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The beating heart of the SLS rocket; Learn about NASA's new space engines

BingMag.com The <b>beating</b> <b>heart</b> of the <b>SLS</b> <b>rocket;</b> <b>Learn</b> <b>about</b> <b>NASA's</b> <b>new</b> <b>space</b> engines

Pride and BMW, no matter how different, are similar in one thing: generating propulsion by converting fuel into energy. This is not limited to cars and applies to more than half of the world's engines. Even NASA's SLS rocket follows one of these concepts as one of the largest space projects. The rocket and spacecraft, as part of NASA's Artemis project, will first take astronauts to the moon and then make it possible to conquer Mars and explore deep into space. A total of 55 engines will be used to launch to the moon, orbit it and return to Earth. Let us first agree on two concepts. The engine here is a propulsion system and the engine is a special type of engine that relies on moving parts such as pumps and valves.

These terms are used in rocket science to distinguish between two types of engines. : The first category of solid fuel engines without the need for moving parts and the second category of liquid fuel engines based on moving parts. Of course, even solid-fuel missiles may require some moving parts to guide the thrust.

The prototype SLS rocket, called Block 1, will participate in the first three Artemis missions. The 98-meter rocket weighs 2,000 tons and produces a staggering 8.8 million pounds at the time of launch with the help of four RS-25 engines and two solid fuel engines. To compare, 8 Iranian Simorgh satellite engines (4 ambassador type engines and 4 varnish engines with a common turbopump) produce 360,000 pounds of power at the moment of launch, which is approximately equivalent to 4% of SLS power.

BingMag.com The <b>beating</b> <b>heart</b> of the <b>SLS</b> <b>rocket;</b> <b>Learn</b> <b>about</b> <b>NASA's</b> <b>new</b> <b>space</b> engines

Different versions of SLS rocket

about 2 minutes after launch, boosters The first stage is detached from the rockets, and the RS-25 engines will continue to guide the mumps into orbit in the main stage. The conical nose is then released and the launch engine is switched on to disengage the flight cancellation system (LAS).

The launch cancellation system is a common solution for landing a manned spacecraft safely in critical situations. The system removes the astronauts' capsule from the rocket and returns it to Earth if necessary. Once the Orion moves to orbit, the system is no longer needed, and the Orion spacecraft can disassemble the system using engines installed in the service module developed by the European space Agency.

about 8 minutes After launching, the RS-25 engines are switched off and the focal stage of the SLS rocket is separated from the Orion spacecraft and the refrigeration propulsion unit (ICPS). The ICPS is powered by a smaller version of the RS-25 engine called the RL10. The engine is active for less than a minute and separates the Orion from the Earth's gravity by moving it toward the Moon. It will use 33 engines around the moon until it returns to Earth's atmosphere. The rocket propulsion system is designed in such a way that for special maneuvers it can be turned on in less than a second and in critical situations or special situations it can be activated for up to 10 minutes.

Service module at the moment of entering the Earth's atmosphere Will be separated from mumps. At this stage, it is very important to accurately position the crew module so that it is in the correct landing path and its heat shield is towards the ground. NASA uses 12 engines as control systems to ensure stable and accurate landing of the crew module.

Familiarity with spacecraft engines and SLS rockets

We have provided the engines and motors involved in the Artemes mission, but before that we need to know how to generate propulsion.

Most of us think that combustion in cars is limited to gasoline or gas, but these fuels are only They form part of the combustion equation. Combustion occurs when fuel combines with oxygen to produce the energy needed to move. Releases. When fuel and oxidant combine, they ignite in a chemical reaction, and hot gases, which expand rapidly, look for a way out. As a result of these gases, the propulsive force of the rocket is produced in the opposite direction.

SLS rocket: from launch to orbit around the moon

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2 solid fuel boosters, manufactured by Northrop Grumman (NOC)

Location : On either side of the SLS rocket focal stage

Type of fuel : Acrylonitrile polybutadiene (PBAN) solid fuel, ammonium perchlorate oxidizing agent

Combustion time : about 2 minutes

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Functionality : These two boosters provide more than 75% of the total thrust required for the initial launch. Each booster burns about 6 tons of fuel per second to generate 3.6 million pounds of power before detaching from the focal point of the missile.

Additional Information : Each The boosters are about 50 meters high and weigh 725 tons. The consistency of the solid fuel used in the five sections of these boosters is the same as that of a conventional cleaner.

2 booster combustion engines, manufactured by Northrop Grumman (NOC)>: On 5 parts of propellants in boosters

Type of fuel : Acrylonitrile polybutadiene (PBAN) solid fuel, oxidizing agent of ammonium perchlorate

Duration Combustion : Less than one second

Operation : These engines ignite solid fuel in boosters while launching.

4 RS-25 engines : Produced by Aerojet Rocketdyne

BingMag.com The <b>beating</b> <b>heart</b> of the <b>SLS</b> <b>rocket;</b> <b>Learn</b> <b>about</b> <b>NASA's</b> <b>new</b> <b>space</b> engines

RS-25 Engine

Location : SLS Rocket Focal Sub Stage

Fuel Type : Liquid Hydrogen, Liquid Oxygen Oxidizer

Combustion time : about 8 minutes

Operation : A total of 2 million pounds of propulsion for all 4 engines to overcome They produce gravity. engines burn more than 90,000 gallons of liquid hydrogen and oxygen per minute before separating the focal stage from ICPS and mumps. Gone and had 21 successful flights. Their current version will be upgraded to provide more power to the SLS. p>

Fuel Type : Liquid Hydrogen, Liquid Oxygen Oxidizer

Combustion Time : Between 1 and 20 Minutes

Function : The RL10 engine turns on twice during the refrigeration phase or ICPS. In the first combustion, it will place the Orion spacecraft in Earth orbit after separating the focal point, and in the second combustion, it will generate about 25,000 pounds of force to take the Orion spacecraft out of Earth orbit and place it in the orbit of the moon.

