Nima Youshij; A poet whom we need more these days

Ali Esfandiari (November 21, 1276 - January 13, 1338), known as Nima Yoshij, was a contemporary Iranian poet. He is the founder of modern poetry and nicknamed "the father of new Persian poetry". Nima Youshij; A poet whom we need more these days

Ali Esfandiari (November 21, 1276 - January 13, 1338), known as Nima Yoshij, was a contemporary Iranian poet. He is the founder of modern poetry and nicknamed "the father of new Persian poetry".

Nima Yoshij created a revolution in the stagnant atmosphere of Iranian poetry with his influential collection Afshana, which was a manifesto of new Persian poetry. Nima consciously challenged all the foundations and structures of ancient Persian poetry. New poetry was the title that Nima himself gave to his art.

All the main currents of contemporary Persian poetry are indebted to this revolution and transformation that Nima was an innovator of. Many contemporary poets and critics consider Nima's poems to be symbolic and consider him a co-founder of symbolist poets called Jahan. Nima also has poems in the Mazandaran language, which were published under the name "Roja".

Also, Nima painted the image of the society by using natural elements with a mysterious expression.

Biography Nima Youshij; A poet whom we need more these days

Nima was born in the year 1276 in the village of Yosh, in the districts of Baldeh, Noor city. His father, Ebrahim Khan Ezam al-Sultaneh, belonged to an old family in Mazandaran and was engaged in farming and herding.

Nima Yoshij (Ali Esfandiari) and the Esfandiari (Noor) family are one of the famous Iranian and Noor families of Mazandaran province during the Qajar period. And it is a Pahlavi whose ancestry reaches a branch of the Sepahbadans of Tabaristan known as Padusbanians. The Padusbanians were a dynasty of Sassanid descent that ruled parts of Tabaristan (later Mazandaran) from around 40 AH to the era of Shah Abbas I.

Ali Esfandiari (Nima Yoshij) and Mohtsham al-Sultaneh are the most famous members of this family. In the era of Qajar and Pahlavi, many ministers and members of parliament, political and scientific figures and artists emerged from among the members of this family. Even after the death of Hassan Esfandiari (Mohatsham al-Sultaneh) in 1323 AD, who was a famous official and minister of several ministries, a book called the life of Hassan Esfandiari was published. He describes his family. In the biography of Hasan Esfandiari (Mohatsham al-Sultaneh), in which Nima Yoshij describes the history of the Esfandiari family, Nima Yoshij implicitly traces her descent to the Padusbanians of Tabaristan.

Nima is proud of her originality and lineage. Shahr Agim was one of Nima's paternal ancestors and one of the elders of Mazandaran. It was because of his interest in his lineage that he named his son Sharagim. The word "Nimavar" in Mazandarani language means great archer.

This name refers to several Mazandarani warriors. Nima himself writes about this: "Nimavar is one of the noble kings who is my ancestor." In the following couplet, Nima says that what makes him famous is his art. Nima's art is also that of a poet, and it made her one of the famous names in the field of Iranian literature.

Nima's poems about her identity and art:

Nima, I am the only Rostamdar, I am Nima, the only Rostamdar, Nima Varoo Shahr-Agim, descendent from the generation of Shragim, the famous archer, the famous art of Munni, my art makes me famous, Clean Nimo, I am not the ash of the head of the snake, but the fire wood of my hearth (roja). taught him Nima lived in her hometown, Yush village, in the heart of nature until she was twelve years old. Nima learned to read and write from Makhund de Deh, but she was not very happy with him because he would harass her and follow Nima in the alleys.

She was 12 years old when she went to Tehran with her family and studied at Saint Louis High School. became. At school, she used to withdraw from the children and according to Nima herself, she kept running away from school with one of her friends, and after a while, with the encouragement of one of her teachers named Nizam Wafa, she started writing poetry and at the same time, she got familiar with the French language and wrote poetry in He started the Khorasani style.

Nima has dedicated the long epic poem to Nizam Wafa, his old teacher. After finishing her studies at Sanloui School, Nima started working in the Ministry of Finance, but after a while she did not find this job to her liking and left it.

