vain cultural memories; Formal analysis of solid metallurgy 2

Foreword vain cultural memories; Formal analysis of solid metallurgy 2


In November 2001, I lived in a camper trailer for a year. I used to have no running water. The mobile home was wedged unevenly into the blocks, within an hour's drive of a tropical forest from Tampa [in Florida]. Where I used to live, I was on the technical staff at a Presbyterian summer camp, and the Alafia River would flood from time to time when nearby storms hit. What does my mind look like and how does it work? Except for a few visiting colleagues and friends, I spent those days with these things: a dog someone had given me, books and a typewriter I had, and a radio I had borrowedin a way that's better to say. I practically stole it.

Most of the time it was a good way to live.

That same month, I was invited to do Metal Gear Solid 2 at a friend's apartment. All four of us spent all night together in the Tanker and Powerhouse chapters, and it was seven in the morning when I beat Solidus Snake and it was game over. My friends were lying on the floor and on the couch, snoring and dreaming. The light had filtered through the curtains and shone on the pile of cold cigarette smoke.

If games like Metal Gear Solid 2 were possible, I thought to myself, then this medium is worth recognizing.

I considered the possibility that it is possible to live in a better way. However, for the past six years, I've still been playing video games.

Of course, they are not the greatest treasures of my life, and poems hold this prestigious position for me. But they were a staple in my adulthood. My fiance and I met because of this shared interest, and it was Medium that led me to two related jobs.

It's not an exaggeration to say that Metal Gear Solid 2 changed my life.


I wrote this analysis as part of a larger article about how video games can make good use of postmodernist narrative techniques. However, despite being a North Carolina resident, I'd like to join in on the 20th anniversary celebrations of Metal Gear. I threw out the guts of that previous article and replaced it with bones and fillets, and the result is the current article [which is only about Metal Gear Solid 2]. Makes video games bombarded by critics. Those who jump into the fray to defend him immediately say, "He's a genius," as if Kojima is their totem. In the article, I described the formal order I saw in Metal Gear Solid 2 an order that could only be realized in the context and medium in which it flows. I'm not an advocate of Kojima "in the position of a genius", but a formal analysis of Metal Gear Solid 2, combined with its narrative and themes, reveals a wonderful structure and order.

This article follows from the perspective of a player who immediately follows It has been done since the launch of the game. Metal Gear Solid 2 has been on the market for over six years and its story twists are known by most people. Knowing what happens in the game destroys the effect of this formal analysis, so I have written the narrative and the player's experience with past tense verbs. Those opponents who see it as nothing but talking weapons and biosexual vampires. Happy 20th birthday, Snake (and Raiden too).

James Clinton Howell

July 2007

* * *


write A critical text about any medium requires a special language that refers to the technical qualities of that medium, and in order to create the critical language of this article, I have defined expressions that are specific to this text [although it has different meanings in other textual contexts].

Actor refers to a character in a video game that is assumed to be controlled by the player. Character refers to the identity of a fictional character in the context of the narrative. All the actors in Metal Gear Solid 2 are characters, but only two characters are actors.> I have made a distinction. The first one means the objective demands that the game gives to the player to complete the objectives of the game, which includes the manipulation of the hardware and consequently the actions in the game. The second one means the actor's responsibilities as he realizes them in the narrative context and shapes the narrative.

Ms. Pacman shows why the goals between the player and the actor have long been conflicting yet complementary. The player has to move the Pacman joystick Guide him through a number of mazes, while being careful not to run into ghosts and corrosive bullets. In the context of the narrative, Pacman must come out alive in this journey into the labyrinth, so Pacman acknowledges that the player's goals are aligned with the actor's goals, because the player's success guarantees the actor's success. That is, Pacman only succeeds when the player succeeds.

From here on, the game distributes rewards: the player's score goes up, and Pacman gets to eat another day. Pacman [as an actor] needs points on the screen as much as the player needs Pacman himself to survive. Because the player abandons the arcade machine when he doesn't care, it kills Pacman several times, and again, considering this, Pacman isn't any happier to score a new score.

However. Any reward acknowledges both. The survival of Pacman will guarantee that the player can increase his score with his help. And such a score increase will give him a new 1up, to keep the arcade machine on and keep Pacman alive longer.

Literal means an activity the player performs to affect the control of the game or the technology that runs it. in-game describes the virtual action that takes place within the narrative context of the game itself. Gameplay also means the sum of literal and in-game activities.

When a player uses the controller, he has performed a literal action, and his literal actions have led to in-game actions. When the game tells its player to "press A to run," he literally presses a button called A in the real world, and the in-game running action is seen through the on-screen actor. All these actions together shape the gameplay.

Narrative means the tool with which the game shows its story to the player. narrative is the explanation of the story, its characters and the imaginary world of the game. Gameplay can serve the narrative when the player's actions are relevant or constructive to the narrative. But the gameplay itself cannot take the place of the "self" of the narrative and be identical with it.

Reality refers to the formal and narrative features that affect the player's experience. All works of fiction require their audience to relate to its content by assuming some kind of form, and a critic therefore describes fictional characters and events as if they actually existed or did. We commonly refer to video games as "virtual reality," but such an inconsistent categorization hurts criticism of the medium. Instead of lumping virtual and physical reality under one umbrella, we need a more precise term, and this article uses the specific terms we've written so far to show how different parts of a game fit together. Gameplay comes from in-game verbs and literals, and narrative comes from player goals and actor goals.

Historical means events or people that exist outside of the game's fictional world. The role of the player as the pronoun of the actor places him in a position as if he is among the realities of the imaginary world of the story, while the player exists outside this imaginary reality in history.

Form means How to narrate the game through gameplay, level design, the spaces it displays, colors, patterns, and player participation in it.

Now we can start.

* * *

I: Maps vain cultural memories; Formal analysis of solid metallurgy 2

As Jorge Luis Borges described the "infinite library of Babel," it resembles The Big Shell structure is the setting for Metal Gear Solid 2 probably a random reference.

Let's start with a story by Jorge Luis Borges.

Once upon a time there was a vast empire whose mapmakers They built it in such detail that it covered every inch of the land. As the empire declined, so did the map wear and tear, until both the empire and the map disappeared.

The philosopher Jean Baudrillard changes this example. Borges had based the map on a real empire, but Baudrillard said that we first draw a map and then assume that there must be an empire based on this map, in order to calm ourselves with the fact that there is no empire at all. /p>

A map is a metaphor a sign. It implies that there is something more real than the map itself.

A map can be dangerous. We are used to seeing what we are prepared for, and maps are prepared for these expectations. A traveler may be lost for hours if he pays more attention to the wrong map than to the directions of the locals.

Metal Gear Solid 2 forms its own form with the medium it is placed in, as well as three maps three The map means the three expectations created for the player. Using the "secret map". It does because the player expects Metal Gear Solid 2 to be as playable and behave as Metal Gear Solid 1 did. After the "series map" fails, Metal Gear Solid 2 uses the "scenario map", where the player expects to experience the same catharsis and sequences that they experienced earlier in Metal Gear Solid 1. At the same time, the game uses "Solid Map", where the player expects to be in the role of the same protagonist of Metal Gear Solid 1, namely Solid Snake.

