2021 brought important historical discoveries and advances in human knowledge. From microscopic explorations to cosmic observations, they created valuable scientific moments whose effects will be seen more in the years to come. In this article, we take a look at the most important scientific discoveries of 2021.
Landmark on Mars
Graphic design of persistent astronaut and genius helicopter
Credit: Matthew Twombly
Two robotic probes landed on the surface of the Red Planet this year: NASA "Perseverance" astronaut and China's "Zhurong" astronaut. Both probes have an important goal in finding clues to life on the planet's past. Perseverance has passed the difficult stage of landing in the Martian atmosphere and on February 18 (March 1, 2016) placed its cycles on the dusty surface of Mars. The Chinese astronaut Jurong, who had been in orbit earlier than perseverance, followed suit a few months later, on May 14, marking China's first landing on another planet.
During the year By 2021, NASA will continue to go beyond human scientific and technological capabilities on Mars. On April 19, the Ingenuity helicopter, which landed on Mars in the belly of a rover, briefly floated in the Red Planet's dilute atmosphere, making history with the first controlled human flight to another world.The next day, one of the astronauts' scientific tools turned the carbon-rich atmosphere of Mars into oxygen for the first time, demonstrating a technology that could be used in the future to create fuel or breathable air for astronauts. Then in September, Perseverance collected the first samples of rock from Mars to be brought to Earth for study on a future mission. The first of these, according to Los Alamos National Laboratory's Nina Lanza, will change everything about Martian science.
- Hear the sound recorded from Mars; A New Dimension of the Red Planet for Humans
Expansion of Human Genealogy
Graphic Design of Discovered Skull
Credit: Matthew Twombly
A pair of fossils discovered adds more complexity to the intertwined branches of a tree Human genealogy is increasing. First, a very healthy skull found in China, hidden at the bottom of an abandoned well for nearly 90 years. scientific analyzes reported in June show that the skull, which is at least 146,000 years old and has a strange combination of ancient and modern features, belongs to a species that resembles us even more than Neanderthals.
Some researchers believe that this skull may represent a new species of human called "Homo longi" or "Dragon Man". But the study sparked controversy, and some scientists found strange similarities between the Dragon Man and the mysterious Denisovans, the sister group of the Neanderthals. In June, a separate team also discovered pieces of a The skull and jaw in Israel reported that it had a confusing combination of different features. These remains are about 140,000 to 120,000 years old, which means that they walked alongside wise humans, and as a collection of stone tools found near the site of the exploration shows, the two groups may have a common technology. Given the few remains found so far, the team decided not to name the new species for now. Nevertheless, both findings emphasize the astonishing diversity of our ancient relatives. /15305-4.jpg" alt="BingMag.com 21 important scientific findings of 2021" loading="lazy">
Crohn's vaccination in the US
Credit: Joe Raedle/Getty Images
"Liana "This confirmation brings us one step closer to reversing the epidemic in the United States," said Leana Wen, a professor of public health at George Washington University.
The vaccine should help reduce the anxiety of people who are hesitant to get the vaccine. They also anticipate that this will pave the way for companies and schools to determine vaccine-related instructions.
Completion of the human genome
Graphic design of human DNA
Credit: Matthew Twombly
More than two decades Earlier, scientists made a lot of noise by announcing the first draft of the human genome sequence. But that sequence was not yet complete, and even after years of trying to fill the gaps, about 8% of our genetic code was still unclear. In May, a team of 99 researchers compiled what they call the "first truly complete sequence" of the human genome, which contains 3.055 billion base pairs on 23 chromosomes.
This study, which has not yet been peer-reviewed, adds nearly 200 million bp and multiple modifications to previous genome analyzes. Including filling in the mysterious parts that are full of duplicates of genetic components. This research shows an important achievement, but there is still more work to be done. For example, scientists have yet to fully sequence the Y chromosome.
New clues about the first humans in the Americas
Footprints discovered in the United States as the first sign of
human presence on the continent
Credit: Dan Odess
Between 23,000 and 21,000 years ago, a teenager walked among the wet sand near the shores of an ancient lake in present-day White Sands National Park, New Mexico. With a fairly flat foot, it challenges challenging theories about when humans first entered the Americas. The works, described in the September issue of Science, date to a time when scientists thought high glaciers blocked human passage from Asia to the Americas.scientific controversy. They lived in North America 21,000 years ago, and perhaps long before that. "A discovery like this is very close to finding the original answer," said Ciprian Ardelean, an archaeologist at the University of Zakatkas in Mexico.
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Graphic design of the malaria-causing Anopheles mosquito
Credit: Matthew Twombly
The disease can lead to high fever and flu-like symptoms, which in some cases can lead to severe illness and death. In 2020, about 627,000 people died of malaria, nearly 80 percent of them children under the age of 5.
The newly approved vaccine, Mosquirix, in clinical trials 56% efficiency during one year. This means that it does not completely replace other preventive methods that reduce the possibility of mosquito bites, such as netting and spraying. But experts say the vaccine is a valuable tool to use alongside other methods to fight the deadly disease.
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The vaccination team arrived at the residence of a 73-year-old
Mexican woman who is unable to walk.
Credit: Rebecca Blackwell, AP
In December 2020, the much-anticipated moment finally arrived: the delivery of Covid-19 vaccines worldwide. This achievement paved the way for billions of people to be vaccinated in 2021. The Pfizer-Bionotec vaccine received the green light on December 2, 2020 in the United Kingdom, and this trend soon followed in the United States and other countries. The United States later issued emergency authorizations for other Covid-19 vaccines, including Moderna and Johnson & Johnson.
