We have all heard many stories about Mirza Taghi Khan nicknamed Amir Kabir. Perhaps the most enduring story about him is related to his childhood education. Amir Kabir was martyred in late January 1230. Many historians consider Amir Kabir to be an Iranian-friendly and reformist figure and remember him with respect. In this note, after a brief reference to Amir Kabir's life on the anniversary of his death, we intend to introduce a number of books that have been written about him.
Amir Kabir's childhood and adolescence
Mirza Taghi Khan Amir Kabir was born on January 10, 1185
in a village in the Farahan region near the city of Arak in the
present central province. His father was a Karbala victim of Mirza
Isa's servants. Mirza Isa belonged to an influential lineage and
his ancestors held positions in the Afshari and Zandi rulers. Mirza
Isa served him as a teacher and advisor to Abbas Mirza (Crown
Prince of Iran) during the reign of Fath Ali Shah. Mirza usually
brings food for the children and waits to collect the dishes after
eating. Meal time is usually equated with the presence of private
tutors at home. Mirza Isa brings teachers for his children so that
they can study. Amir Kabir was also listening to the
teachers at the same time. Once an interesting thing happened and
Mirza Isa decided to ask his children a lesson, but they could not
answer their father's questions correctly, but Amir Kabir
answered the questions correctly and caused astonishment. The
audience was surprised and Mirza told him to ask any questions he
had and to tell him that he had learned the answers to these
questions. While he was in the classroom, Mirza, who was himself a
scholar, soon agreed to the request. The secretary of Mirza Isa
arrives. Mirza's son also became the Prime Minister of Iran during
the reign of Mohammad Ali Shah, although he was assassinated for
conspiracy theories. Amir Kabir Gribaydov, a prominent
Russian ambassador and diplomat in Tehran, angered the people
because a number of women of Georgian and Armenian descent who had
converted to Islam were considered prisoners of war under Article
13 of the Turkmen Treaty and taken to the embassy to be returned to
Russia. . Such an incident provoked the anger of the people of
Tehran, who attacked Gribaydov and killed the Russian embassy. The
assassination of the Russian ambassador could have dire
consequences for Iran, so Fath Ali Shah sent a high-ranking
delegation on behalf of Iran to the Russian Tsar to appease him.
Amir Kabir was also present in this high-level delegation as
a secretary. This diplomatic trip increased Amir
Kabir's knowledge and elevated his position.
Mirza Taghikhan's second important mission took place during the reign of Mohammad Shah, when the Ottoman government invaded Khorramshahr and claimed that the city belonged to the Ottoman Empire. In order to prevent the start of the war, the governments of Russia and Britain demanded that the countries negotiate with each other. The Iranian delegation was represented by Mirza Taghi Khan. "As a result of three years of negotiations, these delegations led to the resolution of border crises, the establishment of Iranian sovereignty over Khorramshahr, and Iran, in addition to gaining shipping rights on the Arvand River, guaranteed the lives and property of its citizens traveling to the religious cities of Najaf, Karbala and Baghdad." Amir Kabir had a very good relationship with Nasser al-Din Mirza, Crown Prince of Mohammad Shah, and was his teacher. The young crown prince knew him as his father and consulted him in all matters. Traditionally, the crown princes of the Qajar kings resided in the center of the important and influential state of Azerbaijan, Tabriz. Tabriz was the second largest city in Iran and the largest amount of tax revenues came from the province of Azerbaijan. Therefore, the governorship of this state could be a good experience for the government of the future king. The news of Mohammad Shah's death reached Tabriz through the envoy of the British embassy, and after that Amir Nezam suggested that Nasser al-Din Shah gather from Tabriz to Tehran with an army. However, due to the emptiness of the treasury, preparing this amount was not an easy task.
