Meet Noam Chomsky, a philosopher interested in Iran

Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, cognitive scientist, historical essayist, social critic and political activist. Chomsky, who is sometimes called the "father of modern linguistics", is one of the main figures in analytic philosophy and one of the founders of the field of cognitive science. He is a professor of linguistics at the University of Arizona and professor emeritus at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and the author of more than 150 books on topics such as linguistics, war, politics, and mass media. Ideologically, he aligned with anarcho-syndicalism and libertarian socialism.

BingMag.com Meet Noam Chomsky, a philosopher interested in Iran

Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, cognitive scientist, historical essayist, social critic and political activist. Chomsky, who is sometimes called the "father of modern linguistics", is one of the main figures in analytic philosophy and one of the founders of the field of cognitive science. He is a professor of linguistics at the University of Arizona and professor emeritus at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and the author of more than 150 books on topics such as linguistics, war, politics, and mass media. Ideologically, he aligned with anarcho-syndicalism and libertarian socialism.

Born to a Jewish immigrant family in Philadelphia, Chomsky developed his initial interest in anarchism from reading books in a small bookstore near where they lived in New York City found. He studied at the University of Pennsylvania. During his graduate studies at the Harvard Student Association, Chomsky developed his revolutionary theory of grammar, earning his Ph.D. in 1955.

That year he began teaching at MIT. Kurd and in 1957 with his outstanding work called "Syntactic Structure" he emerged as a prominent figure in linguistics and revolutionized linguistic studies forever. Chomsky was a National Science Foundation Fellow at the Institute for Advanced Study from 1958 to 1959. He created Universal Grammar Theory, Generative Grammar Theory, Chomskyan Hierarchy, and Minimalist Program. Chomsky also played a major role in the decline of linguistic behaviorism and especially criticized the work of B. F. Skinner. Dunst gained national attention in 1967 for his anti-war article "The Responsibility of Intellectuals". Associated with the New Left, he was arrested several times for his activities and placed on President Richard Nixon's enemies list. While he expanded his work in the field of linguistics in the following decades, he also participated in the wars of this field. Collaborating with Edward S. Herman, Chomsky later developed the propaganda model of media criticism in the book Manufacturing Consent and worked to expose Indonesia's occupation of East Timor. His defense of unconditional freedom of speech, including Holocaust denial, caused considerable controversy in the Fourison affair in the 1980s. Since retiring from teaching at MIT, he has continued his high-profile political activities, including opposing the 2003 invasion of Iraq and supporting the Occupy movement. Chomsky began teaching at the University of Arizona in 2017.

Chomsky is one of the most cited living scientists who has influenced a wide range of academic disciplines. He is widely recognized as having made extensive contributions to the field of cognitive science in the humanities and to the development of a new cognitive framework for the study of language and mind. In addition to continuing his education, he remains a leading critic of US foreign policy, contemporary state capitalism, US involvement and Israel's role in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, and the mainstream news media. Chomsky and his thoughts are very influential in the anti-capitalist and anti-imperialist movements.

In the continuation of this article from BingMag, we examine the life, thoughts and works of Noam Chomsky. Stay with us.

Life

BingMag.com Meet Noam Chomsky, a philosopher interested in Iran

Childhood: 1928-1945

Avram Noam Chomsky was born on December 7, 1928 in the East Oaklyn neighborhood of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. His parents, Zev "William" Chomsky and Elsie Simonovsky, were Jewish immigrants. William had fled the Russian Empire in 1913 to escape conscription and worked in a Baltimore almshouse and Hebrew elementary schools before attending university. After moving to Philadelphia, William became the director of the Mikve Israel Synagogue and joined the faculty of Graz College.

He placed great emphasis on educating people to be "well integrated, free and independent in their thinking, Concerned about improving and uplifting the world, and eager to contribute to making life more meaningful and valuable for all, the mission that shaped it. It was subsequently adopted by his son. Elsie was a teacher and activist born in Belarus. They met at the Maikoh synagogue, where they both worked.

