The history of modern Armenian literature, which was originally a tool for advancing the nationalist goals of this country, dates back to the eighteenth century. This period, also known as the period of literary revival of this country, is the era of the emergence of the printing industry and the expansion of commercial networks of trade in books and literary works in Armenia. It should be emphasized that these developments were not limited to the region of present-day Armenia, and its geographical area included a considerable part of Eastern Anatolia.
The intellectual and literary revival of Armenia owes much to the Armenian writers and thinkers They lived outside the borders of this country. In areas such as Madras and Calcutta in India and various intellectual and literary bases of these people in European countries, especially in Venice, Vienna, Amsterdam, as well as Lviv (Ukraine) and Moscow.
In this period though. Armenian literature was, in the eyes of the world, a unified and uniform literature, but in fact the literary works of this country were fragmented along a regional divide. The country spoke: literature on Western Armenia, which was dominated by the Ottoman Empire and its affiliated think tanks throughout continental Europe, and literature on Eastern Armenia, which was administered by Armenians in the easternmost part of the Ottoman border.
Meanwhile, the eastern regions of Armenia were first ruled by the Persians and then by the Soviet Union. In addition to the differences between the intellectual and literary content of the works of these two regions in Armenia, the language used to create literary works was also different in them.
We briefly review the country of Armenia in terms of style and influence of social and historical events, then we introduce 7 of the most prominent writers and poets of this country. Join us.
History of Armenian literature
Origin of works Modern literature in the western part of Armenia, with its capital in Istanbul, can be attributed to the actions of elites and intellectuals educated in Europe (mainly in Paris and Venice). These people were in fact the ones who led the process of cultural modernization of this country and reshaped and reconstructed them in the language and national political orientations of Armenia.
They did not write in classical Armenian, and this changed the literary language of Armenia. They also paved the way for the emergence of later Romantic and realist writers.
The development of modern Eastern Armenian literature followed a similar path. Instead of Istanbul and continental Europe alone, its pioneers grew up mainly in Moscow and Tbilisi and studied in important Armenian educational institutions. Unlike their counterparts in Western Armenia, the leading figures of Eastern Armenia were intellectually immersed in Russian culture and tradition and embraced them wholeheartedly. It relies on realist aesthetics, social and political pragmatism, and the culture of populism.
The catastrophic events of the twentieth century separated the two branches at a critical juncture from their aesthetic achievements. But this separation is a small loss compared to the enormous damage inflicted on the country during World War I and the early years of Soviet rule.
Intellectuals and thinkers destroyed this area. The first victims of this incident, who were seriously executed by the ruling committee, were writers and intellectuals from Western Armenia. More than 200 well-known Western bloc figures, including a number of key writers and publishers, were arrested on April 24, 1915, and then exiled or executed. Many other writers over the following months and years. They experienced the same bitter fate. The few who survived the tragedy later described the Ottoman move as aimed at eliminating Armenian writers and thinkers.
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Eastern Armenian literature was also greatly influenced by social developments and the tortuous path of Soviet domination. Had. Armenia, which was independent for a short time in 1918 and then reunited with the Soviet Union in the early 1920s. literature shaped this area. In the first decade, the literature of this region focused on a revolutionary worldview promoted by writers who were also actively involved in politics. Ironically, during the Stalinist purges of the late 1930s, some of these same communist writers were arrested, exiled, and brutally murdered in eastern Armenia at the head of the socialists. It includes the return and re-orientation of Armenian writers towards historical themes. In fact, the historical novel, which was a major component of Armenian literature in the nineteenth century, generally disappeared as a literary genre after World War I. But the literary genre reappeared in the 1940s, trying to portray the contemporary reality of the country, which was in ideological conflict.
The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991's new unprecedented challenges Brought to Armenia. The protracted war with Azerbaijan over the disputed territories in the Nagorno-Karabakh region exacerbated serious emerging economic and geopolitical challenges in the emerging country. Especially to Russia and the United States. Under these circumstances, Armenia was faced with a declining public sphere in which art faced increasing ideological and financial barriers. Therefore, the initiative of translating these works and presenting them to the world was the best and perhaps the only way out of the Armenian literature from the recession.
The world has also greatly contributed to the growth and development of the process of unification of Armenian literary works with other countries of the world, and is the result of the works that we face today as contemporary Armenian literature.
