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gastric cancer; Symptoms, risk factors, treatment and prevention

BingMag.com <b>gastric</b> <b>cancer;</b> <b>Symptoms,</b> <b>risk</b> <b>factors,</b> <b>treatment</b> and prevention

Cells can grow into cancer in almost any part of the body and then spread to other organs. gastric cancer occurs when cancer cells grow in the lining of the stomach. This type of cancer can be difficult to diagnose. Because it usually does not cause any symptoms in most people in the early stages. As a result, it often goes undiagnosed until it spreads to other parts of the body.

Even if stomach cancer is difficult to diagnose and treat, raising awareness about the disease can help control it better. If you know the symptoms of stomach cancer, you and your doctor may be able to diagnose it early. Follow BingMag Meg to learn about the different aspects of this disease.

How gastric cancer occurs

The stomach and esophagus form the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract. After chewing and swallowing, food enters the esophagus, the tube that carries food to the stomach. The stomach is a sac-like organ that is responsible for digesting food and transferring nutrients to other digestive organs, namely the small intestine and the large intestine. The contents of the stomach are emptied into the beginning of the small intestine, the duodenum. Duodenal cancer occurs when healthy cells in the upper gastrointestinal tract become cancerous and grow out of control to form a tumor. . In general, this process occurs slowly and gastric cancer usually develops over many years.

risk factors

BingMag.com <b>gastric</b> <b>cancer;</b> <b>Symptoms,</b> <b>risk</b> <b>factors,</b> <b>treatment</b> and prevention

There are several factors that can increase the risk of stomach cancer. These risk factors include certain diseases and conditions, including:

  • Helicobacter pylori bacterial infection (a common stomach infection that can sometimes lead to ulcers)
  • Presence of a tumor in Other parts of the gastrointestinal tract
  • A special type of anemia called pernicious anemia
  • gastric polyps
  • Inherited genetic syndromes, such as Lynch syndrome and Fraumeni syndrome

Lynch syndrome is an inherited disease that increases the risk of colon cancer, endometrial cancer and several other cancers. If a parent has a mutation in a gene for Lynch syndrome, there is a 50 percent chance that the mutation will be passed on to their child. A tumor suppressor called TP53 is produced. As a result, the protein produced by this gene cannot prevent the formation of malignant tumors. People with this gene mutation are prone to a variety of cancers, including brain tumors, gastrointestinal cancers, and cancers of the breast, lung, kidney, thyroid, and skin. Evidence suggests that gastric cancer is more common in the following people: :

  • Elderly, especially people over 60
  • Men
  • People who smoke
  • People who are overweight or Obese
  • People exposed to asbestos
  • People working in industries related to coal, metal, wood or rubber
  • People with group Blood A
  • People with a family history of the disease
  • People of Asian descent (especially Korea or Japan), South America or Eastern Europe

Although your medical history affects your risk of stomach cancer, lifestyle can also play a role. You are more likely to get stomach cancer if you:

  • eat a lot of salty or processed foods.
  • Eat more meat.
  • You rarely eat fruit or fruit has no place in your food basket at all.
  • You use alcohol.
  • You smoke.
  • You do not exercise enough.
  • You do not cook or store food well.

If you think you may be at risk for stomach cancer, you may have a screening test. A screening test is done when a person is at risk for a particular disease but has not yet shown symptoms.

Symptoms of gastric cancer

BingMag.com <b>gastric</b> <b>cancer;</b> <b>Symptoms,</b> <b>risk</b> <b>factors,</b> <b>treatment</b> and prevention

This disease usually has no symptoms in the early stages; This means that patients are often unaware that the cancer has progressed to an advanced stage. In some cases, symptoms may occur, the most common of which are:

  • Heartburn that occurs frequently
  • Loss of appetite
  • Frequent indigestion and belching
  • Premature satiety (feeling full after eating a small amount of food)
  • Excessive fatigue

Just because you have indigestion or heartburn does not mean you have cancer. Many of these symptoms are also seen in other diseases, such as infections or stomach ulcers, which can make it difficult to diagnose stomach cancer. If If you have experienced any symptoms of gastric cancer and these symptoms do not get better over time, be sure to see your doctor. The process by which cancer spreads to other parts of the body is called a metastasis. Symptoms of advanced or metastatic gastric cancer may include: <

  • Bloody stools
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Presence of a lump above the stomach
  • Unwanted weight loss for no apparent reason

The symptoms of gastric cancer in women are similar to those in men, but this The disease is more common in men. Symptoms in children may include constipation or diarrhea, but otherwise are the same as in adults. Diagnosis Given that early-stage gastric cancer is rarely associated with Symptoms, It is often undiagnosed until it reaches advanced stages. Diagnosis of gastric cancer includes a physical exam, a medical history, a stool test for blood, and a blood test for anemia. Both blood in the stool and anemia can indicate bleeding in the stomach.