Noam (b. 1928) was the Chomskys' first child. His younger brother, David Eli Chomsky (19342021), was born five years later and worked as a cardiologist in Philadelphia. The brothers were close, David was easy going while Noam could be very competitive. Chomsky and his brother were raised Jewish, learned Hebrew, and regularly engaged in discussions of the political theories of Zionism. This family was especially influenced by the left-wing Zionist writings of Ahad Ham. As a child, Chomsky encountered anti-Semitism, particularly in the Irish and German communities of Philadelphia.

Chomsky attended DeWitt Oak Lane Independent Day School and Central High School. attended Philadelphia, where he excelled academically and joined various clubs and societies, but struggled with the school's hierarchical and clique-based teaching methods. He also attended the Hebrew High School at Graz College, where his father taught.

Chomsky described his parents as "typical Roosevelt Democrats" with center-left politics, but relatives who were in the Union. The Women's Garment Workers International was involved, exposing her to socialism and far-left politics. He was significantly influenced by his uncle and the Jewish leftists who frequented his newspaper stand in New York City to discuss current issues. He used to read political literature with enthusiasm. He wrote his first essay at the age of 10 on the spread of fascism after the fall of Barcelona (February 1939) during the Spanish Civil War, and from the age of 12 or 13 he was identified with anarchist politics as well as with the "anti-Bolshevik left" he later discovered. He described anarchism as "a lucky accident" that made him a critic of Stalinism and other forms of Marxism-Leninism. From the bright room to the author's death

University: 1945-1955

BingMag.com Meet Noam Chomsky, a philosopher interested in Iran

In 1945, at age 16, Chomsky began a general studies program at the University of Pennsylvania, where he studied philosophy, logic, and languages, an early interest in found to learn Arabic language. Living at home, he financed his undergraduate education by teaching Hebrew. Disillusioned with his experiences at university, he considered dropping out and going to a kibbutz in forced Palestine, but his intellectual curiosity was sparked by a conversation with the Russian-born linguist Zelig Harris, whom he first met in 1947 at a gathering. Political met, reawakened.

Harris introduced Chomsky to the field of theoretical linguistics and convinced him to specialize in it. Chomsky's undergraduate thesis, "The Morphophonemics of Modern Hebrew," applied Harris' methods to the language. Chomsky revised this thesis for his master's degree, which he received from the University of Pennsylvania in 1951. It was then published as a book. He also developed an interest in philosophy while studying at university, particularly under the tutelage of Nelson Goodman. which became his doctoral thesis. Chomsky was encouraged by Goodman to apply, in part because he was interested in Harvard because philosopher Willard Quine was based there. Both Quine and a visiting philosopher, John Longshaw Austin of Oxford University, strongly influenced Chomsky. In 1952, Chomsky published his first academic paper, Systems of Syntactic Analysis, which was published not in a linguistics journal but in the Journal of Symbolic Logic. The linguist presented his ideas in lectures at the University of Chicago and Yale University. He had not been enrolled as a student at Pennsylvania for four years, but in 1955 he submitted a thesis outlining his ideas about revolutionary grammar. He was awarded a Doctor of Philosophy for it, and it was privately distributed to specialists on microfilm before publication in 1975 as part of The Logical Structure of Linguistic Theory. Harvard professor George Armitage Miller was impressed by Chomsky's thesis and collaborated with him on several technical papers in computational linguistics. Chomsky's doctorate exempted him from conscription, which would otherwise have begun in 1955.

In 1947, Chomsky began a romantic relationship with Carol Doris Schatz, whom he had known since childhood. started. They married in 1949. After Chomsky was elected a fellow at Harvard University, the couple moved to the Allston area of Boston, where they remained until 1965, when they later moved to the suburbs of Lexington. In 1953, the couple received a grant from Harvard to travel to Europe, from Britain to France, Switzerland to Italy, and then to Israel, where they lived on Kibbutz Hashomer Hatzair.

Chomsky, despite his pleasure Barden was appalled by the country's Jewish nationalism, by anti-Arab racism, and in the leftist community of the kibbutz, by the support of Stalinism in this country. On a visit to New York City, Chomsky visited the office of the Yiddish anarchist journal Frye Arbuter Shteime and became fascinated by the ideas of Rudolf Recker, a contributor whose work introduced Chomsky to the link between anarchism and classical liberalism. Chomsky studied other political thinkers, including anarchists Mikhail Bakunin and Diego Abad de Santillan, democratic socialists George Orwell, Bertrand Russell, and Dwight MacDonald, and the works of Marxists Karl Liebknecht, Karl Kirch, and Rosa Luxemburg.