Metal Gear Solid 1 serves as the player's road map, and Metal Gear Solid 2 deliberately rearranges what is familiar to the player so that the player loses his way. Familiar cues lead the player to expect a form similar to that of Metal Gear Solid 1 a pattern of failure and redemption but the game itself does not lead to the destinations it expects. With this confusion, the player sees the turn of the narrative without its central theme. In both form and content, Metal Gear Solid 2 suggests that we shouldn't let past cultural memories influence our behavior in situations similar to those memories, and shouldn't treat two things that are merely similar in the same way. /p>

* * *

II: Series Map

Most of the sequel series follow the series maps established in the previous version. Commercially, too, sequels are like ancient rites of fertilizing the land: a once-popular product that has expired is resurrected in the form of a digital reel, and the money starts raining for another year. The market aligns with corporate interests, and players expect them to stick to annual rituals. Metal Gear Solid 2 players knew they were going to experience the sequel to Metal Gear Solid - the one that featured Superstar and the Jesus Christ of the first PlayStation console.

Metal Gear Solid 2 "Because it knew the player knew," Metal Gear Solid 2's follow-up to its predecessor deliberately twisted the rite of passage. The game knew that the player expected to take control of the popular spy Solid Snake; discover and destroy the eternal machine of the apocalypse, the Metal Gear; He pulled out conspiracies from behind the curtain and solved them; to clear Solid Snake's name from being accidentally implicated in those conspiracies; fight terrorists supported by elite super soldiers; And avoid being seen by the enemy to solve the player's goals.

The "Tanker" chapter includes the first two hours of Metal Gear Solid 2. Solid Snake secretly investigates an oil tanker that is home to the latest incarnation of Metal Gear, which is a secret nuclear tank, and then terrorists take control of the ship. Snake describes the opening sequence in a tone that sounds like he's regretting the events he's been through, reminiscent of the previous Metal Gear Solid where we see him fail, redeem himself, and persevere.

Promotional videos and trailers showed Solid Snake shooting during the tanker season. Viewers saw Snake fighting a jet from the top of the George Washington Bridge, and some interviews hinted that Metal Gear Solid 2 would take place in New York City itself. The Metal Gear Solid 2 demo disc included the Tanker chapter, again creating the expectation that Metal Gear Solid 2 is the same as its predecessor, but on a larger scale. When the game finally entered the market, the back cover of Solid Snake was seen in action, and next to him was a cyborg ninja similar to Gary Fox (one of the popular characters of Metal Gear Solid 1). It was powdered.

* * *

III: Denying the Secret Plan vain cultural memories; Formal analysis of solid metallurgy 2

and We were thrown off a cliff.

At the end of the Tanker season, all the rewards the player had for his previous Metal Gear Solid 1 experience were denied him. . Snake didn't fight any supersoldiersbut a pregnant woman with no supernatural powers who had nothing but a pistol. Although the player discovers the new Metal Gear, the antagonists from the previous version arrive with terrorists, steal Metal Gear, and kill Snake (or so it seems).

The Tanker chapter ends as if it were a miniature of the same cliffhanger [the ending that gives a clue that the story continues] the end of Metal Gear Solid 1. In the previous issue, the player was left hearing that Aslat, the main conspirator, had called the President of the United States. Tanker season also ends when Aslat calls the president from inside Metal Gear, and informs that everything went according to plan. vain cultural memories; Formal analysis of solid metallurgy 2

Tanker season reversed all the gameplay and dramatic clichs that were familiar in the Metal Gear series. Players must usually acquire their weapons before starting a mission, and cannot usurp weapons from destroyed enemies. Snake begins his mission with a weapon that carries stun shots, and only when he defeats the only giant of the season can he take away his pistol. These reversals also changed the formal relationship between the actor and the player. In other metal detectors, the actors needed the player's action to get the weapon, but in the Tanker season, the situation is the opposite, and the weapon is removed only according to Snake's own choice and skill. Here the player has less control over Snake as an actor, and Snake's decisions "as a character" determine the range of things the player can do with him.

Metal Gear Solid 2's modus operandi reverses Metal Gear Solid 1 Kurd secret penetration. Acelatt set a trap for Snake so that he could deliberately lure him to the ship, take a picture of him and publicize his presence in the event. After Snake's invasion of Shadow Moses Island in Metal Gear Solid 1 became public, Snake became a hero, but the publicity of Snake's presence on this ship will mark him as a terrorist.

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IV: Loss of solid metal gripper vain cultural memories; Formal analysis of solid metallurgy 2

The lack of coordination in Metal Gear Solid 1 was, of course, tied to the goals of the player and actor. Snake often fails to achieve his goal when the player sticks to his goals well. When the player gets all of the pal cards, the Metal Gear turns on instead of turning off. Similarly, when the player depletes the health bar of Metal Gear Rex's sensor, Snake's expected victory is not achieved because someone more powerful than him comes and destroys Metal Gear Rex.

Metal Gear Solid 1 failures It would complement Sneak with nearly as many wins. The player reached catharsis late, but when it did, it was most effective. Snake had previously killed two hostages just by approaching them against his will, but he saved Meryl and Atakan in critical situations where they could not have survived without him. Sniper Wolf imprisons Snake when the player defeats him in gameplay, and Snake later kills Sniper Wolf when the player defeats him in gameplay. Snake has a hollow victory against Rex [as Gary Fox defeats him] but later gets a chance to deliver the finishing blow. Even the good and bad endings of Metal Gear Solid 1 complement each other, reinforcing the pattern of failure and redemption: if Snake fails to save Meryl, he can load a new save file and save Meryl the second time he plays. vain cultural memories; Formal analysis of solid metallurgy 2

Metal Gear Solid 2 does not give the player the chance to make up for Sneak's failures. The game puts several deceptive goals in front of Sneak, and when the player fulfills his goals, Sneak drowns worse. Snake's only support member on the mission, Atakan, calls out Snake's name in the final moments of the season a clear reference to the Game Over pages where the support team desperately calls out characters' names and announces the actor's death.

The player later learns that Solid Snake survived that event and is present in many parts of Metal Gear Solid 2's gameplay, namely the powerhouse chapter. However, this time the player is neither in the role of Snake nor has any control over his movements, which is a big departure from the plot of the series. Instead, the player controls a new character: Raiden.

This deviation from the series' plot alone made players furious with Raiden and Metal Gear Solid 2 because it went against their expectations.

Metal Gear Solid 2 changed a number of audio and visual details to make the powerhouse chapter deviate from the series map. If In the Tanker season, Snake would be killed while the player was controlling him, the image would go black, and the player would see the same Game Over screen [visual attribute] that had the same song [audio attribute] from Metal Gear Solid 1. However, when Raiden dies, the image fades to white, and the player sees the Game Over screen, which has a more solid design and the music is a bleak, synth-driven sound. The background music that played during the fight with the last giant Olga Gurlukovich (Olga Gurlukovich) was a modified version of the same memorable music from the chase sequence with Liquid in Metal Gear Solid 1. But the background music when Raiden faced the last giants was completely different, and had no vocal references to Metal Gear Solid 1.

Such deviations forced the player to let go of what they expected from the plot of the series. The parchment on which the map was not recorded was not lost, but, like the declining empire itself, the map was no longer completely faithful to the geography of the empire. The powerhouse chapter happened while the part of the series map that the player expected from the previous issue was reversed and defamiliarized.

