A historian may ask what happened in the past, but a philosopher asks "What is time?", a mathematician may ask about Examine numbers, but a philosopher asks, "What is a number?" A physicist asks what atoms are made of, but a philosopher asks how we can know there is something outside our minds. We can not cope with the existence of these concepts in life without taking for granted the ideas of time, number, knowledge, and right and wrong. In philosophy, however, these concepts are examined. The purpose of exploring concepts is to deepen our understanding of the world and ourselves, and this is certainly not an easy task. It seems, but when you cross the first hurdle, it will get easier and easier with practice and over time.
Here are the top 5 philosophy books that beginners should start with to get you to your first steps. Take philosophy safer in learning. These books are designed to make you think and prepare your mind to enter philosophy. After reading this, you will be completely immersed in the world of philosophy and will be eager to read more about it.
1. The Meaning of Everything
The book The Meaning of Everything is the work of one of the most influential philosophers of the twentieth century, Thomas Nagel, first published in 1987. . He is obsolete in various fields including ethics, metaphysics and consciousness. This book is great for starting philosophy; Because it examines some of the important questions of philosophy and the theories surrounding them.
Philosophy is different from science or mathematics because it does not rely on experiments or formal methods of proof. The main problem with philosophy is that we now question and understand more deeply the very common ideas that we take for granted.
In The Meaning of Everything, Nagel expresses his views on several philosophical problems. In fact, in this wonderful book, he examines nine fundamental philosophical issues and questions that philosophers have been trying to answer for thousands of years. Nagel believes that addressing these questions directly is the best way to start studying philosophy, and he prefers to put aside discussions about big issues.
These are: Our understanding of the world outside our minds. Our understanding of minds other than our own, the relationship between mind and brain, how things work and language, the presence or absence of will in human nature, the basis of morality, the study of what inequality is unjust in, the nature of death and the meaning of life. p>
As can be seen from the list above, these issues and questions are not complicated. Instead, we are invited to ask the simplest questions. The purpose of the book is not to find answers to these problems or even to hear the answers to these questions from the author, but to familiarize you with these topics and questions so that you can reflect on them yourself.
As Nagel believes, most of these problems have not been solved, and some of them may never be solved.
In a part of the book, we read the meaning of everything: This way you could not wake up as you can, because it means that there is no "real" world to wake up in. Therefore, this dream or illusion is not exactly like a normal dream or illusion. "As we usually imagine dreams, they occur in the minds of those who are actually asleep in a real bed and in a real house, even if in a dream world they are fleeing a murderous lawn mower on the streets of Kansas City." Buy the book Meaning of Everything from BingMag Buy the book Meaning of Everything from Book stories
2. Nicomachean ethics
Nicomachean ethics is the work of one of the greatest sages of antiquity, Aristotle. Aristotle believed that virtue is something that one should not only understand but also enjoy in real life. Nicomachean's unique book on ethics is one of the main works of the philosophy of ethics. At the end of each section of the book, research questions are designed to summarize the content of each section and later to base these researches on these questions separately.
This book is initially about life, works and methods. Aristotle's research provides a general explanation of the content of Nicomachean ethics, then examines this work in detail.
Nicomachean ethics is about the roots of Aristotelian ethics; In other words, it contains moral ideas that form the basis of almost all Western civilization. According to Aristotle, virtue is something that is learned through constant practice and begins at a young age. In this work he discusses one after another the various moral virtues and their vices.
Aristotle's claim that virtue can only be learned through continuous practice implies that there is no definite law. We do not have to be able to learn it and then obey it.
Virtue is more of a desire than an activity; This means that a virtuous person naturally tends to behave in appropriate ways and to enjoy the right behavior. Virtue is an average state between excess and excess. This means that it varies from person to person, so there is no hard and fast rule on how to avoid evil.
For Aristotle, happiness is our highest goal, but that does not mean we should be happy. But our goal is happiness. His purpose in ethics is not to tell us we should have a happy and successful life, but to tell us what this life is made of.
In a section of Nicomachean ethics we read:"Knowledge does not have to be anything other than imagination, because some people have no less confidence in their own imagination than the owners of knowledge in their own knowledge: the reason for this is Heraclitus. But we understand knowledge and two meanings. We consider both the one who has knowledge and uses his knowledge as a knower and the one who does not use his knowledge.
He does, and he who uses his knowledge and does evil in spite of everything, differentiates: the behavior of the first man is not surprising, but the behavior of the second man is surprising. The Last Days of Socrates
The Last Days of Socrates is the work of one of the great philosophers of Greece and Athens, Plato and Javid Jahanshahi He translated it into Persian.
Socrates' name has been revered for centuries and he is known as one of the greatest teachers of all time. In one of his most famous discourses, Plato described Socrates as a friend: "I truly consider him the wisest, fairest, and best man I have ever known."
Socrates is often Speaks simple and conversational. He explains that he has no experience in judging concepts, yet he speaks in his usual way, which is based on honesty and frankness. Apollo, Creto and Fedo are divided. Socrates never recorded any of his teachings, and after his condemnation and suicide, his disciple Plato, who was a famous poet at the time, wrote down what he had heard during his teaching.