Ali Esfandiari changed his name to Nima changed. Nima was the name of one of Tabaristan's espehbadan and it means big bow. He signed his poems with the same name. In the first years of issuing the birth certificate, her name was registered as Nima Khan Yoshij.

Nima's mother's family had Georgian origins. Nima's adolescence and youth coincided with violent social-political storms in Iran, such as the Constitutional Revolution and the Jungle Movement and the establishment of the Red Republic of Gilan, Nima's sensitive soul could not remain unaffected by these social storms. and he collaborated with Iran Sohrh, one of the publications of the Communist Party of Iran (1920s) of which his brother Ladben was the editor-in-chief and was printed and published in Rasht. Among other things, he decided to join Mirza Kochch Khan Jangli and fight with him until he was killed. His poems were published in the leftist periodicals of this era. "At the distance of two points...!" Portraying freedom among words

Marriage and children Nima Youshij; A poet whom we need more these days

Nima Yoshige fell in love with a girl in his youth, but could not marry her due to religious differences. After this failure, he fell in love with a village girl named Safura and wanted to marry her, but the girl refused to come to the city; Therefore, the second love also did not end well.

Finally, Nima got married on May 6, 1305. His wife, Alia Jahangir, was the child of Mirza Ismail Shirazi and the niece of the famous writer Mirza Jahangir Sorasrafil. The result of this marriage, which lasted until the end of his life, was a son named Shragim, who now lives in America. Sheragim was born in 1321 solar. But just one month after the marriage, his father Ibrahim Nouri died. At the same time, some of his poems were published in a book titled The Soldier's Family. At that time, he was staying at home due to unemployment, he was busy writing poetry alone and thinking about the evolution of Persian poetry, but he did not publish anything. Why are we saddened by the death of "Shade"?

In 1307, Nima's wife Alia Jahangir's workplace was moved to Barfarosh (now Babol; Badr School). Nima also went to this city with him. A year later they went to Rasht. Alia was the principal of the school here and blamed Nima for not having any income. For some time, he was also teaching at Hakim Nizami High School in Astara. /h2>

In 1300, Nima published the poem "Kase Rang Parideh" which he wrote a year ago in the 20th century weekly Mirzadeh Eshghi. This poem provoked the opposition of many traditional poets and followers of the old style, such as Malik al-Shaarai Bahar and Mehdi Hamidi Shirazi. Traditional poets ridiculed him. Abdul Ali Dastghib, a literary critic, believes that Nima showed his ability even at the beginning, when he wrote poetry in the old style. Although these poems are old in terms of form, Nima has included new meanings and topics in them.

In the fall of 1301, he published the poem "Ei Shab" in the weekly newspaper Nobahar. In this regard, Nima says: "In the fall of 1301, I saw another example of my work style, ``O Shab,'' which I had written before this date and which had been widely rejected, in the weekly newspaper ``Nobahar.'' The way of working in each of these pieces was poisonous, especially at that time, to the fans of the old style. After some time, Nima taught in different schools, including the Tehran High School of Technology, and collaborated with newspapers such as Music Magazine. And paid desert magazine. Nima's revolution started with two poems "Phoenix" (February 1316 AH) and "Gharab" (October 1317 AH) and he published these two poems in "Music" magazine which was a government magazine.

The music magazine of 1318-20 took his more serious poems. Apart from "The Sound of the Harp", "Swan", "Shama Karaji" and "Bichon Space" - which are the poems of 1305-10 - the poems of 1316-19 - "Mehtab Flower", "Phoenix", "Morgh Gham", "Fairies" ", "Colored Spider" and "Cold Laughter" - will be published.

In his 64 years of life, he was able to transform the thousand-year standards of Persian poetry, which he considered unchangeable, sacred and eternal, with his poems.

12 misconceptions about writing and writing

This great poet, while suffering from pneumonia due to the severe cold, came to Tehran for treatment; The treatments had no effect and he died on January 13, 1338 and was buried in Imamzadeh Abdallah, Tehran. Then in 1372, according to his will, his body was moved to his house in Yosh.

His grave is next to the grave of his sister, Behjatulzaman Esfandiari (died on June 8, 1386) and the grave of Siros Tahbaz in the middle of the courtyard.