These expectations formed the "scenario map".

* * *

V: scenario map vain cultural memories; Formal analysis of solid metallurgy 2

A scenario map is more abstract than a series map. Although the player had completed the "player goals" in the Tanker season, Snake failed in his goals as a player. Metal Gear Solid 1 had taught the player to wait for redemption after defeat, so in Metal Gear Solid 2, he was naturally looking for such a form. Despite losing control of Solid Snake, the player at least expected, through his actor, to infiltrate an advanced industrial plant alone and find an infiltrating enemy in the process.

Metal Gear Solid 1 Snake's encounter with the enemy It delayed an intrusion, so it briefly gave the impression that we were in a stealthy, one-man phase. This idea is shattered in Metal Gear Solid 2 as soon as the power plant season starts. In Metal Gear Solid 1, Snake swims through an underground deck, sneaks past guards, waits for an elevator to come down, gets on it, and infiltrates the Military-Industrial Complex. In Metal Gear Solid 2, Raiden is similarly swimming, but just "after" Solid Snake himself has come these directions earlier, knocked out the guards, and boarded the elevator. While Raiden waits for the elevator to descend, an alert player can hide knocked out and unconscious enemies in a closet to prevent them from waking up, but Metal Gear Solid 2 punishes such cleverness. If the guards are hidden in the closet, the elevator will take longer to descend. Metal Gear Solid 2 wanted the player to start the powerhouse season walking through the bubble wash that Snake created, hiding when the guards reawakened to look for Snake. Raiden's first steps in Metal Gear Solid 2 were a parody of Snike's action in Metal Gear Solid 1. vain cultural memories; Formal analysis of solid metallurgy 2

Snake's role as Lieutenant Pillskin in Metal Gear Solid 2 is reminiscent of Metal Gear Solid 1 and Gary Fox's cyborg ninja form. In Metal Gear Solid 1, Snake and Gary Fox pass by each other without making any noise and are implicitly aware of each other's presence. Snake overhears the guards talking about a dangerous intruder wearing an invisibility suit, and later learns the ninja's identity when he walks through a hallway littered with bloody corpses. In Metal Gear Solid 2, Raiden and Snake are also implied to pass each other without joining. Raiden also hears the terrorist officer say that he saw an infiltrator hiding under the box, and Raiden only speaks to Snake when he passes through a corridor decorated with bloody corpses. It also showed how Metal Gear Solid 2 acted contrary to the expectations that it arouses in the audience. It was Gary Fox who taught Solid Snake how to fight, and Raiden only learns how to fight when he acts like Snake in virtual reality simulators. However, Snake learned exactly "from" Gary Fox, but Raiden "as" Snake in virtual reality. Gary Fox used an invisibility suit to hide, which Snake did not have access to, while Snake used a box to hide in Metal Gear Solid 2, which Raiden also had access to; In Metal Gear Solid 1, after seeing how Gary Fox stabbed enemies, Snake helped a naive scientist; In Metal Gear Solid 2, Raiden is saved by Solid Snake while Vamp [as Gary Fox] had stabbed everyone in the bloody corridor; After crossing the bloody corridor, Snake realizes the true identity of the ninja, but in Metal Gear Solid 2 Raiden only realizes the fake identity of Snake. vain cultural memories; Formal analysis of solid metallurgy 2

Other form features as well Contradictory results are obtained. It was because of Snake that Gary Fox penetrated the shadow of Moses, while Raiden only played a minor role in Snake's mission. The ninja who appeared in Metal Gear Solid 1 first wanted to fight Snake, but later became his friend, but in Metal Gear Solid 2, Snake turned from Raiden's comrade to his enemy (in appearance). Gary Fox sacrificed his life so Solid Snake could destroy Metal Gear Rex, but Snake sacrifices Raiden at the climax of his story (Snake hands him over to the terrorists so they can be distracted and sneak into an inaccessible location slow). The extract of all these reversed narratives of Metal Gear Solid 1 is seen when the cyborg ninja in Metal Gear Solid 2 [instead of helping the main character] helps Snake to surrender Raiden.

Metal Gear Solid 2 formally expected It brings to life the relationship between Snake and Gary Fox one part of the scenario map but it lacks the narrative tension and catharsis expected and reverses it at the last moment.

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VI: Machines vain cultural memories; Formal analysis of solid metallurgy 2The boss fights of Metal Gear Solid 2 are also similar to the boss fights of the previous issue. But contrary to their appearance, they deny the victory to the actor, and as a result, the players, after watching Snake's failure in the tanker season, neither get salvation nor make up for the mistakes.

Raiden fight against Jet Harrier. In terms of form, it was similar to Snake's fight against the Hind-D helicopter in Metal Gear Solid 1. Snake was fighting against a hovering machine that shot Stinger missiles while suspended in the air. He was fighting Hynd-D from the top of a tall tower, while the machine attacked him from all sides. Mid-fight, the helicopter destroys part of the building, then descends from the previous environment and surprises Snake. After the player depletes Hind-D's health bar, the machine destroys almost everything left in the environment as well. Raiden similarly fires a Stinger missile at the airborne Harrier, in an open, elevated environment (an industrial bridge) where the jet attacks from all sides. Harrier will sometimes speed away and hide in the sunlight to surprise Raiden. A short cutscene interrupts the fight, showing the Harrier destroying part of the bridge, and after Jet's health bar is depleted, almost all of the bridge is destroyed. vain cultural memories; Formal analysis of solid metallurgy 2

Metal Gear Solid 1 rewarded both player and actor objectives in that fight: it destroyed the Sneak Hind-D and seemed to kill its occupant as well. The helicopter crashes after its health bar is depleted, seemingly narrating that its occupantLiquid Snake, Solid Snake's brother and the story's main villainwas killed in the crash. Liquid did not die there, but the same cinematic narrative gave the player the feeling that the actor was able to achieve a sense of achievement. Snike himself concludes like this: "He also did the cremation".

Metal Gear Solid 2, however, is different in terms of form, and despite the player's success in reaching the goal, he still cannot achieve success for the actor. After the player drained the Harrier's health bar, Raiden was unable to defeat either the Harrier or its occupant. Ray the metal grabber rises from the ocean, picks up the jet with his snout, and carries it to safety. Metal Gear Solid 1 implied that the occupant was killed, but Metal Gear Solid 2 states that the occupant was not particularly harmed the same Solidus Snake, Raiden's antagonist, and Solid Snake's "one brother".

Raiden's fight against twenty-five Metal Gears Ray, like the fight with the Jet Harrier, had no climax or achievement. Snake nearly gets kicked by Metal Gear Rex because his kicks weren't powerful enough, but Metal Gear Solid 2 takes Raiden under Metal Gear Rey's feet that's when he The actor is passed out before the player destroys the last three cars. (Raiden said "It's no use" and then Solidus Rages sings that "I expected a better fight.")

In Metal Gear Solid 2, the cyborg ninja also arrives at this moment and stops Raiden from being crushed. takes, so all the formal features of the fight against Metal Gear Rex are repeated except for the actor's achievement and victory. The one who defeats Metal Gear Rey here is not Raiden himself but Solidus himself.