Additional Information : Subsequent versions of the SLS will use four RL10 engines to deliver Orion spacecraft, cargo, additional hardware, and logistics into space.

Orion spacecraft; Orbiting the Moon and Returning Home

BingMag.com The <b>beating</b> <b>heart</b> of the <b>SLS</b> <b>rocket;</b> <b>Learn</b> <b>about</b> <b>NASA's</b> <b>new</b> <b>space</b> engines

Launch Crash Launch Engine (LAS): Manufactured by Arujet Rocketine

Location : On LAS system turret

Fuel type : Polybutadiene solid fuel with terminal hydroxyl group (HTPB), Ammonium perchlorate oxidizing agent

Combustion time : about 1.5 seconds

Operation : Flight cancellation system designed for time There is a need to cancel the safe travel and landing of astronauts with Orion. After a while of launching, this system is not needed and it must be removed. The function of the launch engine is to provide the 40,000 force in critical situations to separate the LAS from the crew module.

Additional Information : The flight cancellation system has an engine but only an engine The launcher lights up during each mission. The cancellation and control motors of this system will not be turned on during the Artemis 1 mission.

Maneuvering System Engine (OMS-E); Manufactured by Arojet Rocketine

Location : Sub-service module

Fuel type : Liquid fuel monomethyl hydrazine (MMH), oxide agent Nitrogen Oxide (MON)

Combustion Duration : Less than one minute to more than 16 minutes

Operation : OMS - The main engine in the European service module, which provides the primary propulsion force for Orion space maneuvers around the moon. In addition to generating 5,000 pounds of power, the engine is equipped with the necessary equipment to steer the spacecraft, and in critical situations it can be counted on to return the spacecraft to Earth.

Additional Information : Engine The OMS-E is an open-source version of the previously used shuttle maneuvering system. It was involved in 19 shuttle launches between 1988 (STS-41G) and 2002 (STS-112). p> Location : Service sub-module in 4 sets of 2 numbers

Fuel type : Liquid fuel monomethyl hydrazine (MMH), nitric oxide oxidizing agent ( MON)

Ignition Duration : Less than one minute to 45 minutes

Operation : These engines provide the power needed They are fixed under the service module for precise guidance of the spacecraft as well as as support engines. Each engine produces 100 pounds of propulsion and helps steer the spacecraft in the desired direction by turning it on and off.

Location : Around the service module in 6 sets of 4 numbers

Fuel type : Hydromycin (MMH) monomeric liquid fuel, nitrogen oxide oxidizing agent (MON)

Ignition Duration : From one thousandth of a second to one hour

Operation : Each of these engines weighs 50 pounds They generate power and can be activated or deactivated individually, even for a thousand seconds, to steer the spacecraft in a specific direction or rotate it to the desired axis.

12 engines MR-104G Reaction Control System: Production By Arojet RocketDine

Location : Orion spacecraft rear panel in 6 sets of 2

Fuel type : Hydrazine liquid fuel p>

Ignition time : Between one and 50 seconds

Operation : This system guides the crew module after disconnecting from the service module, It is responsible for entering the Earth's atmosphere and landing in the ocean. Each of the engines produces 160 pounds of power and can be used to steer the heat shield in the right direction when landing, ensuring a safe landing.

Additional Information : These engines They are single-propellant propellants that, without the need for oxidizers and by passing hydrazine liquid fuel through the catalyst material, emit the hot gases needed to produce the propulsive force.

Other engines of the Orion spacecraft

BingMag.com The <b>beating</b> <b>heart</b> of the <b>SLS</b> <b>rocket;</b> <b>Learn</b> <b>about</b> <b>NASA's</b> <b>new</b> <b>space</b> engines

As we said, the flight cancellation system includes 2 additional engines that will not be activated in the first unmanned mission SLS and Orion. The following is a description of the specifications of this engine. Launching crew and engine

Fuel type : Polybutadiene solid fuel with end-hydroxyl group (HTPB), ammonium perchlorate oxidizing agent

Combustion time : about 3 seconds

Operation : In the event of an emergency on the launch pad or in flight, the engine is activated and generates 400,000 pounds of power to remove the crew capsule Rocket rotates.

Launch Control Engine Altitude Control: Manufactured by Northrop Grumman

Location : On the Cancellation Tower turret

Fuel Type : Polybutadiene solid fuel with terminal carboxyl group (HTPB), ammonium perchlorate oxidizing agent

Combustion time : about 30 seconds

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Function : At the same time as the emergency cancellation engine removes the spacecraft from the rocket, the altitude control engine is switched on and the mumps are switched on before activation. Wet rescue, placed at the right height and direction. The engine produces 7,000 pounds of power to propel the spacecraft. Are installed.

Other engines

In addition to what has been said so far, other engines are also involved in the Artemis mission. Although these motors, thrusters, and connectors are not the main propulsion of the SLS spacecraft, at different stages of the Artemis project they are involved in separating hardware such as focal point, boosters, nose, service module, and parachute cover. All of these elements are put into action in a precise and calculated timeline, sometimes up to a thousandth of a second, and then put aside until the Artemis project is finally implemented.

The first colored astronaut will be sent to the moon. The space agency's long-term research on the moon is to conduct extensive research on the moon and prepare for a trip to Mars. The Orion spacecraft and SLS rocket will be the basis for deep space exploration, along with the astronauts' landing system and a system called the Moon Gate.


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