The scale and urgency of global vaccination campaigns is unprecedented. Vaccine delivery has been shown to be more complex than expected due to factors such as supply chain disruption and skepticism about the vaccine, as well as discussions about who should be vaccinated first and the emergence of new strains of the disease.
Graphic design of a black hole and a nearby neutron star
Credit: Matthew Twombly
One billion years A while ago, a black hole collided with the dense remnants of a dead star and emitted waves called gravitational waves into the space-time texture. In January 2020, scientists observed the effect of this extraordinary phenomenon. Ten days later, researchers detected a similar event elsewhere in space, and the results were published in the Astrophysical Journal Letters in June. Scientists first gravitational waves Detected in 2015 when two black holes collided at a distance of 1.3 billion light-years. They have since identified more than 50 collisions between pairs of black holes or star bodies called neutron stars. But as of this year, scientists had not yet confirmed the merger of a black hole and a neutron star. This new discovery will help astronomers learn more about some of the world's most energetic collisions.
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The oldest sequenced DNA
Mammoth Graphic Design
Credit: Matthew Twombly
Scientists announced in February that they were extracting information from mammoth genetics. Living more than a million years ago, they have sequenced the oldest religions. The previous record for the oldest sequenced DNA came from a 700,000-year-old horse fossil. Andrei Sher found in Siberia, mined. One of these teeth dates back to 800,000 to 500,000 years ago, while the other two teeth are between 1.2 and 1 million years old. This finding suggests that the right conditions may preserve even older genetic material. This discovery could help scientists better understand the evolutionary mysteries of the past.
Signs of planets outside our galaxy
A system of stars discovered outside the Milky Way galaxy and in
a vortex galaxy
Credit: Chandra X-Ray Observatory
- Scientists have probably found an alien world beyond the Milky Way
In 2012, astronomers recorded a strange event in this system . NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory recorded a sudden weakening of the X-rays. The scientists may point to a planet the size of Saturn, which, if confirmed by additional observations, would be the first planet to orbit stars outside our own Milky Way galaxy, according to scientists in the journal Nature Astronomy. "I am surprised by the fact that this extrasolar planet candidate is in another galaxy," said Rosanne Di Stefano, an astrophysicist at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics./p>
The Lost Golden City of Aqsar
Graphic design by Tutankhamun
Credit: Matthew Twombly
For thousands of years, the Egyptian sands hid the 3,400-year-old metropolis built by Tutankhamun's grandfather, Amenhotep III. But in September 2020, archaeologists discovered a series of winding streets and buildings west of present-day Luxor in Egypt. The find, announced in April this year, looks at a mysterious change in the history of ancient Egypt. He transformed himself into only one god, the sun god. He left Thebes, the capital at the time. It housed a new metropolis called the Lost Golden City of Aqsa. it shows. "This is a photograph from time to time, and it's an Egyptian version of Pompeii (an ancient city near Naples, Italy)," said archaeologist Salima Ikram, who heads the Egyptology department at Cairo American University.
G2 myon ring
Credit: Reidar Hahn, Fermilab
It seems that a subatomic particle is in particular activity. In an important experiment called the Muon g-2 experiment, scientists found evidence that a muon, which is a heavier particle than an electron, is apparently one of the well-known laws of physics in a widely accepted theory called The standard model is defined, it defies.
This experiment, conducted at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Illinois, measured vibrations in spin muons, which are predicted with extraordinary accuracy by the standard model. But analysis in April, along with previous work from Brooklyn National Laboratory in Upton, New York, showed that the muon was shaking slightly faster than expected. The probability that the data from both experiments are random is approximately 1 in 40,000, indicating that there may still be undiscovered particles and forces in the universe. The team is currently working to validate the results, analyzing data from the other two periods of the experiment.
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The first image of the PDS 70 system tablet
Credit: ALMA (ESO/NAOJ/NRAO)/Benisty et al
In a young star system about 400 light-years away, a hazy disk orbits a giant gas planet and may contain forming moons. The new discovery, made in July, is the first clear look at the ring of ice and rock that moons can form and is known as a planetary disk.
The star system that this lunar disk is It was found to host two planets that are still in their infancy and formed only 6 million years ago. This finding gives scientists a rare glimpse into the early formation of other worlds, and promises further findings on how moons formed across the galaxy.
- For the first time Lunar formation observed on extrasolar planets
Winged petrusor discovered by police
Fossils found in limestone blocks
Credit: Victor Beccari
Brazilian police in 2013 discovered thousands of limestone slabs that smugglers intended They were about to leave the country, he discovered a fossil warehouse. The boulders were filled with traces of extinct creatures that lived millions of years ago, but one of them caught the attention of scientists in particular: a prominent winged reptile with a bird-like beak and a pointed protrusion on its head.>
According to a study published in PLOS One in August, this fossil is the first almost complete skeleton of the pupae species Tupandactylus navigans about 11 million years ago. It flew in the sky.
The fossil not only contains some soft tissues, but most of the bones are arranged as they were during its lifetime. "Such findings are very rare and like winning a lottery," said Fabiana Rodrigues Costa, author of the study from ABC Federal University in Sao Paulo, Brazil.
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Source: National GeographicTags: important, scientific, findings, 2021