* * *

VII: Fatman and Fortune vain cultural memories; Formal analysis of solid metallurgy 2

In boss fights where the battle is directly between two people (mano-a-mano), Metal Gear Solid 2 again uses the form features of Metal Gear Solid 1 to disrupt the scenario map. No two fights in these two games are exactly copies. The similarities are subtle. We all unconsciously recognize the patterns and remember the structure of Metal Gear Solid 1, but the catharsis that these patterns require is denied to us in the 90th minute.

In Metal Gear Solid 2, the fight against Fatman is similar in form to Snake vs. Raven in Metal Gear Solid 1. In both, we see a large environment filled with industrial containers, and the player could defeat both with similar strategies. Vulcan Raven was constantly running around, and the player could quickly destroy him by placing claymore mines on him. After hitting Claymore, Fatman will be stunned for a while and we will find an opportunity to shoot him, and he would be killed easier than ever. In both issues, the game provides the player with plenty of claymores before the boss fight begins. In the second issue, it even forces him to defuse landmines and get twice as many bombs, just as Solid Snake had to defuse and take claymores for himself in both of his fights with Raven.

Fatman's character design and the patterns he uses in combat are similar in form to Raven, but they are opposites in content. Both men were physically larger than their peers, but Fatman's bulk was due to his large stomach and Raven's was due to his large muscles. Raven traveled the entire route without clothes and carried cars on his back; But Fatman, wearing a full bombproof suit, skates in and out and shoots Raiden with a small Glock Colt. Raven was going up, down and going everywhere like a piece in a chess tower, but Fatman was doing circular movements with the skates he was wearing. Raven forced Snake to run across the frozen underground deck, while Fatman forced Raiden to run across the helipad without cover. Unlike the previous frozen environment, here it was Raiden himself who had to freeze the bombs. Metal Gear Solid 2 reversed the narrative results of defeating every boss fight. After defeating Raven in Metal Gear Solid 1, the player would make Raven lean against the wall and help Snake with his last words, saying that he will take care of him even after death, and at the same time, when the crows pick up his body When they ate, it would disappear from sight. Fatman, however, leans against the container, curses Raiden in his last words, and says that he will only defeat death when others remember his legacy. Although in Metal Gear Solid 1 Raven disappears after dying, Fatman remains in the scene. To neutralize the last bomb, the player even has to go to Fatman's body again and pick him up. Metal Gear Solid 2 doesn't even need to kill Fatman to advance its narrative: if the player has attacked him with stun arrows, Fatman will fall motionless to the ground, but his breathing can still be heard. vain cultural memories; Formal analysis of solid metallurgy 2

Fortune's boss fight is a combination of Solid Snake's fighting form features against both Metal Gear Solid 1 and 2 enemies. Like Snake's first fight with Sniper Wolf in the first issue, Fortune and Raidena woman and a manare both confined along an industrial setting. To get the sniper, the player must return to the previous environments, because the sniper wolf could not be defeated without the sniper and advance the game. Raiden similarly has to go back to previously traveled environments and defuse the bombs, or else he won't be able to defeat Fortune who has crossed the barrier. Bullets and grenades are ineffective on Fortune, like Gary Fox in the previous issue. And the level design of that section is arranged in such a way that it reminds of the obstacles that Snake had seen before in the fight with Elga. The fight with Fortune ends when Vamp appears, just as Gary Fox appeared and ended Aslat's fight in Metal Gear Solid 1.

Fortune, after recalling all of these forms, It turned into a nightmare. Snake, despite not being able to get close, could still shoot Sniper Wolf from a distance. Raiden, however, cannot shoot against Fortune. Snake, when he saw that the bullets were useless, with his hands Fox won the attack. Raiden, however, can't even get close to Fortune. Metal Gear Solid 1 finally allowed the player to shoot Gary Fox (albeit after some meat and money was given), but Metal Gear Solid 2 denies even this simple catharsis. Since Fortune is invulnerable, the player must take cover behind crates as he learned from the Tanker season and even that is useless because Fortune's rail weapon destroys crates as well.

Fortune to Raiden Wounds speak because the player can't deal any damage to his short health bar, and Fortune himself says he expected to at least face someone like Solid Snake. Most players accidentally learn that Raiden can get out of a fight just by hiding, running, and shoveling his head for two minutes. Gary Fox only helped Snake in Metal Gear Solid 1 when he had at least drained Acelot's health bar, but Vamp stopped Fortune when the player couldn't do any damage to Fortune's health bar.

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VIII: Vamp and Arsenal Gear vain cultural memories; Formal analysis of solid metallurgy 2

Vomp, in terms of form, represents something more complex. He is first reminiscent of the Octopus Decoy character from Metal Gear Solid 1 that Snake accidentally kills in a cutscene [spoofing Donald Anderson]. Raiden also accidentally kills Vamp in a cutscene after the fight with Fortune is over. Raiden shoots the vamp directly in the brain, but later realizes that he is still alive; Snake later learns that Dekoy killed the Octopus.

The first scene where the player fights Vamp has a similar format to the scene where the fight with Acelatt takes place in Metal Gear Solid 1. The fight starts on a square platform with a pool of water-like liquid in the middle. Raiden will die if he falls into it, although he can hang from the edge. Acelat's fight in Metal Gear Solid 1 takes place in a similar way in a square environment, but he is prevented from standing in the center of the circle because he is surrounded by plastic bombs. Vamp started the fight standing in the center of the square, similar to Kenneth Baker's position in the middle of the fight with Acelatt. Both of their exit rooms were located in the same place: one in the northeast and the other in the southeast.

The level design of each location was similar, but they had completely opposite uses. Snake would be killed by the explosion of the bombs, but Raiden would be killed by the pressure of the liquid in the pool. Both actors leave the environment through completely opposite doors. Snake couldn't leave the northeast door because he didn't have the required card, but Raiden can only go through the northeast door to advance. is 1. Acelatt could shoot in any position, forcing the player to always be searching except when Acelatt went for magazine-swapping. It was there that the player had the opportunity to shoot Snake from behind the wires of the bombs. Like Asslatt, the vamp could throw blades at Raiden from anywhere, and the player would still have to be on the lookout until the vamp went for a swim. It was there that, again, the player had the opportunity to attack Vamp.

The gameplay again took a form similar to Snake's fight in Metal Gear Solid 1 against Psycho Mantis. The player could not shoot the vamp like they could the mantis, and success depended on the player's controller. The player had to switch the controller port to defeat Mantis, and the vamp only lost its ability to dodge when the player took their finger off the controller's L1 button (for first-person camera angle). Both fights literally forced the person to change the way they use the console that was running the game to solve the player's goals.

Raiden's second fight against Vamp is also reminiscent of Snake's second fight with Vamp. Sniper Wolf in Metal Gear Solid 1. Both fights forced the player to use a sniper in a large open space, but in Metal Gear Solid 2 with a completely different strategy. In Metal Gear Solid 1, the player had to go from one side to the other to discover the hiding place of Sniper Wolf, and Sniper Wolf also went from tree to tree to hide again. However, neither Vamp nor Raiden move during the fight. In Metal Gear Solid 1, the player wanted to reveal his Wolf, but in Metal Gear Solid 2, Vamp stands behind his hostage in full view during the fight.

