Victor Hugo’s books; Creator of Cosette and Jean Valjean

"I have not yet said a thousand things that are in me. When I go to the grave, like many people, I can say that I have finished my day's work. But I cannot say that my life is over. My daily work will still start another morning. A grave is not a dead end, but a highway. The door is closed at night and open in the morning. This is the statement of Victor Hugo, who, one hundred and thirty-seven years after his death, still has a strong presence in French and world literature. His magnum opus, "Les Miserables" and a multitude of stories, reviews, poems, essays, plays, literary reviews and essays are read and reviewed.

BingMag.com Victor Hugo’s books; Creator of Cosette and Jean Valjean

"I have not yet said a thousand things that are in me. When I go to the grave, like many people, I can say that I have finished my day's work. But I cannot say that my life is over. My daily work will still start another morning. A grave is not a dead end, but a highway. The door is closed at night and open in the morning. This is the statement of Victor Hugo, who, one hundred and thirty-seven years after his death, still has a strong presence in French and world literature. His magnum opus, "Les Miserables" and a multitude of stories, reviews, poems, essays, plays, literary reviews and essays are read and reviewed.

Biography of Victor Hugo

February 26, 1802 In the house of Joseph Hugo, the battalion commander, and Sophie Franoise Trebusche, a supporter of the monarchy and Catholicism, a son was born who was the third and youngest child of the family and was named Victor. He spent his childhood in military bases and because of his father's many trips to all corners of Europe, he grew up in the cities of Naples and Madrid.

He was nine years old when he went to a religious school called "Najba College" with his brother Eugene. was called. But the situation in his country became so dire and critical that he returned to Paris with his mother and brother a year later. Victor was happy to return. Because he played with Adele Fouche, the daughter of the Fouche family. Their affection and friendship turned into a burning love years later.

Victor settled in Cordier's guesthouse with Eugene one year after his father was promoted to the rank of general and moved to Belva city and started writing poetry. did Little by little, with amazing study and perseverance, he learned weight and rhyme. He read his works to his brother and mother. His mother encouraged him. At the age of fourteen, Victor wrote in his notebook: "Either I will become a Chateaubriand or nothing."

One year later, in 1817, he participated in a poetry competition organized by the French Academy. His long poem stunned everyone. Although it was not a masterpiece, he was appreciated.

Two years later, he won the Jouflord Academy awards for the poems "The Statue of Henry IV", "The Maidens of Verdun" and "Moses on the Nile".

Success and winning awards encouraged him and gave him hope. He left mathematics education half-finished and studied literature. He published the literary conservator together with his brothers. He published his first book of poetry at the age of nineteen called "Chekameha" in 1,500 copies, which sold out in less than four months, and he received an annual allowance of 1,000 francs from Louis XVIII, King of France. He showed his black. On June 27, 1821, Victor lost his mother, a woman who had predicted the bright future of his child and encouraged him, and was saddened. The presence of Adele Fouch, her childhood friend and lover, brought joy to her life. They married on October 12, 1822 and had five children.

Victor wrote his first novel, "Berg Jargal", which he wrote in 1818, three years later, in 1821, in a small circulation. Published. A year later, he wrote his second novel, "The Icelandic Woman", and published it in 1823.

Participating in the meetings of the Arsenal Library, the cradle of romanticism, played a significant role in his literary growth and development. He met his father and wrote poems under the titles "Chemes for my father" and "After the battle".

Immediately after finishing writing the play "Cromwell", he published it in 1827, which was very well received. became. In the introduction of this play, he questioned the unity of time and space and laid the foundations of romantic drama.

One year after his father's death in 1828, the collection of poems "Sharqiyat" and the novels "The Last Day" published a convict" and "Claude Vagabond". Hugo wrote about the Orient in "Orientalism" and declared his hatred of the death penalty in his two novels.