His readings led him to favor an anarcho-syndicalist society Persuaded and fascinated by the anarcho-syndicalist communes that arose during the Spanish Civil War, as documented in Orwell's Tribute to Catalonia (1938). He read the left-wing journal Politics, which spoke to his interest in anarchism, and the Communist Council's journal Living Marxism, although he rejected the orthodoxy of its editor, Paul Mattick. He was also interested in the Marlinite ideas of the United States Leninist League, an anti-Stalinist Marxist-Leninist group, influenced by the description of World War II as a "phony war" instigated by Western capitalists and the Soviet Union. He "never really believed the thesis, but ... it was interesting enough to try to understand what they were talking about." /li>

Beginning: 19551966

BingMag.com Meet Noam Chomsky, a philosopher interested in Iran

Chomsky befriended two linguists, Maurice Helle and Roman Jacobsen, at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), the latter of whom won him an assistant professorship there in 1955. At MIT, Chomsky spent half his time on a machine translation project and the other half teaching linguistics and philosophy. It was a completely free and open place, open to experimentation and no strict requirements, he says of MIT. It was a perfect place for someone of my particular interests and work.

From 1957 to 1958, he was also employed as a visiting professor at Columbia University. The Chomskys gave birth to their first child that same year, a daughter named Aviva. He also published his first book in linguistics, Syntactic Structures, a work that strongly opposed the dominant Harris-Bloomfield trend in the field. Responses to Chomsky's ideas ranged from indifference to hostility, his work was divisive and caused "dramatic change" in the field. Linguist John Lines later stated that syntactic structures "revolutionized the scientific study of language." From 1958 to 1959, Chomsky was a National Science Foundation Fellow at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey.

In 1959 , Chomsky published a review of BF Skinner's Verbal Behavior in the Academic Journal of Language, in which he argued against Skinner's view of language as learned behavior. This review argued that Skinner ignored the role of human creativity in linguistics and helped establish Chomsky as an intellectual. Chomsky started with Helle to establish MIT's graduate program in linguistics. In 1961, Chomsky became a full professor in the Department of Modern Languages and Linguistics. He introduced the title of the true spokesperson of American linguistics. Between 1963 and 1965, he collaborated on a military-sponsored project "to develop natural language as an operational language for command and control". Barbara Partey, a collaborator on the project and a former student of Chomsky's, said that the research was justified to the military on the grounds that "in the event of a nuclear war, it would be confidential for the generals to communicate with some of the computers that are trying to manage things." . and that it would probably be easier to teach computers to understand English than to teach generals how to program.

Throughout this decade Chomsky continued to publish his linguistic ideas, including in Aspects of the Theory of Syntax (1965) Issues in the Theory of Grammar. Zaishi (1966), and Cartesian Linguistics: A Chapter in the History of Rational Thought (1966) continued. He also co-edited a series of language studies books for Harper's Publishing. Chomsky lectured at the University of California, Berkeley in 1966, beginning to gain significant academic recognition and honors for his work.

His Beckman lectures at Berkeley were collected and published in 1968 as Language and Mind. became. Despite his growth, intellectual differences between Chomsky and some of his early colleagues and doctoral studentsincluding Paul Post, John Robert Ross, George Lekoff, and James D. McCauleysparked a series of academic debates known as the "linguistic controversies," although these wars revolved more around philosophical issues than linguistic ones. Chomsky. At this time, he clearly said about his employer that the Massachusetts Institute of Technology "was a Pentagon-based university. And I was in a military-funded lab." He said he gave "little thought" to his resignation from MIT during the Vietnam War. Since then there has been widespread debate about the effects of Chomsky's tenure at MIT on his political and linguistic ideas.

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Antiwar activism and opposition: 19671975

BingMag.com Meet Noam Chomsky, a philosopher interested in Iran

It does not take a very extensive and specialized knowledge to understand that the United States invaded South Vietnam. And in fact, the disintegration of the system of illusion and deception that prevents the understanding of contemporary reality It works, it's not a task that requires extraordinary skill or understanding. It requires a kind of normal skepticism and a willingness to use analytical skills that almost everyone has and can practice.