Nima and the Tabari language

Nima's main concern was the preservation and revival of the Tabari language, he mentions this concern in his letters and manuscripts as well as in the introduction to Roja's book.

In the letters he writes to his brother, he asks him three times to prepare and send the book of the history of Tabaristan and Diwan of Amir Pazvari to him. Nima's most important step in keeping Tabari language alive is writing Tabari poems in a collection called Roja. In one of his couplets, Nima refers to his attachment to Tabari's language as follows:

Kou Chou Mon Khakhor Moni Niktao My little sister Nikta is the brar of Moni Ladbon, who is the only one of my brother, his name is Ladbon, Tabari Moni Me Gap, I am the witness of poetry. My ax is my proof of where my conversation is, except where else in my words did I say (Roja)

Nima refers to her possessions and attachments in this couplet. In the first verse, he refers to his earthly attachment, that is, his brother and sister, and in the second verse, he refers to his existential attachment, which is poetry and the language of Tabari. They are not happy, but Some of them use every opportunity to deny being Tabari and speaking in Tabari language. But Nima denies those who claimed that Nima has forgotten her homeland and language.

But Nima claims that not only has she not forgotten her mother tongue, but by the way, the same poems she wrote in Tabari language are proof. His attachment is to Tabari language. Nima introduces the Tabari language as a part of his pride and interest, and even in order to convince others, he asks them to provide evidence where he said that he is not from Tabaristan and does not speak the Tabari language.

Examples of Mazandarani poems

Roja is a collection of poems by Nima Yoshij in the Mazandarani language and is similar to the Kajuri and Klarastaqi dialects that are spoken in the cities of Noor, Nowshehr and Chalos.

Lush Kalomi, a new gate in the wood of a barn, it will never be a gate, clean, bene aspi, a raze, nowun, the ground is burnt, it will not become a green field, you like it, fresh heather, nowon, a dry bone will not be young anymore, a coward, like a nest, nowon, thorny bushes, they will not be swept away (Roja)

> Where is Saree Ferengi, the daughter, Saree was like Ferangi, she was not there, and Amiri Khones was sitting next to me, and Amiri was singing Guni Me Del Dard and Chones To, as if how did she know about the pain in my heart, and Del Khawas Mon Gomo Vi Dons, even though her heart wanted , but I say he knew (Roja)

Aftab Hakord On a sunny day, I am looking at the face of the sea. I am watching the firewood in the burnt forest. I am watching the firewood. Who am I looking at (Roja)
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I want to say that probably Nima Yoshij wrote the poem "Ba Goroobesh" after reading Khanleri's poem; As I have no doubt that he wrote "Neighbor's Words" - with whatever date he put under them - under the influence of Rilke's "A Few Letters to a Young Poet" and Khanleri's translation, which was published in 1320... and let me say this other blasphemy right here. In my opinion, the main and central parts of "The Value of Emotions" are both a free translation and a "understanding" of a French book, to which contents from a book such as the Encyclopaedia of Islam (first edition) about contemporary Turkish and Arab poetry have been added.

Shafi'i Kodkani, introduction to Natel Khanleri's selection of poems, spring 2014

Various controversies about the works of Nima Yoshij And there is a history of his poems. The history of these controversies goes back to the lifetime of Nima Yoshij.

The history of poetry

The day when the first Shahin was published, not many days had passed when I saw a broken poem with a date in one of the magazines. Previous and fake inserted, slightly broken. I laughed and understood that smuggling and chakhan had started. I was not wrong. Smuggling and smuggling had started. The more the falcon got among the people. [] They made the long lines of these broken poems longer and the short ones shorter. Look at their publication date. Look with amusement and see how, from Azar 1318 to this side, they have stretched his head longer and cut his tail shorter. It seems that the first person who accused Nima of manipulating the history of his poems was Shamsuddin Tandarkiya. He accused Nima of changing the date of the poem "Gharab" which was published in Azar 1318 to Mehr 1317. In an article, Saeed Rizvani refers to one of Nima's manuscripts that confirms the accusation against Nima. This manuscript contains a poem titled "Kashtaghah Shaer" and Nima has recorded the date at the foot of the poem in the form of "Batarikh/Shaer Gharab/1318".