Vamp survived all the wounds he received, and Many players still consider this "biosexual vampire" to be one of the worst characters in Metal Gear Solid 2. However, in the terms defined for this article, the narrative of Metal Gear Solid 2 arose from the form it had. It would be misleading not to consider this because it sees vamp immortality as a "narrative" feature rather than a "form" feature. vain cultural memories; Formal analysis of solid metallurgy 2

Vamp's character design and his immortality are similar in form to Liquid Snake in Metal Gear Solid 1. Both men were naked under their noir raincoats, and both survived multiple fatal wounds. Vamp's survival as a Harrier was reminiscent of Liquid's survival as a Hynd-Day. Vamp falling into the deadly pool was also reminiscent of Liquid falling from Rex's Metal Gear. (In both cases, Vamp and Liquid survived injuries that the player knew would have killed him if the same happened to his character.) Vamp survives multiple shots to the head in his second appearance as a boss fight. Just like Liquid in the chase sequence of Metal Gear Solid 1 was still alive after being headshot.

Metal Gear Solid 2 reverses the role of vamp in the scenario map and the catharsis that Metal Gear Solid 1 gave because there Liquid would die due to an "unseen help" (1) and the game itself had decreed it that way. But Vamp is seen again in the background in the final cutscenes of Metal Gear Solid 2 because the game deliberately wanted to reverse the cinematic tension that Metal Gear Solid 1 created (Liquid's survival after being thought to have been killed numerous times).

Finally, when Raiden fails to stop the attack of the newest type of apocalypse machine, we see the scenario map reversed. The Arsenal Gear, a giant digital battleship, sails through New York Harbor with Raiden, comes into the city itself, and almost destroys the Federal Building. Originally, the Statue of Liberty itself was supposed to be destroyed, but the Kojima Productions team decided to remove that sequence out of respect for the recent victims of the incident that happened in New York. In the most dramatic way possible, in keeping with the hot debate of the day, success in "Player Objectives" equaled failure in "Actor Objectives", and so did the scenario map.

* * *

IX: Solid Map

Map The scenario was the result of the decaying and reversal of the series map, but the solid map exists as a complement to both. Heroes are not heroes unless there are circumstances that force them to rise. Also, dramas aren't dramas unless they have heroes who overcome difficult obstacles. Solid Snake couldn't become a hero without going through the difficulties he faced, and Metal Gear Solid 1 had created the expectation in the player that Metal Gear Solid 2 will have similar difficulties that Solid Snake will go through again.

The fundamental difference between old mediums and interactive mediums [i.e. games] is that it also changes the relationship between heroes and events. The old mediums separated the existence of the audience from the objects, and, after encountering it, the audience approached the object only by imagining. In the video game, however, the interaction with the object is clearly visible. This medium wants the player to become the "literal" part of the object. Those who experienced Metal Gear Solid 1 knew that the crises of Metal Gear Solid 2 require both the hero and the hero himself as well as the player. manipulate when they connect their identities. At the beginning of the Power Plant season, Raiden's commanding officer tells him to plug into a digital node [similar to a computer], which Raiden mishears as nerd. When Raiden connected to that node, the player had to enter his name, which would later be engraved on Raiden's dogtag. Here, Metal Gear Solid 2 connected Raiden to the playerwho is also a nerdthrough a computer, and the player connected to an actor he didn't like very much, but Raiden always had to obey the player's orders, even when those orders violated them. His character traits would be. vain cultural memories; Formal analysis of solid metallurgy 2

For example, if the player forced Raiden to kill sea birds, Raiden's fianc would call and react violently to Raiden's pleasure in torturing animals. He also expresses frustration towards him when the player forces him to punch the hostages. Metal Gear Solid 2 forced Raiden, as an actor, to obey the player's orders even if those orders hurt his character and relationships with others.

Metal Gear Solid 2 confirmed Raiden's connection to the player. , because Raiden was introduced by a soldier who himself grew up playing video games. It was through VR that Raiden experienced the events of Metal Gear Solid 1 and Tanker Season, and he candidly told his commanding officer that he felt like "a legendary mercenary" in VR. Metal Gear Solid 2 visually illustrates this idea scenes from Metal Gear Solid 1 play as Raiden defends his training in virtual reality. Just like the player, Raiden also fell in love with Metal Gear Solid 1 and Solid Snake It was.

The player could no longer control Solid Snake, but expected his new actor to act like Solid Snake. Narratively, Raiden, as an actor, shared the same expectations as a player.

* * *

X: till death do us part vain cultural memories; Formal analysis of solid metallurgy 2

Metal Gear Solid 2 twisted Solid's plan there, which made "the actor himself" also know about Solid's plan, but the game says very clearly that Raiden is different from Solid Snake. Despite his efforts to follow in Solid Snake's footsteps, Raiden showed his own unique personality. He admitted earlier in the season of Powerhouse that he would have left the battlefield if he couldthe same battlefield that Snake called "home" in Metal Gear Solid 1. In the previous issue, Snake only showed interest in the others when they were related to his mission, but Raiden tells his commanding officer that the lives of the thirty hostages are more important than his mission to save the President. By the end of the game, he is at odds with his superiors, claiming it is his right to "not want" to fight the terrorist leader.

Ryden's objections are controversial, and Percy Shelley's political philosophy tells us why. It happened like this. Shelley wrote that people usually have to submit to those coercive and inevitable forces, even if it is against their individual wishes, even if they themselves caused the formation of those forces due to living in a society. Individuals must submit to these social pressures (such as civil and civilized law)if they want to remain members of society.

Shelly's explanation, especially in relation to Raiden, hits the mark right in the middle. The scenario map forced Raiden to succumb to Solid's map because he couldn't have gone through the events of Metal Gear Solid 2 if he hadn't already fought as Solid Snake [in virtual reality]. Besides, Raiden wanted to simultaneously be himself and Solid Snake. Since he could not act as both at the same time, he gathered his frustrations and surrendered to Salid's plan. Raiden fueled this self-deception because of the situation he was in.

The player also wanted to obey Solid's plan. He wanted to experience another solid metalhead. In the context of this medium, players can fulfill the player's goals only when they obey the limitations defined in the gameplay and plan their actions accordingly. Players choose to play certain games because they like to engage in the activity defined by the rules of the game. By deviating from the scenario map, Metal Gear Solid 2 intentionally castrates the pleasure that "another Metal Gear Solid" could give; Metal Gear Solid 2 intentionally punishes the player for wanting to be Solid Snake.

The narrative of Metal Gear Solid 1 forced Solid Snake to lose before he could win; Just as video games force the player to lose and go back to problem solving with more experience to win. The player lost many times against Psycho Mantis until finally the support team informed him that he needs to change the controller port. Similarly, Snake lost in defeating Metal Gear Rex until finally the support team [Gary Fox's entry] saved him. The player here could happily identify with Snake as both had parallel frustrations and redemptions. Metal Gear Solid 1 took its form when its narrative mimicked the player's experience.

Metal Gear Solid 2's form, however, pits the player against an actor who experiences his frustrations but not his redemptions. . Whenever Raiden and the player grappled with the combined forms of Metal Gear Solid 1, despite a lot of fumbling, they didn't make much progress. None of the super soldiers necessarily died. The Arsenal that the cleanup team tried to protect from Fatman's bombs was destroyed. Both player and actor want to follow a fantasy [the joy of being Solid Snake], but a violation of intent occurs and they bond to each other because of their "shared failure in this fantasy," rather than to their hero [Solid Snake].

