preeclampsia is the most common complication of pregnancy and causes a sudden rise in blood pressure. This condition, also known as "pregnancy poisoning", can affect organs such as the liver and kidneys due to blood clots. In general, this complication occurs in the third trimester of pregnancy and affects approximately 1 in 25 pregnant women.
Pregnancy poisoning, if left untreated, can lead to serious and fatal complications. In some people, preeclampsia causes seizures, coma and even death due to becoming "eclampsia". Pregnancy care and regular visits to a gynecologist play an important role in maintaining maternal and fetal health, controlling preeclampsia and preventing eclampsia. Read on to find out more about this common complication.
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Symptoms of preeclampsia
Pregnancy poisoning may be asymptomatic at first. However, common symptoms include: urinary protein excretion
- Shortness of breath
- Pain in the upper abdomen, usually under the ribs on the right
- Rapid weight gain that results from Fluid accumulation occurs in the body
- Nausea and vomiting in the second half of pregnancy
- Decreased urine volume
- Decreased number of platelets in the blood (cells that clot in the blood Are involved)
- Liver dysfunction
Pregnant women should see an emergency room immediately if they notice any of these symptoms. Although some people may develop high blood pressure during pregnancy, this does not necessarily mean that they have pregnancy poisoning. preeclampsia is confirmed when, in addition to high blood pressure, the mother experiences at least one of the above symptoms. As preeclampsia progresses, the mother may experience fluid retention and swelling in the arms, legs, ankles, and face. Swelling or edema is a common occurrence during pregnancy, especially in the third trimester. And it often occurs in the lower parts of the body such as the ankles and feet. Symptoms of normal edema from pregnancy are milder in the early morning and increase throughout the day. But in people with gestational poisoning, the edema occurs suddenly and is much more severe. preeclampsia can restrict fetal growth due to reduced blood flow to the placenta.
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Experts do not know exactly why pregnancy poisoning occurs. Most of them believe that this complication is caused by a problem in the placenta. Because the blood vessels of the placenta respond differently to hormonal signals, they also restrict blood flow because they are narrower than normal. The cause of these changes in blood vessels is not known, but the following factors appear to be involved:
- Damage to blood vessels
- Decreased blood flow to the uterus Immune System Problems
Genetic Risk Factors Risk Factors Related to Pregnancy Poisoning
- First pregnancy: The risk of preeclampsia in the first pregnancy is significantly higher than in subsequent pregnancies.
- Family history: A person whose mother or Her sister has been diagnosed with pregnancy poisoning and is more prone to it.
- Personal history of preeclampsia: A person who contracted pregnancy poisoning during their first pregnancy It is also likely to occur in later pregnancies.
- Some diseases: People with diabetes, chronic hypertension, autoimmune diseases and kidney disease are more likely to have Others are at risk for preeclampsia.
- Obesity: Prevalence of pregnancy poisoning among obese people It is much higher.
- Multiple pregnancies: If a mother is pregnant with two or more fetuses at the same time, the risk of pregnancy poisoning increases.
Complications of preeclampsia
Untreated preeclampsia can lead to serious complications. If the symptoms of pregnancy poisoning are detected early, it may be possible to prevent complications. Early diagnosis of this complication is possible by regular visits to the doctor during pregnancy. However, if the disease is not diagnosed for some reason, the risks and complications increase significantly. Pregnancy poisoning may be associated with the following complications:
Hemolysis Syndrome, Increased Liver Enzymes, and Decreased Blood Platelets (HELLP)
Help syndrome can quickly put a pregnant mother and her fetus at risk. This syndrome often occurs immediately after delivery, but it can occur after the 20th week of pregnancy. Rarely, Help syndrome may develop before the twentieth week. Childbirth is the only way to cure this problem.
2. Decreased blood flow to the placenta
If blood flow to the placenta is restricted, the fetus may not receive oxygen and nutrients, which can lead to growth retardation, respiratory problems, and preterm labor.
3. Placental abruption
In this condition, the placenta separates from the inner wall of the uterus. In severe cases, there may be heavy bleeding that can damage the placenta. Any damage to the placenta puts the life of the fetus and the pregnant mother at risk.
