, find the power to turn into the second type, malignant tumors. Unlike the first type, malignant tumors do not reside in a specific location. These tumors, which have a much faster reproduction rate, migrate to other areas of the body. This aggressive behavior of malignant tumor cells is called metastasis. Cancer gradually spreads throughout the body's organs through the process of metastasis. Finally, the disorder in the organs reaches such an extent that if the person is not treated, he dies due to the failure of the vital organs of the body.

The speed of cancer disease progression; A very important challenge cancer; Definitions, basic concepts and common mistakes

Cancer can spread rapidly throughout a person's organs. In another scenario, the cancer slowly threatens the patient's health. Why do these things happen? The category of cancer progression is a controversial factor that has been well-known through research studies. Cancer progresses very quickly when tumor cell proliferation increases dramatically. When exposed to chemical factors such as tobacco, physical factors such as ultraviolet rays, and biological factors such as some important enzymes, the DNA of cells undergo changes and transformations, which ultimately increase the speed of DNA replication significantly more than before. On the other hand, the category of heredity has become extremely popular among scientists in the field of genetics. That is, if the speed of progress The cancer disease in the father or mother was extremely high, assuming that the child also gets the same cancer, it is not possible to see such a speed in this person.

With all these interpretations, even in the body The immune system of cancer patients is not useless and this device can still destroy some cancer cells. If cancer cells can be weakened by various drugs, it may be possible to stop the rapid progression of cancer. Therefore, the progression of cancer disease depends on external chemical and physical factors, genetics, and of course, treatment processes. Reducing the speed of cancer progression in the past was much more challenging; Because chemotherapy in its modern form has not become popular yet, and on the other hand, pharmacists have struggled to create a smart, powerful and at the same time less complicated chemical drug. Currently, it may not be possible to stop the progress of cancer completely, but the treating doctors have the power to give the patient more time to live by adopting an optimal treatment strategy.

Getting to know a few phrases Important about cancer

Several thousand words can be written about cancer and the mechanism of action of this disease. However, there are three important cancer terms that are often used in cancer reports to describe tumorous tissues in the body. It is necessary to mention that any changes that occur on the normal tissue do not necessarily mean that the cells become cancerous. For this reason, the transformed cells are not necessarily condemned to differentiate into cancer cells. divided and form a tissue. Although the cells most likely look normal under the microscope, such cells can later become cancerous; Because they suffer this fate under a series of conditions and factors such as continuous physical pressure.


Dysplasia is actually a more advanced type of hyperplasia. In dysplasia, the gathering of cells is seen, but the cells have an abnormal shape and appearance, and as a result, the desired tissue has a different shape under the microscope compared to the normal state. In short, we can also point out that the more abnormal the cells are, the more chances there are for cancer to form in these types of cells. Some types of dysplasia may need to be monitored and even treated in the worst case scenario. However, in most cases, dysplasia does not require a specific decision for treatment. One of the most common and common human dysplasias is black body moles, which are often found on the surface of human skin. Although black moles are usually harmless, unfortunately, in some people, they turn into malignant tumors called melanoma. In this case, the patient should think about treatment.


Carcinoma is the most advanced possible state compared to the two previously mentioned cases. Some researchers and experts consider carcinoma to be the zero stage of cancer. This is because the cells in this state are simply abnormal and show the simplest behavior of cancer. However, cells in the carcinoma setting usually do not invade adjacent tissues. If carcinoma is mentioned in a laboratory report, this phenomenon also requires serious treatment to prevent the emergence of a potential cancerous disease as soon as possible. src="" class="content-pics" alt=" cancer; Definitions, basic concepts and common mistakes" title=" cancer; Definitions, basic concepts and common mistakes" loading="lazy">

Since cancer is a disease with a very wide involvement in the body, a general grading is considered for the progress of the disease. This grading, which is known as Grade, makes treatment strategies with a better framework to be chosen by treating doctors. In this way, by identifying the patient's symptoms, the doctor first understands the grade of the cancer and then offers specific treatment methods to prevent the cancer from progressing as quickly as possible. It should be noted that almost all cancers go through the entire grading and finally become the most advanced possible state. If the cancer disease is exposed to too many stimuli, the cancer grade will go through quickly. If the patient complies as much as possible and proceeds according to the principles of treatment, the cancer disease will slowly progress from one grade to the next grade. Cancer is generally classified in 1+4 stages:

  • Grade zero: cannot be assessed and is considered the starting point of cell proliferation. Most researchers believe that this event should be considered in a separate stage; Because if the exact mechanism of cell proliferation is discovered, a new strategy will be used that may lead to the definitive treatment of cancer. Grade 1: Cancer cells are well differentiated and They can be seen under the microscope.
  • Grade 2: differentiation is done at a medium speed.
  • Grade 3: the course of differentiation cells strongly High
  • Grade 4: The rate of disease progression is rampant

Obviously, the higher the grade number, The patient's health also worsens. In other words, tumors in grade one are similar to normal and healthy body tissue. In grade 4, a tissue is formed in the body that is miles away from the normal shape of a cell.

