Today, there are several types of osteoporosis medications available that can be given orally or by injection. These drugs are taken daily, weekly, monthly or annually. Although medications prevent bone fractures by reducing their density, they also have side effects. In this article from BingMag Meg, we introduce the types of osteoporosis drugs and discuss the disadvantages of each of them. Stay tuned for the rest of this article.
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The bones are like scaffolding that connects different parts of the
body. The internal structure of the bones is similar to a beehive,
which makes the bones stiff and relatively light at the same time.
Bones are made mainly of collagen protein, which forms a soft
framework, and calcium phosphate strengthens this framework. More
than 99% of the body's calcium is stored in the bones and teeth.
There are two types of cells in the bones called "osteoblasts" and "osteoclasts". Osteoblasts are responsible for building new bone and repairing old bone. Osteoclasts are large cells that break down bone in a process called "absorption." These cells help rebuild damaged bones and create pathways for nerves and blood vessels to pass.
During life, bone tissue is constantly absorbed by osteoclasts. Osteoblasts then replace the new bone. This phenomenon causes bone regeneration and renewal. During childhood and adolescence, bone formation is more than the process of absorption. But in old age, the process of absorption takes precedence over ossification. As a result, bone density decreases with age and the risk of fractures increases.
The risk of developing osteoporosis depends on how much bone density you have in your youth. The higher the bone density at a young age, the less likely you are to develop osteoporosis. Bone mineral density is somewhat inherited.
Women are more prone to osteoporosis than men. Aging, menopause, low calcium intake through diet, long-term use of corticosteroids (corticosteroids) and certain diseases such as hyperthyroidism and celiac disease, inactivity and smoking and alcohol consumption increase the risk of developing this disease.
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How to take osteoporosis medications and their side effects
Osteoporosis drugs are divided into the main category:
1. Anti-absorption agents
In the group of anti-absorption drugs, there are two types of drugs called "bisphosphonates" and "RANK ligand inhibitors":
Bisphosphonates are drugs that reduce the rate of bone loss. The different types of these medications are: Alendronate: Alendronate is available as an oral or effervescent tablet that can be taken daily or weekly.
- Ibandronate: Patients can take the oral form of the drug monthly and the injectable form once every three months.
- Risedronate: This drug is an oral pill that is taken daily, weekly or It is prescribed monthly.
- Zoledronic acid: This drug is available as an injection and the patient can use it every 1-2 years.
All of the above osteoporosis medications may cause joint, muscle, or bone pain. Other side effects of these drugs include uveitis or uveitis, which occurs in rare cases. People taking bisphosphonates may experience the following side effects:
- difficulty swallowing
- Gastric ulcer
Patients taking proton pump inhibitors such as omeprazole to treat heartburn may talk to their doctor about other osteoporosis medications that may be helpful for them. They are more appropriate to talk.
Some patients receiving injectable bisphosphonates experience flu-like symptoms shortly after the first injection. These symptoms usually do not last more than 2-3 days and are not seen in subsequent injections. Bisphosphonate medications are not suitable for kidney patients or people with low blood calcium.
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- Back, arm and leg pain
- Urinary tract infection
Rare side effects of anti-absorption drugs
In rare cases, bisphosphonates and denosumab may cause femoral fracture, which is called "unusual femoral fracture." they say. Another side effect of these drugs is osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ), which causes the destruction of part of the jaw bone. In most cases, the dose of osteoporosis medication is not enough to have a negative effect on the jawbone. But as a precaution, patients should ensure their oral hygiene when using anti-absorption drugs.
2. Hormone Drugs Hormone therapy can help treat osteoporosis in
women. Types of hormone therapy include:
- Estrogen: This hormone is available as a pill that the patient can take daily or in the form of skin patches that are used 1-2 times a week. li>
- Raloxifene (Raloxifene): This medicine is produced in the form of oral tablets and is taken daily.
- Bazedoxifene (Bazedoxifene): This medicine is available in the
form of oral tablets and the patient can take it every day.
Calcitonin: Calcitonin in the form of a nasal spray that should be
used daily or by injection is available in the pharmaceutical
market. Complications of hormone therapy h4>
Estrogen and raloxifene increase vertebral density and reduce the risk of spinal fractures. Some of these hormone therapies may increase the risk of deep vein thrombosis (DVT). In people with DVT, blood clots in the deep veins of the body. DVT can occur anywhere on the body, but is most commonly found in the veins of the legs. Calcitonin prevents bone loss, but it can have the following side effects:
- stomach pain
- headache li>
- Pain in the joints, muscles or bones
- Change in the sense of taste
3. Anabolic agents
Anabolic agents reduce the risk of fractures by rebuilding bones, repairing minor defects, and increasing bone density. Anabolic drugs include:
- Romosozumab (aqqg): This drug is given twice a month to patients with osteoporosis.
- Teriparatide: Patients should inject triparatide daily.
- Abaloparatide: This osteoporosis drug is given as a daily injection.
Anabolic drugs are prescribed for postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Triparatide is also a good option for men with this condition.
Side effects of anabolic drugs
Sometimes, the use of anabolic agents can cause the following side effects:>
- Leg cramps
The use of triparatide may be for children or people with The following problems may not be appropriate:
- Paget's disease
- Cancer that has spread to the bones
- History of bone radiotherapy
- Increase Blood Calcium
Possible side effects of abaloparatide include: Excess calcium in the urine
- Upper abdominal pain
Abaloparatide is not suitable for people at risk for osteosarcoma (a type of bone tumor).
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Prospects for the use of osteoporosis drugs
All osteoporosis medications help reduce the risk of fractures caused by weakened bones. The type of medication that people take, the duration of use, and any additional treatment vary between patients.
Before prescribing medication, your doctor will check your blood calcium and kidney function. These tests reassure the doctor that taking certain types of osteoporosis medications is safe for the patient. However, it is important for patients to report side effects from osteoporosis medications to their doctor.
Your doctor will evaluate the effectiveness of treatment by testing your bone density. Treatment is effective when bone density remains constant or improves and the patient does not develop a new fracture.
In addition to medication, lifestyle can improve bone density and prevent bone fractures. Lifestyle factors that help treat osteoporosis include:
- Eat a healthy diet rich in calcium and vitamin D.
- Exercise regularly . But avoid strenuous exercise.
- If you smoke, quit. Also avoid second-hand smoke (exposure to secondhand smoke) as much as possible.
- Design your living environment to prevent falls and bone fractures. For example, use flooring that will not cause you to slip or make sure the environment is well lit.
A wide range of medications Osteoporosis is available, all of which can prevent bone fractures due to reduced density. When deciding on a medication, your doctor will consider your medical history and personal preferences.
Osteoporosis medications have side effects, and patients can talk to their doctor about how to manage these side effects. These medications may be given as pills or as injections that patients can take daily, weekly, monthly, or annually.
Arbitrary discontinuation of some medications can cause serious side effects. It is important to take any medication exactly as your doctor advised. If you want to change or stop taking your medicine, it is best to make your request to your doctor.This is for educational and informational purposes only. Be sure to consult a specialist before using the recommendations in this article. For more information, read the Digitica Magazine Disclaimer .