Therefore, Amir Nezam, by borrowing money from the merchants of Tabriz, prepared an army to go to Tehran with them. Nasser al-Din Shah's army arrived in Tehran six weeks later. During this time, Mahdalia, the king's mother, ran the affairs of the capital and prevented a riot in Tehran. In addition, the ambassadors of Britain and Russia stressed the need for a peaceful transfer of power. As soon as Nasser al-Din Shah arrived in Tehran and was crowned, he appointed Mirza Mohammad Taghi Khan Farahani as the Prime Minister and Commander-in-Chief of the Iranian Armed Forces and named him Amir Kabir. He did not and this issue had created jealousies towards him.
Amir Kabir's performance as Chancellor
Amir Kabir's presidency lasted 39 months.
Historians do not agree on the extent of Amir Kabir's
achievements, however, this period is very important. One of
Amir Kabir's most important actions was to create the
newspaper Vaqaye Etefaqiyah. He always observed that rumors were
spreading rapidly in the country and that there was no reference to
verify these false claims. That is why he ordered the establishment
of such a newspaper so that all events would be heard regularly. Of
course, printing the newspaper was expensive and the condition of
the treasury was not good. For this reason, Amir Kabir was
one of all government employees whose annual income was more than a
certain amount; Asked to buy the newspaper's annual
Amir Kabir had served as Mustafa for a period before becoming prime minister, knowing that Iran's tax framework was very inefficient. So his first step was to change the structure of taxation and cut or reduce many salaries. He even reduced the income of the king and his family so that he could improve the state of the treasury by saving money. Of course, this caused many courtiers and members of the royal family to be hostile to him.
Amir Kabir's relationship with the British and
Russian ambassadors was appropriate and respectful. He considered a
policy of negative balance towards these two countries,
which would not give concessions to either of the two
empires and would preserve Iran's independence. Amir
Kabir's diplomatic behavior had caused the ambassadors of
both countries to praise him. However, in some historical books,
the assassination of Amir Kabir is related to the conspiracy
of these two embassies; But the condemnation of Amir
Kabir's assassination by the Russian and British ambassadors
and the ambassadors' attempt to mediate between Amir and the
Shah cast doubt on this claim.
Amir Kabir remembers his childhood and knew that he was fortunate to be able to study. But many did not. At that time, there were only a few schools affiliated with foreign embassies in the country, so Amir Kabir decided to establish Dar al-Fonun schools. To do this, he invited a number of Austrian teachers to Iran. Austria was neutral in the dispute between Russia and Britain because Amir Kabir was concerned that the presence of Russian or British teachers could increase their influence on the minds of talented and capable Iranians. In addition, Austria had no vested interests in Iran. The establishment of the Dar al-Fonun was met with numerous protests from some reactionary forces, and Amir Kabir was dismissed at the time of its inauguration, but the next prime minister, Mirza Aga Khan Nouri, supported the school despite all his disagreements with Amir Kabir.
4 books to get acquainted with the contemporary history of Iran and its developments
Amir Kabir and foreign policy
In this note, we mentioned Amir Kabir's good and
respectful relationship with the ambassadors of Britain and Russia.
He first established permanent embassies in St. Petersburg and
London, and later established consulates in the Caucasus, Mumbai,
and the Ottoman Empire. Amir Kabir sought to have better
relations with the United States and France because the two
countries had no colonial interests at the time and in the Middle
East. Amir Kabir was able to establish respectful relations
with the superpowers of that time by developing the diplomatic
apparatus while preserving the independence of the country. He
fought against superstitions. He had trouble performing the
beheading ceremony and ordered it to be stopped. The same order
angered a number of fanatics. But he was determined to carry out
this order. Another famous act of the Prime Minister is the
execution of Seyyed Ali Mohammad Bab. Some say that the reason for
Mahdalia's enmity with Amir Kabir is related to the
execution of the Babi sect leader, and that Mahdalia may have
sympathized with this sect. Amir Kabir's dismissal
and assassination He remained steadfast. There are many debates
about the reasons for Amir Kabir's dismissal,
some historians consider the dispute between members of the royal
family and Amir Kabir as the main reason for his dismissal.