Victor mostly wrote plays from 1830 to 1843, but in the meantime, in addition to several collections of poems - Autumn Leaves , evening songs, inner calls and rays and shadows - the novel "Hunchback of Notre Dame" became one of his masterpieces. New writers led by "Theophile Gauthier" were influenced by this romantic work. But the old writers were in conflict with the new style. This encounter in French literature became known as the "Battle of Ernani". Therefore, after some members of the French academy opposed the romanticism style, Hugo was expelled from the academy and the plays "Marion de Lorem" and "Shah" It has fun" were banned. But less than three years later, he was re-admitted to the Acadmie Franaise, and the play "The Burghers" was staged and received a cold reception from the audience. They did not like romantic dramas.

Victor Hugo spent the saddest days of his life in the Pyrenees after learning that Leopoldine, his nineteen-year-old daughter and his wife had drowned in the Seine River.

After the failure of the play "Borgradha" and the death of his daughter and son-in-law, he stopped literary creation and entered politics. Hugo notwithstanding His mother's efforts to bring him up as a monarchist believed in democracy. In a poem he composed to answer the criticism of one of his mother's friends, he wrote: "I have grown up."

Victor Hugo first started writing "Les Miserables" under the title "Les Miserables" but put it aside for fifteen years. . In 1860, when he was exiled to the city of Grenze, he resumed his writing, this time under the name "Poor People". Its second and third parts were also received by the people on the 15th day of April of the same year. Book enthusiasts lined up in front of bookstores since six in the morning.

The author highly valued this work. As he said to his publisher: "I am sure that this book, if not one of the most important works in the world, is my most important work." This great work gives an accurate picture of French life in the early 19th century.

He tried to penetrate the ruling system to realize his political thoughts. He became a confidant of Louis Philippe and became a member of the House of Lords and the Supreme Council of the Monarchy. At the beginning of the 1848 revolution, he became the mayor of the 8th district of Paris and a representative of the Second Republic. He participated in the massacre of the trenchers in the workers' riots of June 1848, but after some time he denounced it.

On December 2, 1851, when Napoleon overthrew the republic and named himself emperor, Hugo tried to escape. , but surrendered, but the police inspector said: "Mr. Hugo, I'm not detaining you, because I only detain dangerous people." He went to Brussels of his own free will and wrote a satire called "Little Napoleon" and the book "The Story of a Crime", which were published twenty-five years later. and issued political prisoners, but Hugo did not accept this "occupier" mercy. He finally returned to France in September 1870, after the defeat of the French army in Sedan. The people of Paris welcomed him and embraced him.

In 1873, after supporting the Commune rebellion and condemning its repression and writing the novel "Ninety-Three", he started educating his two grandchildren. His health was compromised and finally he died on the 22nd day of May 1885 at his home in Victor Hugo Street. The last sentence he uttered was: "Here night and day do not mix... I see a dark light."

In the following, we introduce five important works of Victor Hugo: strong>Book "Hunchback of Notre Dame"BingMag.com Victor Hugo’s books; Creator of Cosette and Jean Valjean

This novel is considered one of the most prominent romantic works in the world. When writing this work, Hugo was so fascinated by his masterpiece that he wrote it in five months, and during this time he only got up from his desk to eat and sleep. After its publication, this work met with a rare reception.

The events of the novel often take place in this church and its surroundings. In fact, the true hero of this work is the Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris. This building, whose construction lasted from 1163 to 1345, is one of the most important works of Gothic architecture in France, a style that Hugo was particularly fond of. When Hugo wrote this work, modern architectural methods were replacing the Gothic style of architecture, and this cathedral was so dilapidated that some city officials wanted to completely destroy it. But Hugo was an admirer of this building, and by writing this work, he pointed out its value and credibility to the people.

What gives Hugo's masterpiece special value and credibility is the historical reconstruction of the Middle Ages. Hugo, with the help of a strong and passionate imagination, imagines medieval Paris with its mysterious alleys and the hustle and bustle of its poor people before our readers' eyes. The description of the neighborhood of Mjiliggah, which is the center of beggars and the disabled in the city, reveals to us the fact that the distance between the rich and the poor, as well as between the government and the people, is limitless.

From the novel "Gujpasht "Notre Dame", which according to the French poet Alphonse de Lamartine, was called "the epic of the Middle Ages", there are two translations in the publishing market. The most reliable translation was sent by Hermes publishing house to Pishkhan bookstores by Mohammad Reza Parsayar.

