In this article from BingMag Meg, we will provide you with complete information about gastric polyps, their symptoms, causes, how to diagnose and treat it. We also talk about the differences between different types of polyps and their association with gastric cancer. Stay with us.
Types of gastric polyps
Stomach is an important and complex organ that digests and breaks down the food we eat. The stomach produces acid for this purpose and protects itself against acid by secreting mucus.
Polyps can form in different parts of the stomach. But they are more likely to occur in the upper part of the stomach. Most gastric polyps are less than 2 cm long and benign. In other words, they are not cancerous. 2 to 6% of people who undergo endoscopy have gastric polyps. However, this percentage may vary from normal to normal. Endoscopy is a procedure in which a flexible tube with a camera at the end is inserted into the stomach through the mouth.
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There are several types of gastric polyps that affect your stomach in different ways. In general, gastric polyps are divided into two categories: non-neoplastic (benign or noncancerous) and neoplastic (prone to cancer). In this classification, epithelial polyps are the most common type of gastric polyp. Epithelial polyps include hyperplastic polyps (GHPs), fundic glandular polyps (FGPs), and adenomatous polyps. 37-77% are FGP and 0-1.5% are adenomatous. Although most gastric polyps are harmless, some of them are caused by the presence of cancer cells. These types of polyps make up about 1-2% of the polyps that doctors see during endoscopy.
Fundic glandular polyps
Fundic gland polyps are the most common type of gastric polyp that develops in the fundus or upper part of the stomach. These types of polyps are formed due to the dilation of cells that produce stomach acid. When fundic glandular polyps are found during endoscopy, a few of them are usually seen as small, smooth bumps.
Fundic glandular polyps rarely become cancerous. The development of these polyps is often associated with the use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). In these cases, your doctor may advise you to stop taking the medicine. The function of PPIs such as omeprazole and pantoprazole is to suppress gastric acid production. These drugs are prescribed to patients with acid reflux (return of stomach acid to the esophagus). Hyperplastic polyps of the stomach They are found all over the stomach. These polyps are also found near stomach ulcers. Hyperplastic polyps occur when the stomach produces a large number of mucus-secreting cells. Gastric hyperplastic polyps are strongly associated with disorders that cause inflammation or irritation of the stomach. These disorders include chronic gastritis (chronic gastritis), Helicobacter pylori gastritis (inflammation of the stomach caused by H. pylori), and Pernicious Anemia. Pernicious anemia occurs when the body is unable to absorb vitamin B12 and therefore the number of red blood cells decreases.
If H. pylori is present in the stomach and is successfully treated, hyperplastic polyps in Most patients recover. The risk of developing hyperplastic polyps is low, but it can increase the risk of cancer of the stomach wall, especially in patients with chronic gastritis. For this reason, your doctor may take samples from around the polyp.
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Adenomatous polyps are the most common type of neoplastic polyps and are found in the antrum of the stomach (lower stomach). These polyps are usually the beginning of stomach cancer. Adenomatous polyps increase the risk of cancer in the bowel or other parts of the body. Because of the increased risk of cancer, all adenomatous polyps must be removed, which is usually done by endoscopy. If you have a lot of these polyps or the cancer has started to spread, your doctor will recommend surgery.
Symptoms of gastric polyp
Most gastric polyps are asymptomatic. They may be found during the examination of the patient due to other stomach problems. However, when a polyp causes symptoms, you may notice the following symptoms:
- Gastric acid reflux
- Heartburn Heart
- Stomach ache
- Feeling full quickly
- Gastrointestinal bleeding
- Iron deficiency >
Be sure to consult your doctor if you notice any of the above symptoms. Large polyps may cause internal bleeding or abdominal pain. If internal bleeding continues, the patient will develop anemia (iron deficiency). Sometimes, polyps block the connection between the stomach and the intestines.
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Causes of gastric polyps
Researchers do not know the exact cause of polyps. Different types of gastric polyps can occur for different reasons. For example, evidence suggests that hyperplastic polyps may be due to chronic gastritis. However, the exact mechanism of this connection is not known.
Researchers believe that fundic gland polyps form when something forces the stomach to produce less acid. The theory is that FGP is more common in people who regularly take proton pump inhibitors. Risk factors for gastric polyp
Not only is the cause of gastric polyps unknown, but its risk factors are also unknown. Elderly people are more likely to develop gastric polyps than younger people, according to researchers. Statistics show that the prevalence of fundic glandular polyps is higher among women and the prevalence of adenomatous polyps is higher among men. There may be other risk factors for gastric polyps. For example, in 2018, researchers identified the following as risk factors for gastric polyps:
- Age 45 to 60 years
- Lack of regular physical activity
However, it is said that this study has several limitations and more research is needed on this issue. p>
Diagnosis of gastric polyps
It may be difficult to diagnose polyps in the stomach. Because many of these polyps are asymptomatic, doctors diagnose more than 90% of them for other reasons during endoscopy. In addition, most gastric polyps are small in size. For this reason, most are not detected by CT scan or MRI scan.
Doctors are unable to diagnose the type of polyp in the stomach using endoscopy. To determine the type of polyp, a portion of it must be sampled and sent to a laboratory for further evaluation.
Treatment of gastric polyp
If the polyp is asymptomatic and noncancerous, it may not require any special treatment. Occasionally, doctors recommend removing large gastric polyps that may be cancerous. However, they refuse to remove smaller stomach polyps. Because this can lead to unwanted side effects such as bleeding.
Other methods can be used to treat gastric polyps. For example, Helicobacter pylori infection causes chronic inflammation of the stomach, which can lead to hyperplastic polyps. In about 70% of cases, people with GHP find that their gastric polyps go away after treatment for the infection. Affect these types of polyps. There is some evidence that certain dietary patterns can reduce gastric acid secretion. However, there is no research to show that nutritional interventions are safe and effective in treating gastric polyps. Gastric polyp, your doctor may recommend another endoscopy within 1 year to find any new polyps. In patients with cancerous polyps, follow-up should be performed every 6 months for the first 3 years.
If there is a family history of gastric cancer, it is best to have regular (every 1 or 2 Once a year) endoscopy. For patients under the age of 40 who have multiple polyps, your doctor may recommend a colon examination in addition to the stomach. 15 Strange Antioxidant Properties and 11 Foods Rich in Them li>
In most cases, gastric polyps are asymptomatic. Therefore, many sufferers are unaware that they are present in their stomach. If doctors notice small polyps during endoscopy, they may not recommend removing them. However, sometimes more tests are needed to confirm that the polyp is benign.This is for educational and informational purposes only. Be sure to consult a specialist before using the recommendations in this article. For more information, read the Digitica Magazine Disclaimer .
Sources: medicalnewstoday, my.clevelandclinic