Chomsky's Opinion on the Vietnam War

Chomsky in 1962 Joined demonstrations against US involvement in the Vietnam War and spoke at small gatherings in churches and homes. His 1967 critique of US intervention, The Responsibility of Intellectuals, among other contributions to the New York Review of Books, established Chomsky as a public dissenter.

This essay and other political essays in Collected and published in 1969 as part of Chomsky's first political book, American Power and the New Mandarins. He continued his work with other political books, including At War with Asia (1970), Back Boys (1973), For State Reasons (1973), and Peace in the Middle East? (1974), published by Pantheon Books, followed. These publications led to Chomsky's association with the American New Left movement, although he thought a little of prominent intellectuals of the New Left, Herbert Marcuse and Eric Fromm, but he preferred the association of activists to the association of intellectuals. Chomsky was largely ignored by the mainstream press during this period.

He also became involved in left-wing activism. Chomsky refused to pay half his taxes, publicly supported students who refused to be drafted, and was arrested while attending an anti-war rally outside the Pentagon. During this time, Chomsky co-founded the anti-war group RESIST with Mitchell Goodman, Dennis Lortoff, William Sloan Coffin, and Dwight MacDonald. Although Chomsky questioned the goals of the 1968 student protests, he gave many speeches to student activist groups and, with his colleague Louis Kampf, taught undergraduate courses in politics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology independent of the conservative-dominated political science department.

When student activists campaigned to stop weapons and counterinsurgency research at MIT, Chomsky sympathized with them but felt that research should remain under MIT and limited to deterrence and defense systems. In 1970, he visited Southeast Asia to lecture at Vietnam's Hanoi University of Science and Technology. He also visited war refugee camps in Laos. In 1973, he led a committee to help organize the commemoration of the 50th anniversary of the War Resistance League.

Chomsky was arrested on several occasions for his anti-war activities and was placed on the main list of political opponents of President Richard Nixon. Chomsky was aware of the possible consequences of his civil disobedience, and his wife began studying for her doctorate in linguistics to support the family if Chomsky was imprisoned or unemployed. Chomsky's scientific reputation protected him from administrative action against him based on his beliefs.

His work in linguistics continued to be recognized with several honorary doctorates. He also gave public lectures at Cambridge University, Columbia University (Woodbridge Lectures), and Stanford University. His appearance in a 1971 debate with the French continental philosopher Michel Foucault established Chomsky as an iconic figure of analytic philosophy. He went on to publish widely in linguistics, and Studies in Semantics in Generative Grammar (1972) is a larger edition. On Language and Mind (1972) and Reflections on Language (1975). In 1974, Chomsky became a member of the British Academy.

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Edward S. Herman and the Faurisson Affair: 1976-1980 In the late 1970s and 1980s, Chomsky's linguistic publications expanded on his earlier work, clarified and addressed his critics, and updated his grammatical theory. His political talks often caused considerable controversy, especially when he criticized the Israeli government and military. In the early 1970s, Chomsky began collaborating with Edward S. Herman, who had also published criticism of the US war in Vietnam. Together they wrote Counter-Revolutionary Violence: Bloodbaths in Reality and Propaganda, a book that criticized US military involvement in Southeast Asia and the failure of the mainstream media to cover it. Warner Modular published it in 1973, but its parent company objected to the book's content and ordered all copies destroyed.

While he was shunned by the mainstream media, Chomsky was The active publishing company, South End Press, owned by Michael Albert, was sponsored. In 1979, South End published Chomsky and Herman's Revised Counterrevolutionary Violence as a two-volume political economy of human rights, which compares US media responses to the Cambodian genocide and the Indonesian occupation of East Timor. The book argues that because Indonesia was a US ally, the US media ignored the situation in East Timor while focusing on events in Cambodia, an enemy of the US.

Chomsky's response included two testimonies before the United Nations Special Committee on Decolonization, successfully encouraging the American media to cover the occupation, and meeting with refugees in Lisbon. Marxist academic Steven Lux publicly accused Chomsky of betraying his anarchist ideals and of justifying Cambodian leader Pol Pot. The controversy took a "serious personal toll" on Chomsky, Herman said, with "intellectuals aligned with the East or the West" dealing with opposing views by trying to "overcome it with a deluge of lies." He considered personal criticism less important than evidence that "mainstream intellectuals condoned or justified the crimes of their governments."