Mohammedreza Shafiei Kodkani believes in the introduction of Parviz Natal Khanleri's selection of poems. The recorded date for some of Nima's poems is incorrect and some of Nima's poems are influenced by Parviz Natal Khanleri. He believes that Nima wrote the poem "Ba Goroob" after reading the poem "Yaghmai Shab" by Khanleri in the Sokhn magazine (No. 11 and 12, August 1323), but he put another date (April 1323) at the foot of the poem. In response to Kodkeni, in an article titled "Nima was the voice of the future", Shapur Jurkesh writes: "For the reasons that everyone knows, the history behind a poem that smells like politics was not and is not reliable in the history of this land."


Shafii Kodkani believes that an important part of the book The Value of Feelings by Nima Yoshij is a free translation of a French book and materials from other sources have been added to it.

These statements are also answers. followed Including Sirus Tahbaz in an article and Ahmad in an open letter, some people respectfully rejected all Shafii Kodkani's accusations against Nima. In response to Shafii Kodkani's opinion, Shapur Jurkesh considered his theory incorrect.>

Nima Yoshij house in Yosh village is a building related to the Qajar period. This house number 1802 from The cultural heritage organization has been registered as a national work. Nima's house was the residence of Nima Yoshij's father and ancestors, this house was built in 1207 AH by Nazem Al-Ayale in Lalavi Yosh neighborhood. This building has 3 entrances, royal palace and many rooms. Nima Yushich's house, with its beautiful brickwork and plasterwork, is one of the tourist attractions of Mazandaran province. To Mohammadreza Pahlavi's course, located on Dezashib Street, Tehran. According to Kamiyar Abedi, Nima Yoshij spent most of her life in this house. According to Shiragim Yoshij Nima, he built this house with the loan that his wife, Alia Jahangir, took from the National Bank. With the death of Nima Yoshij in 1338 and Alia Jahangir in 1343, Shragim sold the house in 1345.

The house has 5 rooms: 4 nested rooms and a room separate from other rooms which is said to have been Nima's room. The entrance porch of the building has 8 blue columns with a circular cross-section. The area of its infrastructure is 160 square meters and the total land area is 680 square meters. The roof of the building is gabled and old trees can be seen in its yard.

National registration

This work was registered nationally in 1380 with number 4603, but in November 2016, with the complaint of the then owners, because What was stated as "the lack of documents relating to the house with Nima Yoshij" was removed from the list by the ruling of the Administrative Court of Iran. With the inquiry of the Organization of Cultural Heritage from the Organization of Documents of Iran and proof of the ownership of Nima Yoshij house, the building was recognized as "Vajd Vayat" and in February 2016, it was re-entered into the list of national monuments of Iran.

Change of ownership

In June 2018, it was announced that Tehran City Beautification Organization reached an agreement with the owners and the house was deeded in the name of Tehran Municipality. According to the announcement of the municipality, after the restoration, the public will be free to visit this building.

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The poem "The Pale Tale" is actually the first work of Nimai's poem written in Masnavi format (Bahr Hazaj Masads). has been In this work, the poet has narrated his life and through it he has addressed the social corruption. The first part of this work was published in the 20th century. Then he sang the fable in which a romantic spirit prevails and Nima has a different view of love and rejects mystical love. As he says to Hafez: Hafez, what a lie is this, because my tongue is a butler, I will never believe that you are playing with the love that is left, I am going to love it (Fable) Nima In these works and poems such as "Rooster and Fox", "Spring" and "Goat", Molhasan expresses social thoughts, but the format of the poems is old. It is clear that he is practicing poetry and has not yet found his way. However, the publication of the legend stirred the world of literature at that time. O Shab was also published in the weekly Noubahar Mohammad Taghi Bahar and caused controversy.

Siros Tahbaz played an important role in collecting, copying, editing and publishing the works of Nima Yoshij.