In a part of the novel "The Hunchback of Notre Dame", we read:

"Now imagine this long and wide hall in your mind. Imagine that it is bright with the faint light of a January day, and in it, colorful and noisy crowds pass by the walls and circle around the columns. In this case, you will have a general and vague plan of the tableau that we are trying to draw the details of.

If Ravaiac had not killed Henry IV, there would have been no case of him in the justice office, and his accomplices would not have come to destroy the said room. In this case, for lack of a better solution, they would no longer be forced to set fire to the palace office and the courthouse. As a result, the fire of 1618 did not happen and the old palace with its old alar remains standing. Then I could tell the reader to see there, and I would be exempted from writing and the reader would be exempted from reading the details. This speaks volumes for the fact that great events have countless consequences.

Truthfully, it is likely that Ravayak did not have accomplices or, if he did, they did not have a hand in the fire of 1618. This event is divided into two Another form is also justified. First, the flaming star that was thirty centimeters wide and half a meter long, and as everyone knows, fell from the sky at midnight on March 7th, has really landed on the palace. The second one is that according to Theophile's couplet: It was a tragic event, without a doubt/The lady of justice in Paris/It was enough that she ate pepper/Her house caught fire.

These three political, natural and poetic explanations of the palace fire are not very important; The important thing is the fire itself, which, unfortunately, is certain."

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Book "The Poor"BingMag.com Victor Hugo’s books; Creator of Cosette and Jean Valjean

According to the author, the first character of this novel is God and the second character is man. The story of the novel "Poor People" begins in the first part with the introduction of a character named Fantin. Fantin is located in "Diene", the name of the village that Jean-Val-Jean returns to after 19 years. A person who has spent 19 years in prison, 5 years for stealing a loaf of bread for his sister and family and 14 years for multiple escapes from prison.

Jean Valjean goes to a guest house to rent a room, but because Having a yellow mark on his ID card, indicating a period of forced labor, he is unable to rent a room and sleeps on the street. At this time, he meets Bishop Mairel and gives him shelter.

The story takes a more serious form from here and Valjean steals the bishop's silverware. When he is arrested by the police, he is met with the benevolent behavior of the religious bishop who gives him two silver candlesticks and says that I gave them to Valjean myself and that he left the candlesticks behind. This is the place where the process of change in Jean Valjean's thinking and personality begins.

In the middle of the story, we see the introduction of other characters, Thnardier and Cosette, famous characters who, along with Valjean, form the core of the story of "Les Miserables".

In the second part, there is more focus on the introduction of Cosette and she enters the story seriously. This happened at the same time as Jean Valjean entered the Thenardiers family guest house. When Valjean notices the very bad behavior of the Thnardier family towards Cosette, he accepts Cosette's guardianship and leaves the guest house of the Thnardiers with this oppressed girl. My name is Marius. A person whose father participated in the Battle of Waterloo and is rescued by Sergeant Thenardier. Since then, Marius' father advises him to find a person named Sergeant Thenardier. Although Thnardier was thinking of stealing from the corpses of the battle of Waterloo and he saves the life of Marius's father completely by chance. and "Jean Valjean". In the last chapter of the book, which revolves around Jean Valjean, Marius and Cosette get married. And we see the presence of thenardiehs. In the last pages of the book, Jean Valjean tells Cosette the story of his mother's life and is peacefully buried in Perlaches Cemetery.

This great work has been translated into Persian four times. The most reliable translation has been made available to book lovers by Mohammad Reza Parsayar through Hermes publishing house. Yael, the bishop of the religious city, was an old man of about seventy-five years old who had been leaning on the post of religious clergy since 1806.

Even though these details have nothing to do with what we want to tell, at least because Having recounted everything, it may not be useless to mention the words and rumors that spread since his arrival in his territory. Rumors, true or false, can have an impact on life and especially on the destiny of a person as much as his actions. Mr. Mir Yael was the son of one of the advisers of the Parliament of Aix and a nobleman of Kasuti. We know about him that his father wanted him to inherit his position. Therefore, according to the common tradition of ruling families, he got a wife for him very early, at the age of eighteen or twenty. It is said that with this marriage, Charles Merrill had caused many rumors about himself.