Chomsky had long publicly criticized Nazism and totalitarianism in general, but the commitment His freedom of speech led him to defend the right of French historian Robert Fourison to defend what is widely known as Holocaust denial. Unbeknownst to Chomsky, Faurisson's plea for freedom of speech was published as a preface to his 1980 book Mmoire en dfense contre ceux qui m'accusent de falsifier l'histoire. /p>

Chomsky was widely condemned for his defense of Fourison, and the French mainstream press accused Chomsky of being a Holocaust denier himself and refused to publish a rebuttal of his accusations. Later, sociologist Werner Cohen, criticizing Chomsky's position, published an analysis of the story titled Partners in Hate: Noam Chomsky and Holocaust Deniers. The Fourison affair had a lasting and damaging effect on Chomsky's career, especially in France.

BingMag.com Meet Noam Chomsky, a philosopher interested in Iran

In 1985, during Nicaragua's Contra Warin which the United States supported Contra forces against the Sandinista government Chomsky traveled to Managua to meet with labor organizations and conflict refugees, and to give public lectures on politics and linguistics. Many of these speeches were published in 1987 under the title On Power and Ideology: The Managua Speeches. In 1983, he published The Triangle of Fate, which argued that the United States had consistently used the Israeli-Palestinian conflict for its own purposes. In 1988, Chomsky visited the Palestinian territories to see the effects of the Israeli occupation.

Chomsky and Herman in Producing Consent: The Political Economy of Mass Media outline the media propaganda model for understanding mainstream media. They argued that even in countries without formal censorship, news is censored through five filters that strongly influence how and when news is presented. Alex Carey, inspired by this book, turned it into a film adaptation in 1992. In 1989, Chomsky published Necessary Illusions: Thought Control in Democratic Societies, in which he proposed that a worthwhile democracy requires that its citizens intellectually defend themselves against the media and the intellectual culture of elites who seek to control them. give In the 1980s, Chomsky's students became prominent linguists who, in turn, expanded and revised his linguistic theories.

In the 1990s, Chomsky expanded political activism to a greater extent than before. Keeping his commitment to East Timor's cause of independence, he visited Australia in 1995 to speak about the issue at the behest of the East Timor Relief Association and the East Timor National Council of Resistance. The lectures he gave on the subject were published under the title Powers and Prospects in 1996.

As a result of the international publicity Chomsky generated, his biographer Wolfgang Sperlich believed that he had more than anyone but John. Pilger, an investigative journalist, worked to help the independence of East Timor. After East Timor's independence from Indonesia in 1999, international peacekeeping forces led by Australia entered East Timor. Chomsky was critical of this, believing it was designed to secure Australia's access to East Timor's oil and gas reserves under the Timorese secession treaty.

Criticism of the war Iraq and retirement from MIT: 20012017

BingMag.com Meet Noam Chomsky, a philosopher interested in Iran

Chomsky retired from MIT in 2002, but continued to conduct research and seminars at the university as a professor emeritus. In the same year, he visited Turkey to attend the trial of a publisher accused of treason for publishing one of Chomsky's books. Chomsky insisted that he had read, and amid international media attention, the security courts dropped the charge on the first day. During that trip, Chomsky visited the Kurdish regions of Turkey and spoke in favor of Kurdish human rights. A supporter of the World Social Forum, he attended its conferences in Brazil in 2002 and 2003, and also attended the forum's event in India.

Chomsky supported the Occupy movement and spoke at Ibn Mord. , he published two works, Conquest (2012), a printed treatise, and Conquest: Reflections on Class War, Rebellion, and Solidarity (2013), which chronicled the impact of the movement. Chomsky attributed the movement's growth to the perception that the Democratic Party had abandoned the interests of the white working class. In March 2014, Chomsky joined the Advisory Council of the Nuclear Age Peace Foundation, an organization that advocates for global nuclear disarmament, as a senior member. The 2015 documentary Elegy for the American Dream summarizes his views on capitalism and economic inequality in a "75-minute lecture".

