anti-psychiatry movement; Self-determination movement for mental patients

The antipsychiatry movement is a movement based on the view that psychiatric treatments often do more harm than good to patients. Protests in this movement may include concerns about the effectiveness and potential harm of treatments such as electroshock therapy or insulin shock therapy. It may question the philosophical and ethical basis of psychotherapy and treatment with psychotropic drugs.

BingMag.com anti-psychiatry movement; Self-determination movement for mental patients

The antipsychiatry movement is a movement based on the view that psychiatric treatments often do more harm than good to patients. Protests in this movement may include concerns about the effectiveness and potential harm of treatments such as electroshock therapy or insulin shock therapy. It may question the philosophical and ethical basis of psychotherapy and treatment with psychotropic drugs.

In fact, the followers of this movement believe that these treatment methods, instead of focusing on the independence and integrity of the individual's mind, are due to social concerns and are formed politically. They believe that "judgment about intellectual matters should be the exclusive domain of the philosophical mind" and that the mind should not be a medical concern. Some activists reject the concept of mental illness from the perspective of psychiatry.

In fact, the anti-psychiatry movement considers psychiatry a coercive tool of oppression due to the unequal power relationship between doctor and patient and a highly subjective diagnostic process. Unwanted and false commitment is one of the important themes of this movement.

This decentralized movement has been active in various forms for two centuries. In the 1960s, there were many challenges to psychoanalysis and psychiatry, where the basis of psychiatric treatment was described as a repressive and controlling practice.

Psychiatrists supporting this movement include: Thomas Sasse, Timothy Leary, Giorgio Antonucci, Franco Basaglia, Theodore Leeds, Silvano Ariti and David Cooper. Michel Foucault, Gilles Deleuze, Felix Guattari, and Erving Goffman were among the others involved.

Cooper coined the term "anti-psychiatry" in 1967 and wrote the book Psychiatry and Anti-Psychiatry in 1971. In his book The Myth of Mental Illness (1961), Thomas Sassez defined mental illness as a myth, and each of the other people involved in their turn created content in this field.

This movement continues to focus on It has had a profound impact on psychiatry and psychology, particularly in terms of the relationship between providers and those who receive it. Contemporary issues in this movement include freedom versus coercion, nature versus nurture, and the right to be different.

Critics of the anti-psychiatry movement from within the psychiatric community object to the basic principle that psychiatry is harmful by definition. Most psychiatrists agree that there are issues that need to be addressed, but shutting down psychiatry does more harm than good. Medical professionals often view the anti-psychiatry movement as promoting the denial of mental illness and compare it to conspiracy theories.

Roots

BingMag.com anti-psychiatry movement; Self-determination movement for mental patients

The anti-psychiatry movement is a political and social movement that emerged in the 1960s in the United States and Europe and went through many changes along the way. The ideological roots of this movement probably stem from the widespread dissatisfaction that existed on both sides of the Atlantic in the 1960s about the state of care for people with mental illness in large institutional asylums. It was the main two-way; First, there were scandalous revelations of very poor and sometimes abusive conditions in some of these hospitals, and secondly, there was a growing belief that confinement in a mental institution led to a process of "institutionalization" of the patient. A process in which the patient intentionally or unconsciously begins to behave insanely in order to survive in the asylum environment.

The 1960s was the era of experimenting with new radical ideas that exceeded the accepted political, social and cultural norms of that time. It was already criticized and revised.

It was the beginning of anti-war movements, radical student movements, free love, gay liberation, and hippies, and so it was not surprising that the profession of psychiatry was also scrutinized at this time. In addition, many psychiatric practices such as forced electroshock treatment and psychosurgery were increasingly seen as inappropriate and incompatible with human rights. For example, the claim that because schizophrenia does not cause obvious physical changes in the brain and cannot be diagnosed by any physical test, it cannot be a real disease. In fact, people agreed that the anti-psychiatry movement was not merely trying to achieve a more humane approach to psychiatry, but was actually questioning its very foundation. And the disturbed behavior of these patients was seen primarily as a moral issue that belonged to the realm of religion rather than a medical issue to be treated by physicians.

However, the anti-psychiatry movement was not based solely on new radical ideologies; Rather, it was based on a deep-rooted dissatisfaction with the previous practices of psychiatry.

For example, the new gay movement, The psychiatric profession's classification of homosexuality as a mental illness and attempts to "cure" homosexuals using aversion therapy were seen as particularly oppressive. Also, a growing awareness of the abuses that had occurred in the old system of sanatoriums and a desire to improve them.

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Legacy of the anti-psychiatry movement

BingMag.com anti-psychiatry movement; Self-determination movement for mental patients

Although the anti-psychiatry movement with old treatment methods Like electroshock, it was opposed, but when new antipsychotic drugs became available, they quickly criticized psychiatry for their use as well, highlighting the side effects of the new drugs and downplaying their positive effects. Their effects even suggest in some cases that psychosis was actually caused by antipsychotic drugs.

However, one of the most damaging ideas promoted by the antipsychotic movement was that psychosis could actually be an experience. Be positive and life-enhancing. In fact, the founding of the Kingsley Hall community was designed by Laing to support people with schizophrenia on their journey. experiencing a safe and calm space rather than seeking treatment for their debilitating and distressing symptoms.

Although many at the time saw the fledgling anti-psychiatry movement as a more humane alternative to traditional psychiatry, this idea was largely delusional. Was. The anti-psychiatry movement saw the dangerous behavior of a person with schizophrenia as essentially a crime that should be dealt with by the criminal system rather than the healthcare system. Schizophrenics are being punished for their condition in prison instead of in the health system where they rightfully belong. A situation that unfortunately continues today.

Governments, who were always looking for opportunities to save their budgets, then and now, were easily seduced by the arguments of the anti-psychiatry movement and used them as an excuse to reduce The costs of mental health beds and psychiatric services used up.

During the 1970s across Europe and the United States, old institutions, good and bad, closed en masse, and their patients often lived without any meaningful therapeutic support. They were sent to dormitories without food and facilities.

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The anti-psychiatry movement today

BingMag.com anti-psychiatry movement; Self-determination movement for mental patients

The anti-psychiatry movement today is very different from the movement of the 1960s. In the 1980s, psychiatric treatments changed drastically, the dosage of antipsychotic drugs and thus their side effects decreased, the use of electroshock therapy decreased, psychosurgery ended, homosexuality was removed from the classification of diseases, and research into the organic origins of various diseases approved. Like the condition we call schizophrenia.

Diagnosis has also improved so that schizophrenia is no longer seen as the diagnosis of all the vague mental health problems it used to be. As conditions changed and the emancipatory policies of the day declined, the anti-psychiatry movement declined, but did not completely disappear, and while the early movement had a recognizable informal organization, today's anti-psychiatry movement is less tangible and more of an ideation forum than a community. organization.

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Sources: VICE, Living with Schizophrenia

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