If your doctor thinks your symptoms are related to cancer, you may need more diagnostic tests. With these tests, the stomach or esophagus can be examined for the presence of suspected tumors and other abnormalities. These tests include:

  • Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (a narrow, flexible tube with a camera at the head that can examine the inside of the gastrointestinal tract.)
  • Biopsy (sampling) to examine stomach cells under a microscope
  • Imaging techniques, such as CT scan and X-ray

Stages of stomach cancer

  • Tumor (T): Tumor size and its extent
  • Node: How far the cancer has spread to the lymph nodes
  • Metastasis (M): Has the cancer spread to distant parts of the body? Found or not

According to the results obtained from these three criteria, gastric cancer is divided into the following five stages:

  • Stage 0 Abnormal or cancerous cells are present only on the surface of the lining of the stomach, and the cancer has not spread to the lymph nodes or other parts of the body.
  • Stage 1: Tumor to the layers It has reached deeper in the stomach and the cancer may have spread to one or two lymph nodes around the stomach, but it has not spread to other parts of the body. At this stage, in some people, none of the lymph nodes are involved.
  • Stage 2: The tumor has reached the deeper layers of the stomach and the cancer has usually spread to the lymph nodes. , But has not spread to other parts of the body.
  • Stage 3: The tumor has spread to the deeper layers of the stomach and possibly to nearby organs. The cancer may also have spread to the lymph nodes, but not to distant parts of the body.
  • Stage 4: At this stage, the cancer has spread to more distant parts of the body, such as the lungs, brain, or liver. It is found.

The stomach wall has five layers: mucous (inner layer), submucosal, muscular, submucosal, and serous (outermost layer). The mucosa is the innermost layer and stomach acid and digestive enzymes are made in it. Most stomach cancers start from this layer. Layers play an important role in determining the stage of cancer. The more the cancer spreads from the mucosa to the deeper and lower layers of the stomach, the more advanced the disease enters and the more extensive the treatment.

Until the cancer has reached distant parts of the body, between Step 0 to 3; But if it has spread to other areas, it has entered stage 4. At each stage of the disease, the type of treatment proposed and the survival rate of the patient are different. In the early stages when the cancer is confined to the gastric environment, 69.9% of patients survive for up to five years after diagnosis. In the later stages, when the cancer has spread to distant parts of the body, the five-year chance of survival is reduced to 5.5 percent. treatment p imb src 19369-5.jpg ">

This disease is usually treated with one or more of the following:

  • Chemotherapy
  • Radiation therapy
  • Surgery
  • Immunotherapy or immunotherapy, which stimulates or improves your immune system's ability to respond to cancer

Generally, choose the type of treatment for It depends on the time or stage of the cancer and the extent of its spread in the body. Of course, age and general health can also play a role:

  • Stage 0: Usually surgery can cure the disease at this stage. Your doctor may remove all or part of your stomach, as well as nearby lymph nodes.
  • Step 1: As with stage 0, surgery may be needed. Chemotherapy or radiation therapy may also be done. These treatments can be used before surgery to shrink the tumor and then to kill the remaining cancer cells.
  • Step 2: The main treatment is surgery to remove the whole Or part of the stomach as well as adjacent lymph nodes. Chemotherapy or radiation therapy may be done before and after surgery.
  • Step 3: In this stage, surgery to remove the entire stomach is done with chemotherapy or radiation therapy.
  • Stage 4: treatment is much more difficult at this stage, but your doctor can help control it and alleviate some of the symptoms.

One of the goals of treatment is to prevent the spread of cancer cells. If left untreated, gastric cancer may spread to the following organs: Lungs, lymph nodes, bones, bones, liver

Stomach Cancer Prevention

BingMag.com <b>gastric</b> <b>cancer;</b> <b>Symptoms,</b> <b>risk</b> <b>factors,</b> <b>treatment</b> and prevention

You can follow the tips Reduce your risk of all cancers, including stomach cancer: And vegetables and reduce the consumption of pickles and salty, smoked or processed foods

  • Avoid alcohol and smoking
  • Regular exercise
  • In addition, if If you have a wound caused by Helicobacter pylori infection, you should treat it. Your doctor may prescribe antibiotics to kill the bacteria and use other medications to heal your stomach ulcers.

    In some cases, your doctor may prescribe medication to reduce the risk of stomach cancer. This is usually done for people who have pre-cancerous diseases or are taking these drugs because they have other diseases. Screening can also help diagnose the disease quickly and treat it early. The following methods are used to screen for stomach cancer:

    • Physical examination
    • Laboratory tests, such as blood and urine tests
    • Imaging methods, such as X-rays
    • Endoscopy
    • Genetic tests

    Long-term outlook for the disease

    If gastric cancer is in stages The earlier it is diagnosed, the better the chance of recovery. About 32% of all people with gastric cancer are expected to survive for at least five years after diagnosis. In most of these people, the cancer has spread to the stomach and has not spread to other parts of the body.

    If the source of the cancer is unknown, it is difficult to diagnose and stage, making it more difficult to treat the cancer. It also becomes more difficult to treat stomach cancer after it has reached an advanced stage. If the cancer has reached an advanced stage, you can take part in research and clinical trials. Clinical trials help determine if a new device or treatment method is effective in treating certain diseases and conditions. It comes out, the person gets stomach cancer. The disease has no specific symptoms in the early stages, but in the advanced stages it is associated with symptoms such as indigestion, heartburn, bloating, loss of appetite, unwanted weight loss and bloody stools. Following a healthy lifestyle, eating fruits and vegetables, reducing the consumption of salty, smoked and processed foods, avoiding smoking and alcohol and keeping the weight in the right range reduces the risk of cancer.

    It has information. Be sure to consult a specialist before using the recommendations in this article. For more information, read the Digitica Magazine Disclaimer .

    Sources: healthline, webmd

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