What is IVF or artificial insemination, how is it done and what are the risks?

IVF or artificial insemination is a type of assisted reproductive technology (IVF) used to solve the problem of infertility. During IVF, mature eggs are collected from the ovaries and fertilized by sperm in the laboratory. The fertilized egg (embryo or embryo) is then frozen for preservation or transferred to the mother's womb.

BingMag.com What is IVF or artificial insemination, how is it done and what are the risks?

IVF or artificial insemination is a type of assisted reproductive technology (IVF) used to solve the problem of infertility. During IVF, mature eggs are collected from the ovaries and fertilized by sperm in the laboratory. The fertilized egg (embryo or embryo) is then frozen for preservation or transferred to the mother's womb.

IVF or artificial insemination can be done using the couples' own eggs and sperm or donated eggs, sperm or embryos. In some cases, an embryo carrier (surrogate or surrogate) may be used for this. The chance of having a healthy child using IVF depends on many factors such as the age of the mother and the cause of infertility. To learn more about this treatment method, stay with us until the end of this article.

What is the reason for doing IVF or artificial insemination?

IVF helps infertile people who want to have children. . But because it's expensive and invasive, most couples first try other fertility treatments, such as intrauterine insemination (putting sperm directly into the uterus). Sometimes, IVF is recommended as a primary treatment for women over 40. If you or your partner have one of the following problems, you can use this method:

  • Reduced fertility in women over 40
  • Damage of fallopian tubes or their blockage
  • Ovulation disorders
  • Endometriosis (tissue similar to the lining of the uterus grows outside of it and affects the functioning of the ovaries, uterus and fallopian tubes)
  • Fibroids or Uterine fibroids (benign tumors that are common in women aged 30 to 40)
  • Sterilization or removal of the fallopian tubes
  • Low sperm count, poor sperm motility and abnormalities in sperm shape and size
  • Infertility with unknown causes

If there is a possibility of passing a genetic disorder from parents to children, IVF may be recommended. In this situation, the embryo is checked for genetic abnormalities before it is placed in the mother's womb.

Women who have to undergo chemotherapy or radiation therapy due to cancer are another group that uses IVF. they do. These treatment methods damage fertility, as a result, IVF is performed as an option to preserve fertility. These women can have eggs removed from their ovaries and frozen in an unfertilized state or as embryos.

Women for whom pregnancy is dangerous or do not have a uterus can perform IVF using another person to carry the embryos. In this case, the woman's eggs are fertilized with sperm, but the resulting embryo is placed in the uterus of another woman.

What are the risks and complications of artificial insemination?

BingMag.com What is IVF or artificial insemination, how is it done and what are the risks?

Dangers of IVF or artificial insemination are:

  • Multiple births: If more than one embryo is transferred In utero, IVF increases the risk of multiple births, which is associated with preterm birth and low birth weight. Preterm birth and low birth weight: IVF increases the risk of preterm birth or It slightly increases low weight.
  • Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome: The use of injectable drugs, such as human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG), to stimulate ovulation can cause swelling and pain in the ovaries. to be Rarely, a more severe form of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome may develop, characterized by rapid weight gain and shortness of breath.
  • Miscarriage: The miscarriage rate for women with Using IVF to get pregnant is similar to other women, but this rate increases with the age of the mother.
  • Complications of the egg retrieval method: Using an aspiration needle to collect eggs may cause Bleeding, infection or damage to the intestines, bladder and blood vessels. Also, the use of sedation and general anesthesia brings risks.
  • Ectopic pregnancy: About 2 to 5% of women who use IVF will have an ectopic pregnancy. In this case, there is no way to continue the pregnancy.
  • Congenital defects: Regardless of the method of conception, the age of the mother is the most important risk factor in the development of birth defects. . More research is needed to determine whether IVF increases the risk of birth defects.
  • Cancer: Although some early studies have shown that there may be an interaction between certain drugs that are used to stimulate egg growth and have been linked to a certain type of ovarian tumor, but more recent studies do not support these findings.
  • Stress: IVF can be financially, physically and stress people emotionally.

How do I prepare for IVF or artificial insemination?

Before starting an IVF cycle, you and your partner will likely need various screenings. You will have, including:

  • Ovarian reserve testing to determine the quantity and quality of eggs. You
  • Semen analysis
  • Screening for infectious diseases such as HIV
  • Embryo transfer practice (may be the doctor to determine the depth of the uterine cavity and the proper technique to place the embryo in inside it, perform a mock embryo transfer)
  • Uterus examination

Ask your doctor questions before starting an IVF cycle. The most important questions to consider are:

How many embryos will be transferred?

BingMag.com What is IVF or artificial insemination, how is it done and what are the risks?

What will you do with the extra embryos?

Extra embryos can be frozen and stored for several years. Most of them survive the freezing and thawing process. Having frozen embryos makes future IVF or artificial insemination cycles less expensive and easier. You can also donate them to another couple or a research center.

How can you reduce the risk of multiple pregnancy?

If more than one embryo is transferred to your uterus, IVF It can lead to multiple pregnancy, which poses health risks to you and your baby. In some cases, fetal reduction can prevent these risks. However, this is an important decision with moral, emotional and psychological consequences.

How is artificial insemination done?

IVF consists of several stages and one cycle can take about 2 It will take up to 3 weeks. Sometimes, more than one cycle may be needed.