He was distinguished, well-groomed and tasteful despite being relatively small, and the first part of his life was spent in circles and paying attention to women. When the revolution happened, the process of events accelerated. Governmental families were deposed, chased and dispersed. From the very first days of the revolution, Mr. Charles Mirell immigrated to Italy. There, his wife, who had been suffering from chest pain for a long time, died. He had no children. What happened to Mr. Mir Yal later? Did the collapse of the former French society, the fall of his family, or perhaps more terrifyingly, from the point of view of the immigrants who saw the development of the disaster from afar, the tragic events of 1993 fostered in him the idea of withdrawal and isolation? During the fun and love affairs that had taken over his life, he suddenly suffered a mysterious and terrible blow, a blow that sometimes strikes a man who cannot overcome his normal circumstances and changes his life and destiny? no one knows We only know that he was a priest when he returned from Italy

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The book "Claude the Tramp"BingMag.com Victor Hugo’s books; Creator of Cosette and Jean Valjean

This work was first published in 1834. Claude, the main character of the novel, is a resident of Troy neighborhood and a poor and hungry man who has no education and has not received help from the community around him. One day, out of poverty and destitution, he steals firewood and bread as much as his lover and child consume for three days. Claude is arrested and sentenced to five years in Clerve prison.

The prison used to be an old church, but now it has been turned into a very high security detention center. Prisoners locked up in Clerve are assigned to hard work during the day and spend the night in solitary cells. They are given a small amount of food before sleeping so that they can work the next day.

But this little food is not enough for Claude. One day, one of Claude's cellmates, a young and shy delinquent named Albin, offers to share his food with him. In this way, a friendly, attractive and lasting relationship is formed.

Mohammed Ghazi, a prominent Iranian translator, has made the best Persian translation of this novel available to those interested by Negh Publishing House.

In a part of the novel "Claude Vagabond", we read:

"Seven or eight years ago, a man called Claude Vagabond, who was a poor worker, lived in Paris. A young woman who was his lover and had a small child was living with him. I will narrate the cases as they are and leave it to the reader to understand its moral points along with the events.

Claude Kargari was a competent and intelligent worker. On the one hand, he was corrupted and neglected due to wrong social upbringing, and on the other hand, nature had deposited all kinds of talent and essence in him, that is why Claude could not read and write, but he understood well and thought well. A cold winter came and Claude remained unemployed. In the attic of the mansion that was his humble home, there was no fire to warm himself and no bread to feed himself and his family, both he and his wife and child were forced to suffer from cold and hunger. Claude resorted to theft, but I don't know what he stole and where he stole it from, this much I know that from that theft he bought three days of bread and fire for his family and five years of imprisonment for himself. He was sent to Klervo Central Prison. Clervo is a monastery that has been transformed into a Bastille prison, a cell that has become a criminal crypt, and a temple that has become a slaughterhouse. They say that the color of color has progressed, and when we mention this progress, discerning and discerning people understand its meaning well and do not interpret the word progress except what we have said.

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The book "The Last Day of a Convict"BingMag.com Victor Hugo’s books; Creator of Cosette and Jean Valjean

The novel "The Last Day of a Convict" was first published in 1829. This book, which was a shocking work in its time, is a deep and shocking story in the field of social analysis. The story is about a man rejected from society and sentenced to death, who wakes up every morning with the thought that this day may be the last day of his life. Only the hope of freedom is a little consolation for him. He spends his hours thinking about his past life and his time of freedom. But as the hours pass, he realizes that he has no power to change his fate. He must walk in a path that dozens of people have experienced; The path that ends in the guillotine.

There are three translations of this novel in Pishkhan bookstores. Mohammad Qazi has given the best Farsi translation by the third publication.

