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Inflammatory bowel disease; Types, causes, complications and treatment

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of intestinal disorders that cause long-term inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. The gastrointestinal tract is made up of different parts, including the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine, which are involved in the digestion and absorption of food, as well as the excretion of unusable or waste products. The presence of inflammation anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract disrupts its normal function. IBD can be very annoying and in rare cases dangerous.

If you have Inflammatory bowel disease, you know that it usually involves periods of relapse and recovery. When there is severe inflammation, the disease is considered active and the person experiences an exacerbation of symptoms. But when the inflammation subsides or goes away, the patient usually does not see any symptoms. This article by BingMag is dedicated to introducing Inflammatory bowel disease and how to treat it. Please stay with us until the end.

  • 16 Common Misconceptions About Gastrointestinal Disorders That You Should Avoid

Types of Inflammatory bowel Disease

  • Crohn's disease: This disease can affect various parts of the gastrointestinal tract. However, it mostly affects the end of the small intestine.
  • Symptoms of Inflammatory bowel disease

    Symptoms of IBD vary depending on the location and severity of the inflammation, but usually include The following are:

    • Diarrhea that occurs when damaged parts of the bowel are unable to reabsorb water. Hematochezia is called
    • Abdominal pain and bloating due to intestinal obstruction
    • Weight loss and anemia that can delay growth in children
    People with Crohn's disease may develop oral thrush. Occasionally there are sores and fissures around the genitals or anus. Inflammatory bowel disease can be associated with problems outside the gastrointestinal tract, such as:
    • Inflammation of the eye
    • Skin disorders
    • Arthritis
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      Causes of Inflammatory bowel disease

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      The exact cause of IBD is unknown. However, there are several factors that can increase the risk of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, including:

      Family history and genetics

      People whose parents, siblings, brothers or children have IBD are more likely to get the disease. This is why scientists believe that Inflammatory bowel disease may have a genetic origin.

      2. Immune system

      The immune system may also be involved in the development of IBD. Normally, the immune system protects the body against pathogens (organisms that cause disease and infection). Bacterial or viral infections of the gastrointestinal tract can trigger an immune response. When the body tries to elicit an immune response against invaders, the gastrointestinal tract becomes inflamed.

      In a healthy immune response, the inflammation goes away as the infection goes away. However, people with IBD may develop gastrointestinal inflammation even when there is no infection. In these patients, the immune system attacks the body's own cells, a condition known as the "autoimmune response" or "autoimmune disease." In addition, if the inflammation does not go away after treatment, the person may develop IBD. Inflammation can last for months or even years.

      • 13 simple things that weaken your immune system

      3. Age

      Inflammatory bowel disease can occur at any age, but in most cases its symptoms begin before the age of 35.

      Gender

      Inflammatory bowel disease affects men and women equally. However, ulcerative colitis is more common in men over the age of 45 than in women in the same age group. Crohn's disease is also more prevalent among girls and women over the age of 14.

      5. Smoking

      BingMag.com <b>Inflammatory</b> <b>bowel</b> <b>disease;</b> <b>Types,</b> <b>causes,</b> <b>complications</b> and treatment Smoking is one of the main risk factors for Crohn's disease. Smoking also exacerbates pain and other symptoms associated with Crohn's disease and increases the risk of complications. However, ulcerative colitis affects non-smokers and people who have smoked in the past.

      • 11 Important Tips to Know About Quitting Smoking

      6. Environmental factors

      According to research, people living in urban areas and industrialized countries are more likely to develop IBD. Residents of industrialized countries are more likely to eat high-fat, processed foods. Consumption of this type of food is associated with Inflammatory bowel disease.

      Inflammatory bowel disease is more common among people living in cold northern climates. Researchers studying the effects of environmental factors on IBD have found that having a job or sedentary lifestyle increases the risk of developing the disease. On the other hand, some studies have found that physical activity reduces the risk of IBD onset. This effect is stronger for Crohn's disease than for ulcerative colitis.

      complications of Inflammatory bowel disease

      The most common possible complications of gastrointestinal disease are:

      • Malnutrition resulting in weight loss
      • Colon cancer
      • Fistulas or tunnel-like pathways that pass through the intestinal wall and create a hole between different parts of the gastrointestinal tract
      • Intestinal rupture
      • Intestinal obstruction

      In rare cases, a severe IBD attack can shock you, which is dangerous. Shock is usually caused by sudden and prolonged blood loss due to bloody diarrhea.

      Diagnosis of Inflammatory bowel disease

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      To diagnose IBD, your doctor will first ask questions about your family's medical history and how you defecate. He then performs a physical examination and recommends one or more of the following tests:

      Blood and stool samples

      Stool samples and blood tests can be used to check for infections and other diseases. Sometimes, a blood test is used to distinguish between ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. However, this test alone cannot help diagnose IBD.

      Barium enema

      In this diagnostic method, the large intestine and small intestine are imaged using X-rays. In the past, this type of test was often used, but now it has been largely replaced by other tests.

      3. Flexible Colonoscopy and Sigmoidoscopy

      These procedures use a camera at the end of a thin, flexible tube to view the large intestine. The camera enters the intestine through the anus. This allows the doctor to look for ulcers, fistulas, and other lesions or abnormalities in the rectum (rectum) and colon (colon).

