Diabetes or diabetes; Symptoms, causes, complications, diagnosis and treatment

Diabetes Mellitus, or sugar disease commonly called diabetes for short, is a chronic disease that affects the way food is converted into energy. There are different types of this disease, the abnormal increase in blood glucose (sugar) is the common feature of all of them.

BingMag.com Diabetes or diabetes; Symptoms, causes, complications, diagnosis and treatment

Diabetes Mellitus, or sugar disease commonly called diabetes for short, is a chronic disease that affects the way food is converted into energy. There are different types of this disease, the abnormal increase in blood glucose (sugar) is the common feature of all of them.

Unfortunately, the prevalence of diabetes is increasing worldwide. In 2021, the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) announced that 537 million adults aged 20 to 79 worldwide have diabetes, and it is estimated that this number will increase to 643 million by 2030 and 783 million by 2045. people arrive According to these statistics, 73 million people in the Middle East and North Africa have diabetes, which will increase to 95 million people by 2030 and to 136 million people by 2045.

Diabetes has no definitive cure, but it can be treated. He controlled it by adopting a healthy lifestyle and medication. To learn more about this common and important disease, read today's DigiCala Mag article to the end.

What is diabetes?

Cells provide most of their energy needs. They depend on a simple sugar called glucose. When you eat, most digestible carbohydrates are converted to glucose and quickly absorbed into the bloodstream. High blood sugar stimulates the pancreas and increases insulin production by it. Without insulin, glucose stays in the bloodstream and can't get into the cells that need it.

Diabetes is a condition characterized by abnormally high blood glucose because the body either doesn't make enough insulin or can't use it properly. use it Usually, blood sugar rises after a meal, but after 1-2 hours, it drops, as glucose leaves the blood and enters the cells. But in diabetic patients, blood sugar remains high for several hours. Also, after eating, their blood sugar may increase much more than healthy people.

Types of diabetes

BingMag.com Diabetes or diabetes; Symptoms, causes, complications, diagnosis and treatment

This disease has three main types, which are:

1. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease caused by the immune system attacking the pancreas and destroying insulin-producing cells. 5 to 10% of diabetic patients have type 1 diabetes. It usually affects children, teenagers and young adults, but it can happen at any age. People with type 1 diabetes must inject insulin every day. For this reason, it is also called "insulin-dependent diabetes".

2. Type 2 diabetes

In this type of diabetes, the body does not produce enough insulin or the cells do not respond to this hormone. Type 2 diabetes is the most common type of this disease, which includes 90-95% of diabetic patients. This disease often occurs in middle-aged and elderly people and is also known as "adult-onset diabetes" and "insulin-resistant diabetes". Your blood sugar levels are higher than normal, but not so high that you are diagnosed as a diabetic. This stage of the disease is called "pre-diabetes".

3. Gestational diabetes

This type of diabetes occurs in some healthy women during pregnancy and usually disappears after delivery. However, it increases the chance of developing type 2 diabetes later in life.

What are the most important symptoms of diabetes?

Symptoms of diabetes depend on your blood sugar levels. Some people, especially those with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes, may have no symptoms. In type 1 diabetes, symptoms appear quickly and become more severe.

General symptoms

General symptoms of diabetes include:

  • Increased hunger
  • >
  • Increased thirst
  • Weight loss
  • Urine frequency
  • Blurred vision
  • Extreme fatigue
  • Delay In wound healing

Symptoms in men

Men with this disease may also experience the following:

  • Decreased desire Sexual
  • Erectile dysfunction
  • Reduced muscle strength

Symptoms in women

Symptoms seen in diabetic women include: :

  • Vaginal dryness
  • Urinary tract infection
  • Fungal infections
  • Dry and itchy skin

Type 1 diabetes symptoms

BingMag.com Diabetes or diabetes; Symptoms, causes, complications, diagnosis and treatment

Type 1 diabetes leads to the following symptoms:

  • Extreme hunger
  • Increased thirst
  • Unwanted weight loss
  • Urine frequency
  • Blurred vision
  • Fatigue
  • Mood changes

Symptoms of type 2 diabetes

Type 2 diabetes is associated with the following symptoms:

  • Increased hunger
  • Increased thirst
  • Increased urination
  • Blurred vision
  • Fatigue
  • Delay in Wound healing
  • Frequent infections

Symptoms of gestational diabetes

Most women who develop gestational diabetes have no They have no symptoms and doctors often detect this problem during a test that is usually done between 24 and 28 weeks of pregnancy. In rare cases, a person with gestational diabetes experiences increased thirst or frequent urination.

Why do we get diabetes?