Bibliography Nima Youshij; A poet whom we need more these days

Bibliography of Nima Yoshij: Nima research culture, descriptive bibliography of Nima Yoshij from the beginning to today, Ali Mohammad Nejati, Tehran, Ferdous Publications, 1394, 328 pages. This book contains a descriptive introduction of the writings that were written about Nima Yoshij or by Nima Yoshij from 1300 to 1392 and were officially published in the form of a book or a part of a book and collection. The purpose of compiling this collection is to provide a general and comprehensive picture of research activities and the process of compiling works that have been done here and there over the past 90 years about Nima Yoshij, her life, works and literary and social position. /p> Buy the book "Nima Yoshij's Poem Collection" from BingMag. Some of these works were later translated into other languages as well.


Works published during his lifetime

  • The Tale of the Pale. Tehran: Saadat Press. 1300
  • Fable. Tehran. 1301
  • The story of the soldier's family. Tehran: Khayyam. 1305
  • Aga shrine. Tehran: Kalaleha Khavar. 1309
  • O night. Tehran. 1310
  • Shakespeare, William (1319). Othello Translated by Abdul Hossein Noushin. Translated poems by Nima Yoshij. Tehran: Amir Kabir, two letters. Tehran. 1329
  • Nima Yoshij's collection of poems: her life and poems. By the effort of Abulqasem Jannati Atai. Tehran: Safi Alisha. 1334
  • Margh Amen. Tehran. 1335
  • The value of feelings. Tehran: Safi Alisha. 1335.
  • Manly and Serivili House. Tehran: Safi Alisha. 1336.

Works published after his death

  • Selected poems of Nima Yoshij. By the choice of Cyrus Tahbaz. Tehran. 1342.
  • Mach Ola. Tabriz: Shams. 1344.
  • My poem. Tehran: Javane. 1345.
  • The city of the night and the city of the morning. Tehran: Pearl. 1346.
  • Bell. Tehran: Pearl. 1346.
  • Definition and note and other notes. Tehran: Amir Kabir. 1348.
  • Kalamandaz. Tehran: Dunya. 1349.
  • Deer and birds. By the effort of Shragim Yoshij. Painting by Bahman Dadkhah. Tehran: Center for intellectual development of children and adolescents. 1349.
  • Nima's letters to her husband are great. Tehran: aware. 1350.
  • The world is my home. Tehran: Book of Time. 1350.
  • Broken hives. Tehran: Nile. 1350.
  • Other shouts and colored spiders. Tehran: Javane. 1350.
  • Tokai in a cage. Painting by Bahman Dadkhah. Tehran: Children and Adolescent Intellectual Development Center. 1350.
  • Water in the dormitories of ants. Tehran: Amir Kabir. 1351.
  • Ship and storm. Tehran: Amir Kabir. 1351.
  • The words of neighbors. Tehran: Dunya. 1351.
  • A star on the ground. Tehran: Tus. 1354.
  • Bachaha Bahar: children's songs. The poetry of Nima and M. free Tehran: Ebtekar. 1363.
  • Nima Yoshij's letters. due to the efforts of Cyrus Tahbaz; Supervised by Shiragim Yoshij. Tehran: Blue. 1363.
  • The collection of works of Nima Yoshij, the first book of poetry. due to the efforts of Cyrus Tahbaz; Supervised by Shiragim Yoshij. Tehran: Neshar Nasher. 1364.
  • Selected works of Nima Yoshij (poetry). Selection, copying and editing of Sirus Tahbaz; Supervised by Shiragim Yoshij. Tehran: Bozormehr. 1368
  • Selected works of Nima Yoshij (prose). Selection, copying and editing of Sirus Tahbaz; Supervised by Shiragim Yoshij. Tehran: Bozormehr. 1369.
  • Letters: from the works of Nima Yoshij. Collected, copied and edited by Siros Tahbaz. Tehran: Journals. 1368.
  • New brave world. By the efforts of Cyrus Niro. Tehran: Farrokhnagar. 1382.
  • Daily notes. By the efforts of Shiragim Yoshij. Tehran: Pearl. 2007.
  • Another hundred years: a book of unpublished poems by Nima Yoshij. edited by Saeed Rizvani; Mehdi Aliai Moghadam. Tehran: Persian Language and Literature Culture. 1396
  • Nima's Offices: collection of Nima's prose works. Tehran: Rushdieh. 1396.
  • Caravan Sound: The second book of Nima Yoshij's unpublished poems. Edited by Saeed Rizvani. Tehran: Persian Language and Literature Culture. 1397
  • Nima's notebooks: collection of poems by Nima "A". With the effort, correction and adaptation of Shiragim Yoshij. Tehran: Rushdieh. 1397
  • Nima's offices: a collection of Nima Yoshij's daily notes. With the effort, correction and adaptation of Shiragim Yoshij. Tehran: Rushdieh. 1399
Nimai's poetry Nima Youshij; A poet whom we need more these days