This complication is a combination of preeclampsia and seizures. Pregnant women may experience symptoms such as pain below the ribs (right side of the body), severe headache, blurred vision, dizziness, and loss of consciousness. If left untreated, the mother is exposed to coma, permanent brain damage and death. This condition is also dangerous for the fetus. preeclampsia can have long-term complications for a growing child. Research shows that high blood pressure in pregnant women may affect a baby's cognitive skills. Diagnosis of preeclampsia img src=https://bingmag.com/picsbody/2112/31/15545 5.jpg ">
Measuring blood pressure is an important part of prenatal care. Because its increase is usually the first sign of pregnancy poisoning. During pregnancy, blood pressure measured twice four hours apart, both times above 90/140 mm Hg, is considered abnormal and needs to be monitored.
In order for a doctor to diagnose preeclampsia A pregnant woman should have high blood pressure and at least one other related symptom, such as low platelets or liver dysfunction. In addition to measuring your blood pressure, your doctor may order the following diagnostic tests:
- Blood test: This test looks at your kidneys and liver, as well as how your blood clots.
- Fetal ultrasound: The doctor will closely monitor the fetus to make sure it is growing properly.
- Stress-free test ( NST): is a simple
diagnostic procedure in which a doctor examines how the
fetus's heartbeat responds as it moves. Normally, the fetal heart
rate should increase by at least 15 beats twice every 20 minutes
for at least 15 beats. Childbirth improves. Unless the mother's
blood pressure drops, there is a risk of stroke, severe bleeding,
placental abruption, and seizures. In some cases, especially if
preeclampsia develops early in pregnancy, preterm labor may
not be a good option for the baby's health.
See a doctor during pregnancy. Your doctor may recommend the following medications:
- Antihypertensive drugs: help lower blood pressure.
- Anticonvulsants: In severe cases, doctors use these drugs to prevent seizures. In addition, they may prescribe magnesium sulfate.
- Corticosteroids (corticosteroids): If the mother has preeclampsia or Help syndrome, these drugs can help the fetus's lungs develop and become ready. To help with preterm labor.
preeclampsia are mild, your doctor may recommend that you rest in bed. Rest helps lower blood pressure and increase placental blood flow.
Doctors may advise some people to lie in bed and sit or stand only when needed. But some women are allowed to sit on a chair, sofa, or bed, but their physical activity should be severely restricted.
During this time, urine tests and blood pressure should be measured regularly. In addition, the doctor should closely monitor the condition of the fetus. In severe cases, the mother needs to be hospitalized.
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Induction of laborpreeclampsia should go away within a few weeks after giving birth.
After giving birth
In rare cases, a person may have high blood pressure after giving birth. This condition, known as postpartum preeclampsia, can occur between a few days and a few weeks after delivery. High blood pressure and protein excretion in the urine are the main symptoms of this complication. Other symptoms of pregnancy poisoning, such as severe headaches and swelling of the face, may also occur. Postpartum preeclampsia is easily treated with blood pressure medications. Your doctor will prescribe medications that do not affect breastfeeding.
Prevention of preeclampsia
Pregnancy poisoning is not completely preventable, but you can control the factors that affect blood pressure by following these tips:
- Drink between 6 and 8 glasses of water every day.
- Avoid fried or highly processed foods.
- Reduce salt intake.
- Avoid alcohol and caffeine.
- Under the supervision of a doctor Exercise regularly.
- Keep your legs up several times a day.
These tips can help maintain pressure. Help keep blood in a healthy range and reduce the risk of preeclampsia. Pregnant women should follow their doctor's advice about diet and exercise.
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Concluding remarkspreeclampsia is a complication of pregnancy in which people suddenly have high blood pressure. This complication usually occurs in the third trimester of pregnancy. Pregnancy poisoning is not completely preventable, but regular visits to your doctor during pregnancy can help diagnose it early. Reducing the consumption of highly processed foods and choosing fruits and vegetables will help maintain the health of the pregnant mother and her fetus.
If you experience problems such as severe headaches, blurred vision, severe abdominal pain or severe shortness of breath during pregnancy Severe, call your doctor immediately or go to the emergency room. Because headaches, nausea, and pain are common complaints of pregnancy, it is difficult to tell when these symptoms indicate a serious illness, especially if you are pregnant for the first time. Therefore, if you are worried about your symptoms, be sure to talk to your doctor about them.This is for educational and informational purposes only. Be sure to consult a specialist before using the recommendations in this article. For more information, read the Digitica Magazine Disclaimer .
Source: medicalnewstodayTags: what, preeclampsia, how, does, occur?