The reason for high blood sugar depends on the type of diabetes.

Type 1 diabetes

Doctors do not know exactly what causes type 1 diabetes. In patients with this disease, for unknown reasons, the body's immune system mistakenly attacks the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas and destroys them. It is possible that genes play a role in the disease of some people. A virus may also trigger an immune system attack.

Type 2 diabetes

Type 2 diabetes is caused by a combination of genetic and lifestyle factors. Being overweight or obese increases the risk of developing this disease. Also, this disease is more common in some families. Family members share common genes that increase the risk of type 2 diabetes and overweight.

Gestational diabetes

During pregnancy, the placenta produces hormones that increase the sensitivity of the pregnant woman's cells. They reduce the effects of insulin and increase blood sugar. Women who are overweight when they get pregnant or who gain too much weight during pregnancy are more likely to develop this disease.

Who is at risk for diabetes?

BingMag.com Diabetes or diabetes; Symptoms, causes, complications, diagnosis and treatment

Certain factors increase the risk of developing diabetes.

Type 1 diabetes

People who are at risk of getting type 1 diabetes include: children and teenagers, those whose father, mother, sister or brother have diabetes and people who carry genes related to this disease.

Type 2 diabetes

The following people are at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes:

  • Obese people
  • People who are over 45 years old
  • Those who have one of their parents, siblings or siblings with this disease
  • Persons who are sedentary
  • Women who have a history of gestational diabetes
  • People with pre-diabetes
  • People with high blood pressure or increased blood lipids

Gestational diabetes

The following people are more susceptible than others are to gestational diabetes:

  • Obese women
  • Women over 25 years of age
  • Women who have had this disease in their previous pregnancy
  • Women who have a history of giving birth to a baby weighing more than 4
  • Women with a family history of type 2 diabetes
  • Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)

What are the complications of diabetes?

High blood sugar damages organs and tissues throughout the body. The most important complications related to diabetes are:

  • Heart attack and stroke
  • Nerve damage
  • Kidney problems
  • Vision problems
  • Hearing loss
  • Injuries to the foot, for example developing infections and wounds that do not heal
  • Skin diseases, such as bacterial and fungal infections
  • Depression
  • Dementia

Symptoms of gestational diabetes

BingMag.com Diabetes or diabetes; Symptoms, causes, complications, diagnosis and treatment

Uncontrolled gestational diabetes can lead to problems that affect both the mother and the fetus. Complications that affect the fetus include the following:

  • Premature birth
  • Birth of a baby whose birth weight is higher than normal
  • Increased risk of type 2 diabetes in the later stages of life
  • Low blood sugar
  • Jaundice and jaundice
  • Still birth

A woman with gestational diabetes may develop complications such as high blood pressure (preeclampsia) or type 2 diabetes. It is also possible that a cesarean delivery will be needed. Having gestational diabetes increases the possibility of this problem in subsequent pregnancies.

What are the methods of diagnosing diabetes?

Symptoms of type 1 diabetes often start suddenly, but the symptoms of other types of this disease They appear gradually or may not be easily visible. For this reason, it is recommended that the following people be screened for diabetes:

  • All those with a body mass index (BMI) greater than 25 and who have risk factors for diabetes. These risk factors include: high blood pressure, high cholesterol, polycystic ovary syndrome, heart disease, sedentary lifestyle and having a family history of diabetes. If the results are normal, they should repeat it every three years.
  • Women with a history of gestational diabetes should be screened every three years.
  • People with prediabetes should have a blood test every year.
  • Patients with HIV should be screened for diabetes.

Tests needed to diagnose type 1, type 2 and prediabetes

BingMag.com Diabetes or diabetes; Symptoms, causes, complications, diagnosis and treatment

Doctors use the following tests to diagnose diabetes:

  • Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C). This blood test, which does not require fasting, shows the average blood sugar in the last 2 to 3 months. A1C less than 7.5% is normal and between 7.5% and 4.6% is considered prediabetes. If your A1C is 5.6% or higher on two separate tests, it means you have diabetes.
  • Random blood sugar. This blood sugar test is done regardless of It measures eating time and randomly throughout the day. A blood sugar of 200 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) or higher indicates diabetes.
  • Fasting blood sugar (FBS). This test is done after fasting for at least eight hours. FBS less than 100 mg/dL indicates that you are healthy, and FBS between 100 and 125 mg/dL is considered prediabetes. If FBS is at least 126 mg/dL in two separate tests, you have diabetes.
  • Oral glucose tolerance test. First, your blood sugar is measured fasting. You will then drink a sugary liquid and your blood sugar levels will be checked regularly over the next two hours. If your blood sugar is less than 140 mg/dL after two hours, you do not have diabetes. But blood sugar between 140 and 199 mg/dL means prediabetes and blood sugar 200 mg/dL and above indicates diabetes.

