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What are the symptoms of high blood calcium and what is the effect on health?

The term hypercalcemia refers to an increase in blood calcium and is usually the result of overactive parathyroid glands. Other possible causes of this problem include an overdose of vitamin D, the use of certain medications, and certain underlying diseases such as cancer. calcium is an essential mineral that the body needs to perform many of its functions. It needs. This nutrient helps build strong bones and teeth, while maintaining healthy muscles, nerves and heart. Just as calcium depletion in the body is harmful to health, too much of it can be problematic, causing bone loss, kidney stones, and heart and brain dysfunction.

We will examine the symptoms, causes and complications of hypercalcemia and explain how to diagnose and treat it by a doctor. Follow us to the end of this article.

What is hypercalcemia?

The parathyroid glands are responsible for controlling blood calcium levels. These four small glands are located behind the thyroid gland and secrete parathyroid hormone (PTH) when the body needs calcium. The secretion of this hormone sends a message to the following organs:

  • Bones to release calcium into the blood
  • Kidneys to reduce urinary calcium excretion
  • Kidneys To activate vitamin D so that the digestive system can absorb more calcium

PTH helps the body control the amount of calcium that enters the bloodstream from the intestines, kidneys and bones. PTH usually increases when blood calcium levels fall and decreases when calcium levels rise.

Overactive parathyroid glands or an underlying disease can upset the calcium balance. If the calcium level is too high, the doctor will diagnose the person with hypercalcemia. This condition disrupts the body's functions and leads to the following problems:

  • Negative effect on bone health
  • Pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas)
  • Stone Kidney
  • Abnormal heart and brain function

Extremely high blood calcium levels can be dangerous.

symptoms of high blood calcium

  • Excessive thirst and frequent urination: Increased blood calcium increases kidney function. As a result, a person may have frequent urination, which can lead to dehydration and increased thirst.
  • Stomach pain and digestive problems: high blood calcium can upset the stomach Abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and constipation.
  • Bone pain and muscle weakness: Hypercalcemia causes bones to release too much calcium. Abnormal bone activity leads to muscle pain and weakness.
  • Confusion, lethargy, and fatigue: Excess calcium in the blood affects the brain and causes these symptoms. Anxiety and depression: Hypercalcemia may affect mental health. high blood pressure and abnormal heart rhythm: high levels calcium can raise blood pressure and lead to electrical abnormalities that change the heart rhythm and put pressure on it.

Causes of hypercalcemia

Various underlying diseases And other factors can increase blood calcium, including:

1. Hyperthyroidism

The parathyroid glands control blood calcium levels. Therefore, increasing their activity causes hypercalcemia. Enlargement of these glands or the formation of non-cancerous masses in them increases their activity.

Overactive parathyroid glands, called hyperparathyroidism, are the most common cause of hypercalcemia. Doctors usually diagnose hyperthyroidism in people in their 50s and 60s. This problem is three to four times more common in women than men.

2. Excessive increase in vitamin D

BingMag.com <b>What</b> are the <b>symptoms</b> of <b>high</b> <b>blood</b> <b>calcium</b> and <b>What</b> is the <b>effect</b> on health? Vitamin D absorbs calcium in the intestine and allows this nutrient Enter the bloodstream. Usually the body absorbs only 10 to 20% of the calcium in the diet and the rest of the calcium is excreted in the feces. However, too much vitamin D can cause the body to absorb more calcium and lead to hypercalcemia.

Some research suggests that high-dose vitamin D supplementation has the potential to cause hypercalcemia. Doctors recommend these supplements to help treat MS and other diseases. high doses mean receiving at least 4,000 international units (IU) of vitamin D per day. Adults need 600 to 800 international units of vitamin D daily.

3. Cancer

Some types of cancer can cause hypercalcemia. The cancers that most commonly cause this condition are: From:

  • Lung Cancer
  • Breast Cancer
  • Leukemia

If the cancer metastasizes to the bone Spread, the risk of hypercalcemia increases.

4. Other conditions

Other conditions that may cause an increase in blood calcium include:

  • Tuberculosis
  • Sarcoidosis
  • Disease Thyroid
  • Chronic kidney disease
  • Adrenal gland disease
  • Severe fungal infections

5. Decreased mobility

People who are unable to move for long periods of time may be at risk for hypercalcemia. When bones have less work to do, they weaken and put more calcium into the bloodstream.