* * *

XI: Torture

All three maps mentioned so far intersect and violate each other like intersecting lines at the climax of Metal Gear Solid 2, and their collapse reverses the relationship between actor and player. The player used to influence Raiden's behavior (for example, by harassing hostages). But when Raiden was transformed from a mere actor to a character, his decisions also affected how Raiden himself influenced the player's behavior. vain cultural memories; Formal analysis of solid metallurgy 2

The high point began when the naval and digital arsenal gear was activated and detached from the deck. Solid Snake betrayed Raiden and handed him over to the terrorists so that [while the terrorists were distracted] he could sneak off to Gire's Arsenal himself. The terrorists removed all of Raiden's clothing and equipment and strapped him to a rotating bed (similar to the torture bed that Snake was strapped to in Metal Gear Solid 1) everything was the same as in the former cell and We've seen Snake's place of torture before.

Metal Gear Solid 2 again reverses the expectations that come from this similar form. Metal Gear Solid 1 forced the player to press the controller buttons at high speed to keep Solid Snake alive under torture. If Snake died, the game would no longer allow the player to advance. Metal Gear Solid 2, however, took away the expected tension when Solidus Snake tried to stun Raiden. The health bar symbolizing Raiden's oxygen reserve would run out, and an on-screen message would tell the player to repeatedly press the necessary button to keep Raiden breathing. But this sequence was so short that even without the player pressing a button, Raiden would come out unharmed.

The torture sequence in Metal Gear Solid 2 is the clearest formal and visual reference to Metal. Gear is solid 1, and also the most extreme kind of reversal of expectations. In the only environment that was an exact copy of the original environment in Metal Gear Solid 1, Metal Gear Solid 2 denied the player the tension or catharsis they previously remembered. It emphasized his uniqueness, and showed why Raiden had a separate personality from Solid Snake. Salidos revealed that Raiden was a former child soldier under his command who had participated in the [first] Liberian civil war in the 1980s. After Salidus left the room, Acelatt went on to tell Raiden that they were "inside the memory of Musa's Shadow Island" that is, inside the memory and memories of Metal Gear Solid 1.

It's no coincidence that Metal Gear Solid 2 exposed the parody and contradiction of the powerhouse season when it had just begun to define Raiden's story. As Tim Rogers pointed out in his article "Dreaming in an Empty Room", the torture sequence in Metal Gear Solid 2 clearly revealed Raiden's identity as an actor in a video game. was doing When confronted with his mundane and shallow role, Raiden just realized his independent individuality. He shouted, but in a weak voice.

Raiden was standing up to the truth.

* * *

XII: Running Naked

One of the train mates pulls Raiden from the bed, and Raiden is now ready for the sequence. - The infamous escape from Arsenal was caught. There, she had to run naked through the environment that is strictly under the security measures of the guards, and at the same time, she had placed both her palms on her private parts so that it would not be known. When the full form of Metal Gear Solid 1 collapses on the player, he literally and figuratively runs naked. Snake couldn't have gotten through the events of Metal Gear Solid 1 without the support and information the support team gave him, and Colonel Roy Campbell was like a fatherly figurehead, informing Snake of his top priorities each time. During the Power Plant season, Raiden believed that his commanding officer was "really" Roy Campbell, but when he passed through Arsenal, he realized that he was merely an artificial intelligence that imitated Roy Campbell's appearance and speech. vain cultural memories; Formal analysis of solid metallurgy 2

Raiden trusted the Colonel because that trust was the logical outcome of Solid's plan [and the player's memory from the previous issue], and his desires in the form of An idea had appeared in the colonel. Another member of the support team later explains the colonel's artificial intelligence implicitly in the form of this solid map: "The colonel is partly your own creation, which due to the expectations and experiences you had before, caused him to form in the 90th minute. Raiden's confidence in his fantasy [of being like Solid Snake] is shattered, and the Colonel slowly reveals his true identity as an AI in Raiden's escape sequence. The words of that Faranad, the father of Metal Gear Solid 1, turned into meaningless words. The face of the colonel's AI became clear, revealing that a skeleton was hidden beneaththe structure of a human body form.

Raiden's relationship with the player changed after the collapse of Solid's plan. Raiden no longer obeys the player's commands, and for example, in the sequence where he runs naked, he does not allow the player to see his private parts. Sometimes, without the will of the player, he would sneeze and reveal his location to the enemies. The player's actor stopped acting, and even made mistakes and troubles that the player couldn't stop. The gameplay implies that Raiden is becoming aware of himself as an "independent and solid character", and is no longer an "abstract actor" [and the player's hand puppet].

Solid Map Once It was also diverted when Solid Snake appeared to him after Raiden escaped. Individually us We distinguish ourselves from each other. There, Raiden clearly saw that Solid Snake was wearing the same stealth suit that he wore in the Tanker season. Raiden could no longer hide the fact that he was not and could not be Solid Snake.

* * *

XIII: The Sword vain cultural memories; Formal analysis of solid metallurgy 2

Sneak also helped Raiden take the next step to become aware of his individual and independent identity. He gave Raiden a swordRaiden's favorite weapon when he was a child soldier. Salidos later praised Raiden's swordsmanship: "I've been watching you fight. It seems that you still remember how you used to kill people in the old days. Snake Valley never used swords; This way of fighting was unique to Raiden's identity.

The sword symbolizes Raiden's separation from Solid's plan and his return to the player-player relationship that was already established in the Tanker season. When Snake brought the stun weapon that season and later took over Olga's weapon, the player was dependent on their "special character" for in-game actions. Unlike the other weapons obtained during the Powerhouse season, Raiden obtained this weapon not through gameplay but through [a cutscene] narrative, and it was because of his "special character" that he already knew how to use the sword. Such an event was similar to the Formi Metal Gear Solid 2 model. The player receives the weapon in the narrative cutscene when Snake reaches Elga's account, as the player later receives the sword when Elga gives it to Raiden in the narrative cutscene.

Control Type Metal Gear Solid 2. Here again, it emphasizes the individuality of Raiden. Until the climax of the story, the player had to shoot a firearm like Snake. Metal Gear Solid 2's gameplay made weapons only show their true effectiveness when the player was shooting from a first-person perspective, pressing two buttons at the same time and shaking the joystick. The first-person point of view also increases immersion: the player observes and reacts to the environment from "inside" and from "the actor's own point of view". The sword, however, required shaking two joysticks and pressing a button. Swordsmanship was more effective in third-person perspective, preventing the player from immersing himself with Raiden [the player viewed and reacted to the environment from "outside" and from his "point of view" here]. Changing the game controller indicated that Raiden had achieved his own identity, and using the sword forced the player to go outside of Raiden's virtual body, as swordsmanship only worked from a third-person perspective. If we say that the player had already infiltrated Raiden's soul like a genie and was controlling him and seeing through his eyes, the sword performed a kind of exorcism, and took the player out of Raiden's soul, so that Raiden's independent personality could flourish. vain cultural memories; Formal analysis of solid metallurgy 2

The beginning of this sequence was similar in form to the boss fight that was seen in the Tanker season. Salidos challenged Solid Snake in a narrow corridor, and the player had to hide behind boxes and occasionally come out and shoot. The player needed to use a similar tactic at the beginning of that sequence, but as he progressed, he found that there was nothing special to take refuge in. Those that remain are virtually useless, and the next circular battle pit has nothing to hide behind. Metal Gear Solid 2 gradually showed how Raiden was the target of enemy shots from all sides. Both the level itself and the design of the enemies forced the player to use Raiden's sword more than his firearm. The player needed to press oddly arranged buttons to fire while moving, and Raiden's aim while running was poor, and half the enemies in the area dodged bullets with their swords. The sword, however, allowed Raiden to strike while running very easily. Even when there was nowhere to hide, he deflected bullets, and his attacks could not be deflected by sword-wielding soldiers. Here, the player became dependent on Raiden's specific identity to achieve their goals, and Metal Gear Solid 2 finally and for the first time showed that the player's victory was equated with the actor's victory. The player could only succeed there if he stopped imitating Solid Snake [and shooting guns] and didn't look up to him as a role model.