If the doctor suspects type 1 diabetes, urine ketones may be present. measure When the body is unable to use glucose due to lack of insulin, it turns to fats for energy, which causes the production of ketones. In addition, the doctor will likely test for the presence of destructive immune system cells called autoantibodies.

How to Diagnose Gestational Diabetes

BingMag.com Diabetes or diabetes; Symptoms, causes, complications, diagnosis and treatment

To diagnose gestational diabetes, your doctor will test your blood sugar level between 24 and 28 weeks of pregnancy. For this, there are two types of tests:

  • Glucose challenge test. One hour after drinking sweet liquids, blood sugar is checked. If the result is normal, you do not need another test. But if the blood sugar level is high, you should do a glucose tolerance test.
  • Glucose tolerance test. First, blood sugar is measured fasting. You will then be given a sugary drink to test your blood sugar after one and two hours respectively. If one of these three tests is higher than normal, you have gestational diabetes.

How is diabetes treated?

Treatment of diabetes according to its type, blood sugar level And it depends on your health, but it usually includes the following:


Doctors treat diabetes with several different medications, some taken orally and some injected. Insulin is the main treatment for type 1 diabetes. This injectable drug replaces a hormone that your body cannot produce.

In many cases, type 2 diabetes is controlled with diet and exercise. But if lifestyle changes are not enough to lower blood sugar, you should use oral medications. For some patients with type 2 diabetes, injectable insulin is prescribed.

Women with gestational diabetes should measure their blood sugar levels several times a day with a blood sugar test device. Dietary changes and exercise are often enough to lower blood sugar in these women, but approximately 15 to 30% of them require insulin. It is diabetes. Your blood sugar levels rise or fall based on the types of foods you eat. To keep your blood sugar level stable and prevent weight gain, eat healthy foods like fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean protein like chicken and fish, and healthy fats like olive oil and nuts. Patients who inject insulin should adjust their carbohydrate intake to the insulin dose.

Physical activity

BingMag.com Diabetes or diabetes; Symptoms, causes, complications, diagnosis and treatment

Exercise plays an essential role in controlling diabetes and this is true for different types of this disease. Physical activity improves the sensitivity of cells to the hormone insulin, helps control weight, prevents diabetes complications, and improves mood.

Walking, swimming, and cycling are suitable for most diabetics, but It is better to consult a doctor before starting exercise. You may need to take special precautions, such as checking your blood sugar before and after exercise and making sure you're getting enough fluids.

Monitoring your blood sugar daily

Monitoring Regular blood sugar using a blood sugar test device is a must for people with diabetes and pre-diabetes. By doing this, you will find out what factors increase your blood sugar and whether the treatment chosen for you is effective in controlling your disease or not. With this information, you can help your doctor decide on the best treatment plan.

Choosing the right treatment will prevent or delay the onset of diabetes complications. When your doctor changes your diet, physical activity, or medications gives, asks you to report the effect of these changes to him by measuring your blood sugar regularly at home.

Is diabetes preventable?

There is no way to prevent type 1 diabetes. It does not exist, because it is caused by a dysfunction of the immune system. Some causes of type 2 diabetes, such as genes or aging, are not under your control. But other diabetes risk factors can be controlled. If you have prediabetes, you can prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes by following these tips:

  • Have at least 150 minutes of aerobic exercise a week, such as walking or cycling.
  • Reduce consumption of saturated fats, trans fats and refined carbohydrates. These harmful compounds are found in fast foods, high-fat or processed meats, sugary snacks, and sugary drinks.
  • Increase your consumption of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains
  • Reduce the size of your meals.
  • If you are overweight, try to lose 5 to 7% of your body weight.

Final word

Type 1 diabetes is one of the factors Causes are out of your control, but you can prevent type 2 diabetes by choosing healthy foods, increasing physical activity, and losing weight. It is best to consult a doctor about this disease and if you are at risk of developing it, get a blood test.

All those who experience symptoms of diabetes should see a doctor immediately. The sooner this disease is diagnosed, the more likely you will be able to live a longer and healthier life. If you have diabetes, modify your lifestyle, measure your blood sugar regularly, and use prescribed medications as prescribed by your doctor.

This article is for informational purposes only. Before using the recommendations of this article, be sure to consult a specialist doctor. For more information, read BingMag Disclaimer.

Sources: mayoclinic, healthline

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