      The entire colon can be examined with a colonoscopy. But a sigmoidoscopy examines only 50 cm of the end of the large intestine (sigmoid colon). Sometimes, during these tests, a small sample of tissue is taken from inside the gut, which is called a "biopsy" or "biopsy." This sample can be examined under a microscope and used to diagnose IBD.

      Capsule endoscopy

      Capsule endoscopy is used to evaluate the small intestine, which is much more difficult to examine than the large intestine. To perform this test, you must swallow a small capsule containing a camera. The camera takes pictures of your small intestine as it moves, and after it is expelled through the intestine, its images can be viewed on a computer. This test is used only when other tests are unable to diagnose the cause of Crohn's disease.

      5. X-ray Imaging

      In emergencies where the doctor suspects a ruptured bowel, he or she uses plain X-ray imaging of the abdomen.

      CT scan and MRI

      CT scan (CT) produces more accurate images than standard X-rays. For this reason, it is suitable for examining the small intestine and diagnosing the complications of Inflammatory bowel disease. MRI uses magnetic fields to create images of the body. Because MRI does not require radiation, it is safer than X-rays. MRI is especially useful for examining soft tissues and diagnosing fistulas. Both CT scan and MRI can be used to determine the effect of IBD on the intestine.

      treatment of Inflammatory bowel disease

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      The following methods are used in the treatment of IBD:

      1. Medications

      The use of anti-inflammatory drugs is the first step in treating IBD. These drugs help reduce inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. However, they have many side effects: Corticosteroids (corticosteroids) Glucocorticoids (a subset of corticosteroids) are examples of anti-inflammatory drugs used to treat IBD. These drugs are:

      • Budesonide
      • Prednisone
      • Prednisolone
      • Methylprednisolone ( Methylprednisolone)

      Corticosteroids are usually given in the lowest possible dose for a short time and are available in various forms, including:

      • oral tablets
      • Injectable Drugs
      • Rectal Foam

      Aminosalicylates

      Aminosalicylates (5-ASA) Inflammation in the end of the small intestine and large intestine Reduce. These include:

      • Balsalazide
      • Mesalamine
      • Sulfasalazine

      In 2019, the American Digestive Association (AGA) published treatment guidelines for adults with mild to moderate ulcerative colitis. The following drugs are strongly recommended for this group of people:

      • Oral mesalamine in standard doses
      • Aminosalicylates such as balsalazide

      AGA Prefers these drugs to low-dose mesalamine, sulfasalazine, or untreated disease. However, he says that sulfasalazine can also be used, but be aware that this drug has more side effects. People who do not respond to standard doses of mesalamine or amino salicylates should try a combination of rectal mesalamine and high-dose oral mesalamine.

      Immunosuppressants

      If intestinal inflammation is not enough, immunomodulators may be an effective option. These medications, which include the following, prevent the immune system from invading the gut and causing inflammation:

      • Methotrexate
      • Mzathioprine

      The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has not approved these drugs for the treatment of IBD. However, your doctor may prescribe them.

      Lifestyle modification

      BingMag.com <b>Inflammatory</b> <b>bowel</b> <b>disease;</b> <b>Types,</b> <b>causes,</b> <b>complications</b> and treatment

      Your lifestyle is important when you have IBD. To control Inflammatory bowel disease, the following tips are recommended:

      • Drink plenty of fluids: This will help you make up for lost fluids through your stools.
      • Avoiding stimulants, such as dairy products and stressful situations: Avoiding stimulants helps improve symptoms and reduce the risk of flare-ups.
      • If you have IBD, these steps will help you stay healthy.

      Nutritional Supplements

      Vitamin and mineral supplements help to address nutritional deficiencies. For example, iron supplements can treat anemia. Talk to your doctor before taking any new supplements.

      Surgery Sometimes surgery is necessary for people with Inflammatory bowel disease. Some IBD surgeries include:

      • Strictureplasty to dilate blocked or narrowed parts of the bowel
      • close or remove the fistula
      • remove damaged areas Intestinal examination (for people with Crohn's disease)
      • Complete resection of the colon and rectum (in case of severe ulcerative colitis)

      Possibly a colonoscopy doctor to check for bowel cancer Great recommends. Because people with IBD are more likely to get the disease than others.

      Prevention of Inflammatory bowel disease

      You can not prevent the inherited causes of IBD. But by following these tips, you may be able to reduce your risk or prevent recurrence of your symptoms:

      • Eat nutrient-rich foods.
      • Exercise regularly.
      • Quit smoking if you smoke.

      IBD can cause pain and discomfort, but you can get the disease by following your doctor-recommended treatment plan. Control and have a healthy and active lifestyle.

      • 12 excellent nutrients for better digestion and fight against digestive problems

      Final Word

      Inflammatory bowel disease is a general term used to describe disorders that cause chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. Ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease are the main types of Inflammatory bowel disease. Ulcerative colitis is limited to the large intestine, but Crohn's disease can affect other areas of the gastrointestinal tract as well. These two conditions are usually characterized by diarrhea, rectal bleeding, abdominal pain, and weight loss.

      Inflammatory bowel disease can be debilitating and can sometimes lead to serious complications. Although there is currently no definitive cure for IBD, its symptoms can be controlled with medical interventions and lifestyle modifications.

      This is for educational and informational purposes only. Be sure to consult a specialist before using the recommendations in this article. For more information, read the Digitica Magazine Disclaimer .

    Source: healthline

    Tags: inflammatory, bowel, disease;, types,, causes,, complications, treatment

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