Raiden used to follow Solid's plan because the situation forced him to. pan Rely on the knowledge that the player previously acquired from Metal Gear Solid 1. But since the torture sequence started, after that it was "Raiden controlling the player" and not the other way around. The player is unable to fully control Raiden during the sudden and intense military attack of the final sequences, and the ensuing crises force the player to rely on Raiden's identitysword fightingto achieve their goals. The player understands this reversal of his relationship with Raiden more when Raiden surrenders against Ray's twenty-five Metal Girders despite the player's wishes; That is, although the player wants to stand like his hero [Solid Snake] and fight with Metal Gear, but the actor [Raiden] imposes his will on the player's will and stops fighting.

* * *

XIV: Acelate in water

Progress The game sped up after clearing all the mind maps from Metal Gear Solid 1. The player needed to use Raiden's sword and had to see Raiden from a third-person perspectiveas if he had come out of his body. However, the fight against twenty-five Metal Gear Soliders re-established the sense of player-to-player immersion. He again had to go into first-person view to fire Stinger missiles at the Metal Gears, doing so in an environment that replicated the VR stages in Metal Gear Solid 1. Raiden would be placed in the center of an octagon, where (in Metal Gear Solid 1) a woman would appear and the player would happily shoot her. Now Raiden was self-consciously in the center of attention. vain cultural memories; Formal analysis of solid metallurgy 2

However Metal Gear Solid 2 exactly Raiden gives up the fight and goes to clear the Metal Gear Solid 1 map. The game destroyed Raiden's chance to redeem himself and clean up his past mistakes in the Power Plant season, while providing redemption for Snake's mistakes in the Tanker season. The player is separated from the other characters in Metal Gear Solid 1 and the game assures him that he is never going to have an experience like Metal Gear Solid 1 in the second issue. they took Solidus Snake destroyed all but one of Ray's Metal Gears, and Acelatt destroyed the seemingly invulnerable Fortune. It was revealed that Raiden's main antagonist was not Snake's Solidus, but his naivety, who manipulated and controlled him like that. Liquid Snake took over Aslat's soul, stole the remaining Metal Gear Rays, and jumped off the edge of Gear Arsenal (Solid Snake also rushed and behind him).

Many critics of Spirit Solving "Liquid in Aslat's body" was considered the most ridiculous trick in the story. However, such a criticism assumes that the solution of liquid has a "narrative" and not a "formal" logic. This solution represented Metal Gear Solid 2's most intense attack to clean up and reverse the series, scenario, and Solid maps.

Both Liquid and Acelatt were responsible for the events of Metal Gear Solid 1, though one less and one more. Liquid had been Snake's most obvious enemy until then, but it was Acelatt behind the scenes who plotted and encouraged Liquid's conspiratorial plans. Considering the form, Metal Gear Solid 2 also reversed this relationship, because now it was the liquid that shaped Acelat's actions from behind the curtain. It was outstanding. He always wanted to increase the global demand for mercenary soldiers, and Metal Gear Solid 1 tells the player what crises have resulted from pursuing this plan. Liquid's return during Tanker's season implied to the player that he would have to face Liquid again (which fit with the plot logic of the series). Snake's feud with Liquidbrother against brotherwas a big part of the storyline, and his return was reminiscent of his ruthlessness in Metal Gear Solid 1. Finally, in Metal Gear Solid 1, Snake was sent on a mission at all with the intention that he and Liquid were genetic twins. Liquid Snake has so far been part of the same situation that made Solid Snake to become the shadow hero of Moses.

Acelot also shared Liquid's roles, but passively. He was the one who sold Rex's Metal Gear Blueprint to others after the events of Metal Gear Solid 1 ended, again threatening to make another Metal Gear Solid (which is the inevitable excuse to continue Metal Gear Solid again). He also played the role of "The Grand Conspirator", which was featured in the scenario map. In the end, he was the one who persuaded Liquid to become the cause of the events and crises of Metal Gear Solid 1, so he had as much a part in shaping the events that led to Solid's plan as Liquid. vain cultural memories; Formal analysis of solid metallurgy 2

Despite the obstacles encountered in Metal Gear Solid 1, Snake left the battlefield with a happy ending. two of The most obvious themes of Metal Gear Solid were one of the primacy of individual strength and will over one's genes, and the other was the possibility of falling in love amidst the dangers of war. Liquid believed that his and Snake's "warrior" genes would inevitably lead them to war, and Snake decided to overturn Liquid's deterministic belief and go about his life in peace with Meryl Silverberg (Meryl's love interest in Metal Gear Salid was 1). One of the characters of Metal Gear Solid 1 summed up the hopeful tone of the game in one phrase: "Choose life and then live." How the optimism of the end of Metal Gear Solid 1 failed. In the second issue, we learn that Sneak's relationship with Meryl is completely bitter and he became a reclusive alcoholic. Snake only found meaning in his life again when he worked for an anti-metallurgical organization and reentered the field as a soldier. This organization was formed when Aslatt sold Rex's blueprint on the black market. So all the work the player had donewhether for his character or the game's fantasy worlddidn't pay off, and the threat of Metal Gear wasn't removed. If it had any fruit, it was to show that Liquid was right: the meaninglessness of Snake's life was resolved only when he followed his genetic heritage (the "warrior" genes); And peace could not keep the love that was formed in the battlefield; And Acelatt used Metal Gear again to reignite the threat of global nuclear war.

Metal Gear Solid 2 dramatized everything that went wrong from the previous issue: by showing that The liquid dissolved in Aslat was able to (apparently) kill Snake. The player's and Snake's victories now seemed absurd. Everything that justified the creation of Metal Gear Solid's sequel Aslat as the conspirator, Liquid as the enemy, and Snake as the hero went against the player's expectations.

With Liquid dissolved in Aslat on top of Arsenal Gear, Metal Gear Solid 1 suddenly appeared. Snake had a chance to make up for his previous defeat [in the Tanker season] by destroying Liquid and Ray's Metal Gear. Snake and Raiden's joint fight in the previous sequence showed that the player had at least a small role in making up for Snake's defeat, but Metal Gear Solid 2 again defied expectations. After the game destroyed the entire plot of the series by nullifying all the achievements of Metal Gear Solid 1, Metal Gear Solid 2 even prevented the player from seeing how these narrative twists were resolved. Metal Gear Solid 2 has so far shown Snake appearing to save Raiden from a predicamentapparently following the scriptbut the player never had such a role because Snake wasn't his actor. Eventually, Liquid appeared in the narrative only after Raiden regained consciousness and realized that he was different from Solid Snake.