It should not be forgotten, however, that Amir Kabir, with
his military and executive powers, could have increasingly worried
the Shah. Moreover, Amir Kabir's influence and power
could not be ignored. He had good relations with foreign diplomats,
was very popular, and many, including the Shah himself, feared him.
He decided to console her and wrote her loving letters. Amir
Kabir also tried to change the Shah's opinion in order to return to
the presidency. But pessimism and misunderstandings, such as the
ousted Chancellor's failure to attend the royal salute, intensified
The new Chancellor was closer to the British government. For this reason, Russia decided to support Amir Kabir and offered him asylum at the embassy. Although Amir Kabir did not accept such a request, the Russian embassy staff stated that Amir Kabir's house was part of the embassy and that no one had the right to attack him. Although Amir Kabir asks the soldiers to leave his house, this incident worries Nasser al-Din Shah and he decides to remove Amir Kabir from all his titles and privileges and banish him to Kashan.
Finally, Amir Kabir was assassinated sadly and sadly in
the bath of Bagh-e Fin in Kashan on January 11, 2012, by the order
of Nasser al-Din Shah. Amir Kabir married twice during his
life. He had three children from his first wife, Jan Jan Khanum.
His second wife was Ezat al-Dawla, the sister of Nasser al-Din
Shah. Ezzat al-Dawla loved Amir Kabir and always supported
him and even accompanied him in exile. At the request of Ezzat
al-Dawla, the body of Amir Kabir was sent to Karbala and he
was buried there. Ezzat al-Dawla did not have a happy time after
the death of Amir Kabir, and Nasser al-Din Shah first took
his children and then forced him to remarry. One of the daughters
of Amir Kabir and Ezzat al-Dawla, named Taj al-Muluk, became
the queen of Muzaffar al-Din Shah's court and gave birth to
Muhammad Ali Mizra. Another son of the two also married
Due to the importance of Amir Kabir's presidency, many historians have written various books about his performance and study politics.
Amir Kabir And Iran
Amir Kabir and Iran is a book written by Fereydoun
Adamit, a prominent Iranian historian and diplomat. Fereydoun
Adamit was born on August 1, 1299 in Tehran. After his primary
education, he went to the Dar al-Fonun school, and after
graduating, he went to the Ministry of Posts and Telegraphs, where
he worked as a clerk. Shortly afterwards, he decided to go to
university to continue his studies, so he studied at the Faculty of
Law and Political Science. Adamit spent a long time as an
ambassador to different countries. In 1330, he left for Britain on
a five-year mission and was given a deadline to continue his
studies in international law. He completed his doctoral studies at
the London School of Political Science and Economics. In addition
to his diplomatic activities, Adamit was a prolific writer and
historian. With the end of the Pahlavi regime, humanity also
distanced itself from politics and took history seriously.
The book of Amir Kabir and Iran is one of the most important works of this author. This book was originally written in three volumes and its first volume was published in 1324, when Adamit was 25 years old, but with some corrections, all three volumes were published in 1334 in the form of a book. Due to his presence in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Adamit had access to many documents and writings. The above book can not be considered only as a historical work, this book tries to have an analytical look at the context and social and political atmosphere of Iran during the time of Amir Kabir and to provide an analysis far from the purpose. However, a number of historians and critics believe that the author's political views influenced his book. Amir Kabir and Iran book consists of 33 chapters and 10 different sections. The first part of this book is dedicated to the beginning of Amir Kabir's life, and after getting acquainted with Mirza Taghi Khan's family, we get acquainted with his temperament and youth. The second part consists of two chapters that deal with Amir Kabir's political missions during his trip to Russia and the Arzneh Al-Rum Conference. The third part of the book is called Governance, in which we get acquainted with the principles of government or order of Amirkhani and the intellectual development of Amir Nezam in dealing with Western civilization. The next part of the book is dedicated to the issue of internal security during the time of Amir Kabir by examining the three issues of insurgency in Khorasan, the sedition of Aga Khan Mahallati and the issue of Sistan and Baluchestan. The fifth part of Amir Kabir and Iran is related to the political and social reforms of his time, in which the situation of Khoran, the Court of Justice, ethics and civil action, urban affairs and public services are examined. The sixth part of the book is related to Amir's encounter with new knowledge and culture, in which we get acquainted with the adventures of founding the Dar al-Fonun, Vaqaye Etefaqiyah newspaper and Mirza Taghi Khan's support for translating and publishing new books.