Some tips and information that have spread wrongly about cancer disease

Since a definitive treatment for this important disease has not yet been discovered, many experts and non-experts turn to hypothesis-making and provide information to the public that is not scientifically correct and is only presented for other profit-seeking reasons. Below are some of the most common statements about cancer that are either completely wrong, or a scientific concept that has been misunderstood.

Having cancer equals certain death

The most important thing that is spread among people about cancer is the risk of certain death in case of cancer. The death of cancer patients in the United States has gradually decreased since 1990. If the patient goes to the doctor's office on his own, he can easily live for at least five years. Depending on the growth rate of malignant tumor cells in the body, it is possible to estimate how many years a person will be able to survive. For this reason, hearing the news of cancer does not mean a very quick and early death. Perhaps, the cancer has been identified in grade one and a longer life expectancy can be considered for the patient.

Consumption of sweets and chocolate makes the cancer worse

It was quickly spread in the real and virtual space that researchers found that cancer cells need more glucose than normal cells. No valid study has yet been conducted to consider moderate sugar consumption as a reason for more serious cancer. Therefore, if someone suggests to a cancer patient that he can beat his cancer if he follows a sugar-free diet, this is fundamentally wrong. The human body, especially the brain, needs glucose to perform various activities. If the consumption of sweets and chocolate is to the extent that the patient becomes obese and overweight, this is considered a dangerous risk factor that should be prevented. Otherwise, consuming a small amount of sweets and chocolates will not worsen the patient's condition.

Plant sugars cause cancer

Researchers have conducted research on sugars and plant sweeteners such as saccharin. . This category of substitutes, like other products on the market such as cyclamate, aspartame, sucralose and many others, are not harmful to human health, and no evidence of causing cancer in humans has yet been observed. However, cyclamate is the only substance that has not yet been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

Cancer is contagious

Cancer is similar to diseases. It is not infectious that can be transmitted from one person to another; Because a contaminated substance or particle is not thrown out of the patient's body and into the environment. Only in one contagion situation does a transplant occur in an operating room, and in this story, the donor is a cancer patient. In this case, it is possible that there are tumor cells in the organ tissue of the donor and transferring the organ to a non-cancerous patient will induce cancer in the body of the recipient. However, the chance of such an event is extremely low, and out of every 10,000 transplantation operations, only two cases may encounter such an unfortunate event. Also, most of the time, doctors prevent an organ transplant from a cancer patient in the first place because of such challenges. p> Until the writing of this article, an authentic and scientific study in this field has not reached the conclusion that thinking about good and positive things slows down the disease. However, strengthening such behavior in patients can significantly contribute to the social aspect of this group of patients; Because cancer patients over time sink into their lank and avoid the society. It has been observed that physical and morale-enhancing activities are useful for improving the mental state of patients. Having said that, there is no news of physical recovery by thinking about such things now.

Smartphones are carcinogenic

The statement that smartphones cause cancer is one of the It is the strangest and at the same time the most accepted sayings about this disease that have spread quickly in real and virtual space. Until now, a lot of research has been done on this topic and the researchers have all reached a single conclusion. Smartphones are not carcinogenic; Because the energy released from the devices has a low frequency and, consequently, it does not cause any serious and fatal damage to the genes of the cells. On the other hand, electric wires and magnetic energy do not play an important role in causing cancer; This is because the said energies are greatly weakened by objects and walls. The magnetic energy caused by electric wires also have a low frequency, which is not harmful to genes at all.

Products herbal; 100% and guaranteed treatment of cancer disease

Usually, there are many advertisements about the sale of herbal products on a daily basis. Some people believe that cancer can be easily cured by consuming some herbal compounds. Unfortunately, this approach is being accepted by many people in the society; Because this belief is planted in people's minds that herbal products do not have any side effects. If different plants can have complications. The most important side effects of herbal products are liver poisoning, which will occur in case of frequent and excessive consumption.

It is also necessary to mention this point, when the patient is undergoing chemotherapy or radiotherapy, the consumption of products A plant may interfere with this treatment process. Therefore, it is better for patients to talk to their doctor about this before consuming authentic herbal products, so that if there is no medical intervention, the desired herbal product can be consumed.

If someone in the family gets cancer. , so I will definitely get infected

Although heredity is one of the important components of cancer, this disease is not necessarily going to appear in the next generation; That is, if the mother gets cancer and dies, no cancer is going to occur in the next generation with 100% guarantee. It is interesting to know that usually five to ten percent of cancer patients are affected by this condition by the transmission of genetic mutations from their parents. This type of cancer is called hereditary. Most of the current cancers in the world are of the non-hereditary type.

Health products such as hair dyes and deodorants are carcinogenic

Currently, with the research done in this field, there is still evidence that Authentic health products have not been shown to be carcinogenic. Most of the chemicals in hair dyes and deodorants are not harmful to human health. Of course, there are still various discussions about hair color in scientific circles. Some people believe that if a person routinely faces hair color in large volume and size, the possibility of bladder cancer will increase in them. However, this issue still needs more research.

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