Ovulation stimulation

At the beginning of an IVF cycle, the ovaries are stimulated using synthetic hormones to produce several eggs. Normally, only one egg is produced each month, but in IVF, several eggs are needed, because some eggs do not fertilize or develop normally after fertilization.

Usually before the eggs are retrieved To prepare, 1 to 2 weeks are needed for ovarian stimulation. During this stage, several different medications are used to stimulate the ovaries, help the eggs mature, and prevent premature ovulation.

Sometimes, it is necessary to stop the IVF cycle before egg retrieval for one of the following reasons

  • Insufficient number of developing follicles
  • Premature ovulation
  • Overgrowth of follicles that increases the risk of Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome
  • Other medical problems

If the IVF or artificial insemination cycle is stopped, the doctor may recommend changing the drugs or their dosage to achieve success in future cycles or use suggest egg donation.

egg retrieval

BingMag.com What is IVF or artificial insemination, how is it done and what are the risks?

34 to 36 hours later From the injection of the last drug and before ovulation, egg retrieval can be done in the doctor's office or clinic. During the retrieval, you will be given painkillers and painkillers.

Transvaginal ultrasound aspiration is the usual method of egg retrieval. An ultrasound probe is placed inside the vagina to identify the follicles. Then, with the help of ultrasound, a thin needle is passed through the vagina to reach the follicles to collect the eggs. If access to the ovaries is not possible via transvaginal ultrasound, abdominal ultrasound may be used to guide the needle.

The eggs are removed from the follicles through a needle attached to a suction device. In 20 minutes, several eggs can be separated from the follicle. Mature eggs are placed in a nutrient liquid (culture medium) and then in an incubator. Eggs that look healthy and mature fuse with sperm to create an embryo. However, not all eggs may be successfully fertilized.

Sperm retrieval

If it is possible to use your partner's sperm, a semen sample should be taken on the morning of the egg retrieval. To be taken in the office or clinic. Otherwise, donated sperm can be used.

Fertilization

Fertilization can be done using two common methods: conventional insemination and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). In normal insemination, healthy sperm and mature egg are placed in close proximity to each other to fuse together. But in ICSI, a healthy sperm is injected directly into a mature egg. ICSI is often used when the quality of the semen is not suitable or fertilization attempts have failed in previous IVF cycles. The picture below shows the photo of artificial insemination by ICSI method. Embryo transfer is done 2 to 5 days after egg retrieval. In certain circumstances, your doctor may recommend other procedures, such as genetic testing, before the embryo transfer.

Usually, the embryo transfer is painless, but you may experience mild cramping. The doctor inserts a long, thin and flexible tube called a catheter into the vagina, cervix and then the uterus. A syringe containing the embryo floating in a small amount of liquid is attached to the end of the catheter. The doctor places the fetus in the uterus using a syringe. In case of If this process is successful, about 6 to 10 days after egg retrieval, the embryo will implant in the uterine wall.

After IVF or artificial insemination

After the embryo transfer, you can carry out normal daily activities. Resume yourself, but you should avoid vigorous activity. Women undergoing IVF may experience the following side effects:

  • Discharge of a small amount of clear or bloody fluid shortly after IVF
  • Breast tenderness due to increased estrogen
  • Mild bloating
  • Mild cramps
  • Constipation

If you experience moderate or severe pain after embryo transfer, Contact your doctor. He will evaluate you for complications such as infection, ovarian torsion, and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome.

What is the result of IVF or artificial insemination?

BingMag.com What is IVF or artificial insemination, how is it done and what are the risks?

About 12 days to 2 weeks after egg retrieval, your doctor will test a sample of your blood to determine if you are pregnant. If you are pregnant, you should start prenatal care under the supervision of a gynecologist. Otherwise, you'll stop taking progesterone and probably get your period within a week. If you do not have a period or have unusual bleeding, call your doctor. If you are interested in doing another cycle of IVF, your doctor will likely recommend measures to increase your chances of getting pregnant.

The chances of having a healthy baby through IVF depend on several factors, including:

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  • Age of the mother: The younger you are, the more likely you are to get pregnant and give birth to a healthy baby using your own eggs during IVF. Women age 41 and older are often advised to use donor eggs.
  • Fetal status: Chances of getting pregnant with more developed embryos, compared to two or three embryos. Fasting is higher.
  • Fertility history: Women who have given birth before are more likely to get pregnant using IVF than women who have never given birth. The chance of success is lower for women who have used IVF several times before but have not conceived.
  • Cause of infertility: The chance of success of IVF for women with severe endometriosis is higher than for women who do not. Infertility of unknown cause is less. Lifestyle: Smoking reduces the chance of IVF success by 50%. Obesity, use of alcohol, excessive intake of caffeine and use of some drugs can also be harmful.

How much does artificial insemination cost in Iran?

Cost and price Artificial insemination is variable and depends on many factors, including the medications taken, the clinic where the IVF is performed, and the number of IVF treatments. Couples who need genetic testing or have to use an embryo carrier (surrogate) pay more.

Final Word

Deciding whether to undergo IVF or artificial insemination is difficult and complicated. , because you have to consider the cost required for doing IVF as well as its physical and emotional effects. Consult your doctor in detail to determine what is the best option for you and whether artificial insemination is the right path for you.

This article is for educational and informational purposes only. Before using the recommendations of this article, be sure to consult a specialist doctor. For more information, read BingMag Disclaimer.

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