Nimai's poetry A style of contemporary poetry It is Persian, which is the first example of new poetry in Persian literature, and it emerged from the literary theory of Nima Yoshij, a contemporary Iranian poet. With the publication of the poem Afsane, Nima Manifesto proposed a new poetry that had a great difference in content from traditional Iranian poetry. "At that time, there was no talk of changing the way of expressing romantic feelings," Yoshiage says. Minds accustomed to the monotonous and limited oriental music were familiar with the unnatural subtleties of the old sonnets... the legend did not suit their music. They got a fault. Rejected..." According to the short introduction that Nima himself wrote on this poem, we can enumerate the features of "Legend" as follows:

  • The type of free poetry in which the poet achieves a sort of earthly mysticism.
  • A long and rhythmic poem in which the rhyme problem is solved with a free stanza after every four stanzas.
  • The poet's attention to concrete realities and at the same time an emotional and poetic attitude. He to things.
  • The difference between the poet's view and the poets of the past and its novelty and distance from imitation.
  • Its closeness, in the light of conversational form of expression, to dramatic literature.
  • The free course of the poet's imagination in it.
  • The story of the poet's own heartlessness and failures, which is subtly connected with the fate of his society and times. Nima Youshij; A poet whom we need more these days

The lyrical and wavy spirit of the legend and the length and detail of the story and dramatic work of the critic make it more than any The thing seemed to have a military influence on Nima's actions and thoughts, while the philosophical and formal composition and especially the length of the poem, the time of its composition, the specific spiritual quality of the poet to the regiment Writing a poem reminds the mind of the characteristics of the poem "Barren Land", the famous poem of T.S. Eliot, an English poet and critic, conveys that, by chance, Nima's composer was creating the most important new poem in the English language at the same time as Nima, in another part of the world. Nima

Sadruddin Aini, one of the biggest defenders of the Persian language in the area of former Soviet borders, is one of the first composers of new Persian poetry. Five years before Nima sang "Fable", Aini had written a poem in a weight close to the same weight (the first stanza of each verse: Faalen Faalen Faalen Fa, i.e. the same weight as "Fable"; the second stanza of each verse: Faalen Faalen Faalen) "March of Freedom":

March of Freedom

O oppressed, O captives!
The time has come for our freedom

Give good news, O poor!
In the world, the morning of joy blew...

Every oppressor of Don, Khrom and happy
Tasted the cup of pleasure for years

In the dark and wild night
Every oppressed person is suffering He drew...

Besides him, Abul Qasem Lahoti and Taghi Rifat are also mentioned as poets who started writing new poetry before Nima. Shams Langroudi writes:

"The first new poem in Iran, Abolghasem Lahouti wrote in 1288 solar year. However, many attribute this trait to Taqi Rafat. According to Tahbaz, the years 1325-30 are the time to open the language of the next generations. Beyond Shibani and Shamlo and Future, at more or less close distances, Shadow and Kasrai and a little later M. Azad and Sohrab Sepehri are on this way. This way of writing poetry quickly replaced Persian classical poetry, and then by creating differences in the form of new poetry, they categorized it into semi-style, white, volume, etc.

Nima Yoshij's attempt to change the traditional view of poetry. It was Farsi and he considered this change of content inevitable from the change of form and freedom of format. The freedom that Nima created in form and content reached the high points of contemporary Iranian poetry in the works of poets after him, such as Ahmad Shamlou, Mehdi Akhwan Tahal, Farugh Farrokhzad, Sohrab Sepehri, and Manochehar Atashi. However, Nima considers his poetry to be more advanced and fresher than the work of later poets such as Shamlu in terms of his attitude to the world and the content of his work.