Amir Nezam's economic policy is the seventh part of the book. Which refers more to Amirkabir contracts to improve the agricultural situation in Iran and the use of German and Austrian experts to build new factories.
The eighth part of the book is related to Amirkabir religious policies. In this section, we will learn about Amir Kabir's treatment of Babis and religious minorities and how he interacts with the clergy.
It is discussed in detail with Britain, Russia, the United States, the Ottoman Empire, Austria and France. In addition, special attention has been paid to the issue of Herat and the Turkestan region.
The final part of the book is called Destiny, which consists of two chapters. The final chapter also deals with the fall of the government and the death of Amir.
At the end of the main part of the book, there is a long appendix that can be useful and interesting for those who are interested in history.
Importance Amir's historical position is based on three things: innovation in the dissemination of new culture, knowledge and industry, protection of national identity and political independence of Iran in the face of Western aggression, national political reforms and the fight against civil moral corruption. Various factors were effective in the development of Amir's social personality and his mental transformation went through different stages. We break down those factors and find the source of his adolescent ideas. First, we define the period of evolution of the thoughts and constituent elements of Amir's personality, and then we deal with each of them in detail. In this analysis, we look at history from a sociological perspective. The foundation of Mirza Taghi Khan's character was laid before he began his court service, and he evolved along with his government services and political missions. In the first stage, when he graduated from the Sarkhaneh Ghaem Magham School, he found a connection and learned some Persian and Arabic history and literature, and learned the art of arithmetic and context. Until now, he did not benefit from new knowledge, but most importantly, his talent blossomed in the house of Ghaem Magham, and his strong character is due to his upbringing in that family.
Amir Kabir's book written by Abbas Iqbal Ashtiani
is a prominent and well-known Iranian historian. In this book, the
author tries to describe the events that took place during the
life of Amir Kabir. This work consists of twelve
chapters that have a specific chronological order from the
beginning of life to the end of Amir Kabir's
life. Amir Kabir's book is an important and
interesting appendix that helps to understand the life of
this friendly Iranian Prime Minister and the social and political
conditions prevailing in Iran. Many historians consider this work
by Abbas Iqbal Ashtiani to be an impartial and reliable book.
Abbas Iqbal Ashtiani was born in Ashtian in 1275 and later came to Tehran with his family. He spent his primary education in Golestan school and then went to Dar al-Fonun school for secondary education. After graduation, he was hired as a teacher in the same school and started various courses such as literature, history and geography for the students there. After that, he was admitted to the Higher Teachers' College, and during his studies there, he was able to teach in the schools of the Iranian system and political science. At the age of 29, he went to Paris as the secretary of the Iranian military delegation, where he had the opportunity to access important texts and letters. He was able to complete his bachelor's degree in literature at the Sorbonne, as well as translating and proofreading various texts. With the establishment of the University of Tehran in 1317, he was accepted as a professor there. He continued his cultural activities and finally died at the age of 59 on November 13, 1954, when he was in charge of Iran's cultural advisor in Rome.
Dozens of works, translations and corrections have been left by this author. His body was buried in Shahreri after returning to Iran.
Amir Kabir's book can be considered one of his most important works because in this book Amir Kabir's personality angles and his view on the development and independence of the country are well shown. It becomes. Of course, we need to know that this book has a relatively old tone and literature. . . . . . .
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