Plato's first draft of Socrates 'teachings became so popular after its publication that he decided to use them to keep Socrates' name alive. In The Last Days of Socrates, Plato tells a brilliant and thought-provoking story that is still largely taught in philosophy classes.
In part of The Last Days of Socrates, we read: We can only guess how Socrates' thought developed. He accompanied the Athenian philosopher Archelaus for some time, and it is almost certain that he became acquainted with Anaxagoras' theory through Archelaus. As stated in Fendo, he must have met and talked with many of the thinkers of his day, because almost all of them had visited Athens, and he never missed an opportunity to discuss with an expert. "In these confrontations, he was so clear that (according to the story quoted in the apology) one of his friends dared to ask Hatef of the Delphic Temple if anyone was wiser than Socrates. The answer was no!" Buy the book The Last Days of Socrates from BingMag
4. Tesla Philosophy
Tesla Philosophy is a book by the great Roman philosopher of the sixth century AD, Boethius, in Latin. It was written around 523 AD. Boethius was an educated aristocrat of Rome who held important political positions under the orthodox king Theodoric. He is often considered to be the link between two philosophical traditions: the philosophy of the classical world (Greek and Roman) and the philosophy of medieval Christianity. When he was confined to his home, he comforted himself with philosophical reflection and asked the gods of art and science called "bananas" to help him compose a poem depicting his frustrations.
Boethius In his book The Tesla of Philosophy, compiled in five volumes, he inadvertently highlights his time in Greek philosophy and makes a persistent effort to save it. In this wonderful work he speaks of various philosophical subjects, and one of these subjects is "power." In the fifth book of this book, Boethius addresses a classical philosophical problem; How can people freely choose their actions if God is aware of everything that is already happening? If there is no free will, then all that Boethius believes in will fall apart, and God's rewards and punishments will be meaningless, because people will not choose the behaviors they deserve. God is responsible for evil in the world, and "hope and prayer" lose their power. The Lady of Philosophy solves this problem by explaining that there is no contradiction between God's complete foreknowledge of the world and man's authority.
In a passage from Tesla Philosophy, we read: I know the face of the lucky monster. He seduces them with a friend who is bent on their deception. To leave them suddenly and break their backs with this unbearable sorrow. But the Lady of Philosophy also reminds her that the wise man must resist the attachment to the pursuit of luck. "The lady of philosophy introduces an important idea called the wheel of destiny, which on the one hand is victory and on the other hand is defeat, pain and punishment." Buy the book Tesla Philosophy from BingMag
5. The Genealogy of Ethics
The book of the genealogy of ethics is the latest work of the classical German philosopher, poet, cultural critic and philologist Friedrich Nietzsche Written in June 1887, the book was published in November 1887. This book is considered one of the greatest works of Nietzsche and one of the most important books of nineteenth-century philosophy, whose ethnography inspired the science of principles of several modern philosophers. It is called "treatise"; He examines the evolution of moral prejudice in different parts of history and pays special attention to Christianity and Judaism. It is important. On morality, for example, he argues that if we really want to understand what we mean by "good" or "evil," we can never assume that these two concepts have a stable meaning outside of a particular moment in history. In fact, to understand their meaning now or in the future, we must return the genealogy of concepts to their roots; A masterpiece that Nietzsche skillfully performs.
In a section of the book on the genealogy of morality, we read: "He sometimes errs in recognizing the space he despises; That is, the space of the common man, the space of the inferior people. On the other hand, it should not be forgotten that in any case, Hussein ate. And a thousand times worse, a man about the hatred and resentment hidden in the heart of his enemy Of course, in that heart, "Adamak" makes a mistake. Indeed, what carelessness and simplifications and ignorance and simplifications that are not in the food! "Also, what a pleasure it is to turn your object into a cartoon, into a funny creature." Buy the book of ethics genealogy from BingMag
6. Sophie's World
One day Sophie comes home from school to find answers to two questions in her letters: "who are you?" And "Where did the world come from?" To find out, he enrolled in a period of correspondence with a mysterious philosopher.
This is where Justin Gorder's novel The Sufi World begins. A novel that actually reviews the history of philosophy in simple language. Justin Gorder himself is a philosophy teacher and expresses his concern for teaching philosophy in this book. In this book, Sophie is on the verge of turning 15 and now wants to answer the fundamental questions about the philosophy of the universe. For those who want to start studying philosophy, this book is a complete and comprehensive book that reviews the history of philosophy in simple language.
In a part of the book "Sufi World" we read: "Mankind is faced with a number of difficult questions for which there are no convincing answers. Well, two things can be done: either we can deceive ourselves and the rest of the world and pretend to know what we need to know, or we can turn a blind eye to important issues forever and stop making progress. Humanity is divided into two categories in this regard. People in general are either one hundred percent sure or one hundred percent indifferent, it is like splitting a card into two parts. Put the black dots on one side and the red dots on the other. But suddenly a person emerges who is neither a brick nor a heart nor a cross. He only knew that he did not know anything and this bothered him. "So that made him a philosopher!" Buy Sophie's book from BingMag Buy Sophie's book from Book stories