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Historical context Nima Youshij; A poet whom we need more these days

With the start of the Iranian constitutionalism movement, a new vision was spread according to which a new era has arrived, which with all periods of national history it is different. The intellectuals of this era believed that the era of political tyranny was over and everyone felt that a similar transformation should take place in the field of culture. The poets and writers of this era were in search of a new aesthetic and wanted to write a new poem that was different from the Persian poetry of the past.

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One of the other effective factors in the literary developments of this era. Iranian intellectuals with European literature. According to them, the constitutional revolution was similar to the French revolution and was able to create a new atmosphere in which outstanding figures could be cultivated, comparable to the outstanding poets and writers of Europe. The intellectuals' interest and attention to European literature, especially French literature, led to the translation of some of the great European writers of that time, such as Victor Hugo, Lamartine, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Alphonse Doudet, and Chateaubriand, which influenced the writings of many Iranian writers. p>

Persian classical poetry

According to traditional theories in Persian poetry, the number of prosody elements of each poem always remains constant in the vertical axis. Also, according to the format or literary type of the poem (such as ghazal, matnawi, and quatrain), the rhyme was repeated with a fixed formula. Nima's opinion about traditional Persian poetry. "" class="content-pics" alt=" Nima Youshij; A poet whom we need more these days" title=" Nima Youshij; A poet whom we need more these days" loading="lazy">

Nima hated old Persian poetry at the beginning of her poetry. But later he changed his view. Nima once wrote:

I had a strange hatred for all the literature of the old past... Now I know that this was a shortcoming.

And elsewhere he writes:

I myself I am one of the fans of ancient Persian and Arabic literature. When Nima was formulating his literary theory, the supporters of traditional Persian poetry, who saw their beliefs under full-scale attack, stated that Persian poetry, as the most honorable cultural symbol of Iran, has been exposed to the influence of foreigners. According to them, new poetry was a sign of cultural submission to foreigners and will soon destroy the soul of Iranian culture. The traditionalists actually believed that Nima and his followers were not familiar with this tradition and even threatened Nima with death.

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The view of Nima's poetry by academic circles was negative until the 1940s. They refused to accept it. However, the academic traditionalists' view of Nima's theories gradually changed with the efforts of some professors who were especially familiar with modern literary criticism. Among those who played an important role in changing the popular attitude in the 1940s, we should mention Gholamhossein Yousefi and Mohammad Reza Shafiei Kodkani. The modernists are considered to be among the first supporters of Nima. Among these people, we should mention Ahmad Shamlou, Ismail Shahroudi, Hoshang Ebtahaj, and Mehdi Akhwan Terali. adapt to the needs of modern Iran. After the constitutional movement, the arena of social life in Iran had changed. Before poetry, Persian prose had been transformed by the efforts of people such as Talebov, Haj Zainul Abdin Maraghei, Soor Esrafil and others and had somehow adapted itself. In general, new poetry shows a special desire to address social issues, while classical poetry does not.

Nima, although he still has opponents among traditionalist poets, has managed to gain a significant following for himself. and add a new capacity to old Persian poetry.>Sohrab Sepehri

  • Forugh Farrokhzad
  • Hoshang Abtahaj
  • Manochehr Atashi
  • Mohammedreza Shafiei Kodkani
  • M. Azad
  • Ahmed Shamlou
  • Qaiser Aminpour
  • Reza Brahni
  • Hoshang Irani
  • Tahera Safarzadeh
  • Ahmadreza Ahmadi
  • Sayed Ali Salehi
  • Mohammed Ali Sepanlu
  • Mohammed Al-Daqqi
  • Azade Asadi
  • Mansour Oji
  • Ali Babachahi
  • Maftun Amini
  • Sivash Kasraei
  • Yadullah Royai
  • Nusrat Rahmani
  • Ismail Khoei
  • Farokh Tamimi
  • Feridon Moshiri
  • Nader Naderpour
  • Hamid Mossadegh
  • Mohammed Zohri
  • Ismail Shahroudi
  • Morteza Amiri Asfandah
  • Salman Herati
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