Severe dehydration

BingMag.com <b>What</b> are the <b>symptoms</b> of <b>high</b> <b>blood</b> <b>calcium</b> and <b>What</b> is the <b>effect</b> on health?

People with severe dehydration have less water in their blood, which Subject can increase calcium concentration. This imbalance usually resolves as soon as a person gets enough water and fluids.

There is a relationship between dehydration and blood calcium, and in some cases, high calcium levels can lead to severe dehydration. . For this reason, it is important for physicians to determine which occurs first: an increase in calcium levels or dehydration.

Medications

Some medications can over-stimulate the parathyroid glands, resulting in increased blood calcium. One of these drugs is lithium, which is sometimes used to treat bipolar disorder.

Side effects of high blood calcium

If left untreated, hypercalcemia can lead to the following problems: Osteoporosis: In most cases, excess calcium from the blood is expelled from the bones, which over time causes the bones to thin or decrease in density. Continuous calcium secretion increases the risk of osteoporosis. People with osteoporosis are at the following risks:

  • Bone fracture
  • Significant disability or disability
  • Loss of independence
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  • Immobility for long-term
  • Spinal curvature
  • Short stature over time

Kidney stones

Irregular heartbeat

When electrical impulses pass through the heart and cause it to contract, the heart beats. calcium is involved in regulating this process, and therefore increasing it can cause irregular heartbeats.

Diagnosis of the cause of hypercalcemia

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Anyone experiencing symptoms of hypercalcemia should talk to their doctor. The doctor will order a blood test and determine the cause of the problem based on the results. People with mild hypercalcemia may have no symptoms, and the doctor can diagnose the condition at random during a routine blood test.

blood tests measure calcium and parathyroid hormone levels in the blood. The results of this test show the function of some systems of the body, including the blood and kidneys. After a diagnosis of hypercalcemia, your doctor may recommend other diagnostic tests, such as an electrocardiogram (EKG) or ECG to record the heart's electrical activity. Imaging Chest X-ray for lung cancer or infection

  • Mammography for breast cancer
  • CT scan or MRI (MRI) to look at the structure and organs of the body
  • Dual-energy X-ray absorption, commonly known as a DEXA scan, is used to measure bone mineral density. People with mild hypercalcemia do not need treatment and their blood calcium levels return to normal over time. However, your doctor will need to monitor your blood calcium levels and kidney health.

    If your calcium levels continue to rise or do not improve on their own, your doctor may recommend more tests. For people with severe hypercalcemia, it is important to find out why. Your doctor may also suggest treatments to help lower your calcium levels and prevent side effects. These treatments usually include intravenous fluids and medications such as calcitonin or bisphosphonates. The doctor also treats the underlying disease. If noncancerous masses have formed on the parathyroid glands, surgery is needed to remove them.

    Prevention of hypercalcemia

    Lifestyle modification can help balance calcium levels and keep bones healthy. These improvements include: Drinking plenty of water: Getting enough fluids and staying hydrated can lower blood calcium levels and help prevent kidney stones.

  • Quitting smoking: Smoking increases the rate of bone loss, and quitting not only improves bone health, but also reduces the risk of cancer and other diseases.
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  • Exercise and strength training: Resistance training increases the strength of bones and helps maintain their health.
  • Proper use of medications and supplements: Following medical guidelines can help prevent excessive vitamin D intake and hypercalcemia. calcium is in the blood. Sometimes, this problem is asymptomatic and the doctor diagnoses it when checking and performing other tests. But in severe cases, the patient experiences symptoms such as frequent urination, excessive thirst, abnormal heart rhythm, and digestive problems. Possible causes of hypercalcemia include overactive parathyroid glands, taking certain medications, taking too much vitamin D, and cancer.

    Treatment for high blood calcium depends on the severity and cause. Mild hypercalcemia may not require treatment and resolve on its own. However, if the problem is more serious, your doctor may prescribe medication to lower your calcium levels and treat the underlying cause. Be sure to see your doctor if you experience symptoms of hypercalcemia. Early treatment of this disease can prevent its complications.

    This article is for educational and informational purposes only. Be sure to consult a specialist before using the recommendations in this article. For more information, read the BingMag Meg Disclaimer .

  • Source: medicalnewstoday

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