University of Arizona: 2017 Until

In 2017, Chomsky taught a short course in politics at the University of Arizona in Tucson, and later as a part-time professor in the linguistics department there. He was employed with his duties including teaching and public seminars. His salary is covered by charitable contributions.

Chomsky signed the Declaration of a Common Language of Croats, Serbs, Bosnians and Montenegrins in 2018.

Chomsky's Linguistic Theories

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What began as purely linguistic research; Through involvement in political causes and identification with an older philosophical tradition, it led to an attempt to formulate a general theory of man. The roots of this matter are obvious in linguistic theory. The discovery of cognitive structures common to the human species, but only to humans (specific species), easily leads to the thought of undeniably human characteristics. Chomsky's Linguistics:

The basis of Chomsky's linguistic theory lies in biological linguistics, a school of linguistics that believes that the principles underlying the structure of language are biologically set in the human mind and are therefore genetically inherited. He argues that all humans share the same underlying linguistic structure regardless of socio-cultural differences. By adopting this position, Chomsky rejects the extreme behaviorist psychology of B. F. Skinner, who saw behavior (including speaking and thinking) as a fully learned product of interactions between organisms and their environments.

Accordingly, Chomsky argues that It argues that language is a unique evolutionary development of the human species and is distinct from the modes of communication used by any other animal species. Chomsky's essentialist and introverted view of language is compatible with the philosophical school of "rationalism" and is in conflict with the anti-essentialist and external view of language consistent with the philosophical school of "empiricism" which claims that all knowledge, including language, comes from external stimuli.

Universal Grammar

BingMag.com Meet Noam Chomsky, a philosopher interested in Iran

Since the 1960s, Chomsky believes that syntactic knowledge It is at least partially innate, meaning that children only need to learn the specific linguistic features of their native language. He bases his argument on observations of human language acquisition and describes "stimulus poverty": a huge gap between the linguistic stimuli children are exposed to and the rich language competence they acquire. For example, although children are exposed to only a very small and finite subset of the syntactic variants allowed in their first language, they develop a highly organized and orderly ability to understand and produce an infinite number of sentences, including sentences that have never existed before. They achieve.

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To explain this, Chomsky argued that the basic linguistic data should be attached to the inherent linguistic capacity. Furthermore, while a human infant and a kitten are both capable of inductive reasoning, if exposed to the exact same linguistic data, the human always acquires the ability to understand and produce language, while the kitten never It does not acquire any of these abilities.

Chomsky referred to this difference in capacity as a tool for language acquisition and suggested that linguists should determine both what that tool is and what limits it places on the range of languages. It applies humanly possible. The universal properties that emerge from these constraints constitute the "universal grammar". Many researchers reject universal grammar because of the evolutionary impossibility of its genetic basis for language, the lack of universal features between languages, and the unproven connection between Intrinsic/universal structures and specific language structures have been challenged.

Researcher Michael Tomasello has challenged Chomsky's theory of innate syntactic knowledge as based on theory rather than behavioral observation. Although influential from the 1960s to the 1990s, Chomsky's nativist theory was eventually rejected by the mainstream child language acquisition research community due to its inconsistency with research evidence. It has also been argued by linguists including Robert Friedin, Jeffrey Sampson, Jeffrey K. Pullum, and Barbara Schultz that Chomsky's linguistic evidence for it was incorrect.

Political Ideas

BingMag.com Meet Noam Chomsky, a philosopher interested in Iran

Noam Chomsky is a well-known intellectual and critic of the foreign policy of the United States and some other governments. He considers himself a libertarian socialist and also a supporter of anarcho-syndicalism. Although Chomsky welcomed the dismantling of the Berlin Wall, his fear that with the collapse of the Soviet Union, America's military-industrial complex would seek new enemies to justify its existence was confirmed by what happened later in the world. . According to Chomsky, the successful implementation of this loan program is an "unholy alliance" between the American government and media companies.

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Chomsky during the Vietnam War as a social critic of American foreign policy. became famous His first important political work was the book The Power of America and the New Mandarins of 1969, which was written in criticism of the liberal intellectual class. Chomsky's understanding of the mechanism of US imperialism and his constant ability to understand the overall perspective of US policies led to his opposition to US military involvement in Kosovo, Afghanistan and Iraq, as well as Bush's war on terrorism.