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Arabic literature They have been created and introduced in
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Khachatur Abovian is an Armenian writer and national figure who was born in the country in 1805 and mysteriously disappeared in the early nineteenth century in 1848. No trace of him was ever found. He was a teacher, poet and supporter of modernization in Armenia. Known as the father of modern Armenian literature, he is best known for his novel The Wounds of Armenia.
This was the first novel written in 1841 and published after his death in 1858. Which was published in modern Armenian and used Eastern Armenian with an Iranian dialect instead of classical Armenian. Abuyan is a very progressive intellectual and cultural figure, none of whose works were published during his lifetime.
Abuyan is one of the most prominent cultural figures not only in the field of Armenian literature, but in the whole history of Armenia. Is known. The influence of the Abuyan on the literature of Western Armenia was as great as the influence of the literature of the Eastern Bloc of this country.
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2- Johannes Toumanian (1869 - 1923)
Armenian poet, writer, translator, literary activist, and cultural figure. He is also the national poet of Armenia. Tumanian composed poetry, quatrains, ballads, novels, legends, and critical essays and journalism. His works are mostly written in a realistic style, often focusing on the subject of everyday life of the people in his time. The Russian Empire moved during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. He quickly became known in the Armenian society for his simple but very pleasing poetic works. Many films and animations have been adapted from Tumanian's works. Two operas, Anoush (1912) by Armen Tigranian and Almast (1930) by Alexander Espandiarian are based on his works./p>
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3- Silva Kapotikian (1919-2006)
Silva Kaputikyan is an Armenian poet and political activist. One of the most famous Armenian writers of the twentieth century, she is known as "the outstanding poet of Armenia" and "the great lady of twentieth century Armenian poetry". Although a member of the Communist Party, he was a prominent defender of the Armenian national ideals. His first collection of poetry was published in the mid-1940s, and in the 1950s he established himself as an important literary figure in Eastern Armenia. Stabilized. In addition to Armenian, Silva also wrote in Russian, and many of his works have been translated into other languages. Towards the end of the Soviet era, he frequently addressed political and other social issues.
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4- Autik Izakian (1875-1957) "Avetik Sahak Isahakyan" was a prominent Armenian poet, writer, and social activist. He published himself under the name "Songs and Wounds", but was soon arrested again for his activities against the Russian Tsar and sent to Odessa. The exhilarating lyricism, emotional load and melody of his poems made him rapidly popular among the people of Armenia. Also, some of his best works are full of sad concepts and reflections on the fate of humanity and the injustice of life. His works are very popular among the people of Armenia due to his love for his homeland.
Isaacian's works have been translated into many languages and many modern singers have used his poems as lyrics.
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5- Johannes Shiraz (1914-1984)
Hovhannes Shiraz was best known for his humor. In 1963, John Steinbeck, a well-known author, visited the poet's apartment in Yerevan and then wrote to him in a letter: "Men are closer when they laugh together. "And I remember we laughed a lot together in Yerevan." Fought. When, in 1974, the famous critic Soren Aghababian announced the award of the Lenin Medal to Shiraz, he replied: "And what do they [the Soviet government] want from me in return?" Do they want my silence?
Shiraz has about forty poetry and translation offices. His rich vocabulary and sensitive style, combined with slang and colloquial elements, made his poetry one of the greatest achievements of Armenian literature. Many literary critics consider his work a masterpiece. According to Parvir Swak, "modern Armenian poetry has risen from the ridge of Shiraz."
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Shushanik Kurghinian (1876 - 1927)
Shushanik Kurghinian The sixth famous Armenian writer Her works have been translated into 17 different languages.
Corginian is mentioned in the history of Armenian literature as a catalyst for the development of socialist and feminist poetry. He is known in this country as the "Voice of the Silent" and sees himself as a "deeply political" poet. Her first poem was published in Taraz in 1899, and in 1900 her first short story was published in Aghbiur Magazine. He fled to the city of Rostov-on-Don.
His first volume of poetry, The Dawn Bell, was published in 1907. After the Russian Revolution, he returned to Eastern Armenia in 1921 and lived there until his death. During his lifetime, Corginian had remarkable relationships with famous Armenian artists and writers.
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Shiraz (1967 - 1997)
Sipan Shiraz is an Armenian poet, sculptor and painter. He was the son of the Armenian poet Johannes Shiraz and his second wife Shushanik. He studied at the Yerevan Art Institute. During his short life, Shiraz published 7 books of poetry. He was a member of the Writers' Association of Armenia and also worked for Radio Yerevan. Shiraz is buried in the Central Pantheon Cemetery in Yerevan.
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