Redemption was finally possible, but there was nothing the player could do with it for Solid Snake.

When Liquid Snake stole both Aslat and Metal Gear Rey (two of Metal Gear Solid 1's biggest enemies), then the Apocalypse Machine and the hero of the story were also destroyed. They took Salyd's plan down with them, leaving the player alone to fly to New York with Arsenal.

* * *


XV: Chainsaw Raiden vain cultural memories; Formal analysis of solid metallurgy 2

Solidus Snake's latest artwork re-emphasizes the collapse of Solidus' plan. All the player's weapons were removed and only the sword remained. Raiden and Salidos duel atop the building "Where Freedom Was Born." For the first time, Raiden fought for himself and not to make Solid Snake his role model. It is also the only boss fight in Metal Gear Solid 2 that solves both player and player objectives at the same time. If the player succeeds, Raiden will kill Solidus.

Metal Gear Solid 2 will hint that Raiden has changed by returning to the menu screen. At the beginning of the game, the player could only see Solid Snake's face, but after the end of the game, Raiden's face. Solid Snake's face was colored red, which is the color that represents the lethal weapons in the player's inventory.

Raiden's face, however, was colored blue, the same color that represents the non-lethal weapons in the player's inventory - Metal Gear Mods and Innovations Solid 2 compared to Combat Metal Gear Solid 1. This changed menu in terms of form showed Raiden's awareness and identity-independent-finding as well as the gameplay change compared to the previous issue.

Raiden got rid of the idea of stepping into Solid Snake's shoes, as well as the player's control over him as an actor. In the final cutscene, Raiden throws away the military plates that the player had inscribed his name on, meaning all the control the player previously had over him.

Metal Gear Solid 2 sees Raiden as a symbol of what will eventually come next. It thrives on leaving behind the old cold legends [of being Solid Snake]. Because Solid Snake was sterile, but Raiden fathered a child.

* * *

Conclusion vain cultural memories; Formal analysis of solid metallurgy 2

Salidus Snake named his terrorist organization "Sons of Liberty" , which is a direct reference to the historic Children of Liberty that terrorized British colonists during the American Revolution. Despite the fact that he has those memories and cultural memory of the past, Salidos remembers and wants to follow in the footsteps of the same children of historical freedom, but he fails, because he wanted to give a solution to the problems of the new era with the legend of the resistance of the old era.

Metal Gear Solid 2 played with and changed the form of Metal Gear Solid 1 more than is listed in this article. Raiden's search for Richard Ames among the hostages, for example, was similar to Snake's search for Meryl among the Genome soldiers; Ration's sea lice rendered Raiden useless just as Stick's lice were useless in the cold in Metal Gear Solid 1; And the solution to these problems depended on the equipment the player chose in his inventory. However, this article was only limited to showing how Metal Gear Solid 2 left the player's expectations unanswered because the form became a means to acknowledge the game's narrative themes.

Metal Gear Solid 2, which over It breaks up the familiar forms of Metal Gear Solid 1, making for a deliberately unpleasant experience. Such an action might have been fruitless if Metal Gear Solid 2 did not use its form, that is, the essence of cultural memory, to defend its theme. Metal Gear Solid 2's scenario was an elaboration on what cultures remember from individual legacies, and the game's form showed how the cultural solutions we previously remembered were useless in solving problems of a similar form. Raiden and the player both have memories and memories of Metal Gear Solid 1, but neither of them can give a solution when dealing with similar forms. Let's learn, but we run into a problem the same problem that Metal Gear Solid 2 points to. Salidus Snake named his terrorist organization the Sons of Liberty, a direct reference to the historical Sons of Liberty that terrorized British colonists during the American Revolution. Despite the fact that he has those memories and cultural memory of the past, Salidos remembers and wants to follow in the footsteps of the same children of historical freedom, but he fails because he wanted to give a solution to the problems of the new era with the legend of the resistance of the old era. Being so faithful to ancient legends and imagining ourselves in the eyes of past characters [despite everyone having their own individual identities] makes us a predictable creature, and the conspirators were able to fool Salidos because they knew exactly which cultural memory he was based on. It works.

The player and Raiden fail similarly. They were dealing with the problems in Metal Gear Solid 2 with the same solutions they knew before, the memory they had from Metal Gear Solid 1, and they always failed. Metal Gear Solid 2 deliberately mixes the form of Metal Gear Solid 1 in order to create the expectations that the player had from the gameplay and narrative of the past, but at the last moment, it denies him the show that he expected. Metal Gear Solid 2 blocks the access and use of old legends. It is the gameplay itself that reveals the theme of the game and not just the narrative: each generation must give up those ideal romantic events and characters and look for new answers to the problems of the new world.

These issues in America We will see today. Our founding fathers won their freedom with economic and political terrorism that is similar to the tactics used by religious fundamentalists today. The Boston Tea Party protests and the September incident differ more and more simply in the scale and extent of the damage they left behind: both were attacks, literally, on symbols that reflected the economic power of their enemies. From the 9/11 incident until now, we see when political leaders, citing the myths of the past and their rightful violence, lead us wrongly into new wars and cause scandal and deception. As long as we live in a world where international interests conflict, we will face the same problems that our founding fathers faced, but we cannot let the myths that arose from their actions occupy our imaginations and our future. /p> vain cultural memories; Formal analysis of solid metallurgy 2

But let's limit the scale we're talking about to the subculture of video games.

The form of Metal Gear Solid 2 moves in parallel with its content. he does. This is a prime example of an object that transcends the originality of the medium in which it is formed.

Poems use linguistic structure to create forms that convey meaningful content abstractions, directly and indirectly. In this sense, poetry transforms the rhythms and sounds of human speech from a mere ringing sound to divine sound. Or rather, it takes more than just entertainment.

The defenders of Metal Gear Solid 2 attacked the critics and say "because they didn't understand the plot properly." Those critics also answer that the scenario of the game is not such a gift.

No, the scenario of the game is not as good as Metal Gear Solid 1, and it is not supposed to be.

The key to understanding Metal Gear Solid 2 is not. It is in its scenario and not its narrative, but in the form that both eventually serve it.

A Formal Analysis of Metal Gear Solid 2

By James Clinton Howell

1. Deus ex machina is a borrowed translation (calque) of the Greek root , and its literal meaning is "God by means of a machine". This phrase is the result of one of the inventions of the ancient Greek theaters, where the actors who played the role of God entered the stage with the help of a car (they were brought from the top of the stage to the bottom of the stage by a kind of primitive crane). They often appeared to end the story or problem that was going on. In today's stories, it is not just a reference to God(s), and the more general meaning includes a common storytelling device that the writer uses to solve a seemingly intractable problem suddenlyjust like a "supernatural aid." At the end of Metal Gear Solid 1, Liquid doesn't die after falling from a helicopter, falling off Metal Gear, and an accident with a jeep, and it seems that the "death of the antagonist of the story" is an unsolvable problem, the author, in the position of God, at the last moment And suddenly he kills the liquid to end the story. (m) vain cultural memories; Formal analysis of solid metallurgy 2

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