He in 1980 He wrote an introduction to the book of Robert Fourison, who doubted the existence of the Holocaust. Although this introduction only defended the freedom of speech, it was met with harsh reactions. He later revealed that he had been asked to write an article in defense of freedom of speech and he was not aware of its use as an introduction to the said book. Pilger) was one of the few who spoke about the "hidden" genocide in East Timor. He looks critically at all American presidents, even John F. Kennedy, who is incredibly popular. In this chapter, he wrote the book "Rethinking Camelot: John F. Kennedy, the Vietnam War, and American Political Culture". In a joint statement with some American, English and Canadian thinkers about the role of the media in the Israel-Gaza war in 2012, Chomsky criticized the Western media for the one-sided coverage of the war, and called this issue unacceptable and cruel, and called on journalists to protest against the instrumental use of news agencies. The West asked them to strike and refrain from cooperating with this news agency.

In this statement, he also requested the people of Gaza to contact all the news centers using the available facilities and reflect the facts fairly. In October 2012, Chomsky traveled to Gaza to participate in the International Conference on Linguistics, where he was awarded an honorary doctorate by the Islamic University of Gaza in recognition of Noam Chomsky's humanitarian positions in supporting the Palestinian people and declaring solidarity with the Palestinians. He believes that: "behind the appearance of impartial description of social issues (through television reports, political analysis or radio news), there are presuppositions and ideological principles that collapse when we expose them."

Iran

BingMag.com Meet Noam Chomsky, a philosopher interested in Iran

Chomsky in an interview with Paul Jay on November 19, 2007 about nuclear policies Iran considered Iran's defense and reaction against Western countries' non-compliance with their commitments as normal. He describes the historical importance of "total and complete".

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He believes that America and its allies never want to establish democracy and freedom for the Middle East and Arab countries.

Chomsky, in an interview with the Tehran Times newspaper dated April 15, 2009, openly criticized the one-roof-and-two-air policies of the United States regarding Iran's right to peaceful use of atomic energy. In this interview, citing one of Zbigniew Brzezinski's interviews, he concluded that America's main problem with Iran is not Tehran's peaceful nuclear program, but the fact that Iran is no longer among the countries that are subject to American policies.

Personal Life

Chomsky married Carol Doris Sheets (Chomsky) in 1949 and the marriage lasted until his wife's death in 2008. They have three children together: Aviva (born 1957), Diane (born 1960) and Harry (born 1967). He married Valeria Wasserman in 2014.