In a part of the novel "The Last Day of a Convict", we read: Arrogant and self-righteous people who keep their reason and logic only in their head and do not use it in life, are nothing but emotional arguments. But in our opinion, arguments based on feelings are the best arguments. We prefer emotional reasons to rational ones. On the other hand, let's not forget that sensory and rational reasons are always related. The book of Crime and Punishment is actually linked to the spirit of al-Qavanin and Beccaria's thinking is the product of Montesquieu's thinking.

Wisdom, feeling and experience, all three belong to humans. In advanced countries where the death penalty has been abolished, the crime rate decreases every year. Compare it yourself.

- Darigha; In this matter, it is not my fault at all, but the poisoned breath of a person sentenced to death, which makes everything wither and corrupt.

- It seems to me that as soon as my eyes are closed, I will see a great light and Abyss of light in which my mind will sink to infinity."

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Book "Ninety Three"BingMag.com Victor Hugo’s books; Creator of Cosette and Jean Valjean

The novel "Ninety-Three" is an epic of the French Revolution and refers to the events of 1793, which are referred to as the era of terror or terror. In such a year, more than 300,000 people were imprisoned and about 17,000 were executed by guillotine, including the King, Louis XVI, and Queen Marie Antoinette. 93 years of Europe's battle with France and the year of France's battle with Paris. But what is revolution? The victory of France is over Europe and the victory of Paris is over France. The greatness of this terrible year, 93, is more than the rest of the century.

Hugo intended to depict the French Revolution during the events of three novels - The Man Who Laughs, The Kingdom and Ninety-Three - but the book of the Kingdom It was never written and the plan remained sterile. He writes about this: "If I write the history of the revolution, I will reveal all the crimes of the revolutionaries and disgrace the criminals." Of course, in this book, he exposes the excesses, callousness, and dry-mindedness of both sides and reveals the name of the night for both: "Have mercy" versus "Don't spare." But he also confirms his republican ideal: "The revolution puts the nation on the throne, and the nation means the people, that is humanity."

Hugo, who was a supporter of the monarchy in his youth, admired Napoleon Bonaparte a lot. , but at the age of sixty-seven, republicanism becomes two-fire, and at the age of seventy, he starts writing "Ninety-Three". But the reason why he chooses 1793 from the time of the French Revolution is because this year is a critical and decisive year. There are three translations of this readable novel available in the market. The best translation has been published by Mohammad Reza Parsayar by Hermes Publishing House.

In a part of the novel "Ninety Three" we read:

"In the spring of 1793, when foreigners came from all sides to France had invaded, the fall of the Girondins was tragic. At the same time, events were going on in the Channel Islands.

On the evening of the first of June, in the small and lonely bay of Bennoi, in Jersey, an hour before sunset, in foggy weather that was unsuitable for sailing but suitable for escape. The ship was raising its sails. The passengers of the ship were French, but this ship belonged to the British fleet stationed in the eastern cape of the island and protected that area. Prince Thordoverney, from the Boyne family, was in command of the ship, and by his order, the said ship was going to sea to carry out a special and necessary mission. It looked like a freighter, but it was a warship. Although it moved slowly and heavy like merchant ships, but they should not trust it. This ship was built for two purposes: deception and authority, to deceive if possible and to fight if necessary.

Due to the mission of this ship that night, there were thirty cannons in the distance between the two decks. They had mounted a high caliber on it. But in order to make the ship seem peaceful, or to withstand the storm, it was tied tightly with three chains of chains behind the ship's wall, and the heads of the cannons were towards the windows of the ship. Nothing was visible from the outside. The hatches on the ship's wall were blocked and the windows were closed.

It was as if the ship was masked. Guns of warships are placed on the deck, but on this ship, which was built for ambush and surprise, there were no weapons, but it was built in such a way that it could carry an artillery in the middle deck. Although the Claymore ship was bulky and stout, it was very stable. Among the English ships, it had the strongest hull.

Although its rear mast was small and simple, it had the capability of protecting ships in battle. Her rudder, specially and skilfully made, had a more or less unique curve, so that it was worth fifty pounds sterling in the shipyards of Southampton. All of them were skilled sailors, elite soldiers, and royalists of Propaqres, or in other words, lovers of ships, swords, and kings."

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