Works

Political and Philosophical Works

  • Great America and Human Rights - translated by Behzad Bashi - Publications Aghaar (1364)
  • Cold War Decade: Cold War Process in the 1980s - Translated by Shahrukh Waziri (1994)
  • Destiny Triangle, Palestine, America and Israel - translated by Ezzatullah Shahida (1999)
  • Restrictive Democracy - translated by Gholamreza Tajik 1372 (another edition of this book: Translated by Mahosh Gholami - Information Publications - 1388)
  • Conversation with Noam Chomsky - David Barsamian - translated by Abbas Mokhbar - Publishing Center (1373)
  • Old and New World Orders - translated by Mehbod Irani Talab - Information Publications (1375)
  • Exploiting the People: Neoliberalism and World Order - translated by Hassan Mortazavi - another publication, first edition (1379)
  • Conflicting views on the world system - translated by Nasser Beligh - Publications of the General Directorate of Radio Research and Development (Sada) (1379)
  • Rebellious governments: the rule of force in world affairs - translated by Mehrdad Vahdati Danshmand - Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance, Printing and Publishing Organization (1380)
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  • Understanding Power: Chomsky's Persistent Concern - Translated by Dr. Ahmed Azimi Bolourian - Rasa Cultural Services Institute (2012)
  • September 11 - Translated by Zia Khosrowshahi - Darsa Publishing House (2013)
  • >Dominance or Survival: The American Dominion Project - Translation Alireza Thaqfi (2008) (another publication with the name: Hegemony or Survival: America's Quest for Global Domination - translated by Asoudeh Navin - Information Publications - 2007)
  • Media Control - translated by Zia Khosrowshahi - Dersa Publications 2006 (printed) Another one with the name: Sovereignty over the media - translated by Saeed Sari Aslani - online publication 2006)
  • The Last Day of Rebellious Governments - Edward Saeed, Noam Chomsky - translated by Masoud Khairkhah - Naqsh and Negar Publishing House (2006)
  • America's effort for global sovereignty - translated by Zia Khosrowshahi - Dersa Publishing House (1387)
  • Empire Ambitions - translated by Hassan Beligh - Akhtran Publishing House - (1385) (another edition translated by Zia Khosrowshahi - Dersa Publishing House - 1387)
  • Declining governments - translated by Akram Pedram Nia - Afoq Publications (2008)
  • Umbrella of American Power: The Universal Declaration of Human Rights and Contradiction with American Policy - translated by Saeed Sari Aslani - Cultural Institute and informing Tebian (2008)
  • Failed states: abuse of power and attack on democracy - translated by Yaqub Nemati Varujeni - Jam Jam Publications (2008)
  • Twenty-two day war - Chomsky and D Gran - translated by Zahra Moradinasab - Khorsandi Publications (1389)
  • What are the goals of the United States of America - translated by Khalil Debash - Southern Star Publishing (1391)
  • The Occupy Movement: Occupy Wall Street - translated by Jafar Falahi - Nashr al-Karzan (2013) (Occupy) (another publication with the name: Occupying the streets of America from Wall Street to Main Street - translated by Zia Khosrowshahi - Honar Publications - 2015
  • A plan for the future (occupations, interferences, Empire and Sustainability) - translated by Hana Naserzadeh - Marwarid Publications (2013)
  • A Very Dangerous Power: The Middle East and American Foreign Policy - translated by Reza Spili - Roozer Electronic Publications (2011)
  • View A Criticism of American Politics: A Conversation with Noam Chomsky - Dennis Robert, Veronika Zara Quez - Translation by Khujaste Kehan - Afog Publications (2011)
  • On Western Terrorism from Hiroshima to Drones - Noam Chomsky, Andre Volchek - Translation by Maziar Kakuvan - Poya Publications, Germany - Cologne (2014/1393) (Ibid., Mehrandish Publications, 2014)
  • Systems of Supremacy - translated by Amir Hossein Medbarnia - New World Publishing 2015
  • About Anarchism - translated by Reza Esk Nederi - Afkar Publications (2016)
  • How the world works - translated by Parvin Daneshvar - Iran Jam Printing and Publishing Organization 2016
  • A plan for the future - translated by Hana Naserzadeh - Marvarid Publications (2016) )
  • Who rules the world? - Mohsen Askari Jahghi - third publication (1397) (another publication with the name: Who are the rulers of the world? - translated by Reza Qashlagi - Dibayeh Publications - 1396)
  • Chomsky and Foucault's Debate on Human Nature - Noam Chomsky, Michel Foucault - translated by Mehdi Afshar - Mossadegh Publishing (1397)
  • As we say - translated by Reza Qeshlaqi - Khorsandi Publishing (1397)
  • Emperors and pirates - translated by Mohsen Askari Jahghi - publishing Third (1398)
  • Gaza in crisis - translated by Mohsen Askari Jahghi - third publication (1398)
  • On Palestine - Noam Chomsky, Ilan Pape - translated by Mohsen Askari Jahghi - third publication (1399) )
  • The Climate Crisis and the Global Green New Deal: The Political Economy of Saving the Planet - Noam Chomsky and Robert Palin - Publications Verso Books (2020/1399
  • Optimism Beyond Despair (About Capitalism, Empire and Social Change) - Translated by Narges Hasanli - Ban Publishing (1400)
  • Ma How we are creatures - translated by Mustafa Barzegar and Nireh Jodi - Noiseh Parsi Publishing House (1400)
  • Elegy for the American Dream (ten principles about the concentration of wealth and power) - translated by Mohammad Nasiri - Saad Publishing House (1400)

Linguistic works

  • Syntactic constructions - translated by Ahmad Samii Gilani - Kharazmi publications (1374)
  • Aspects of the theory of syntax Theory of Syntax/MIT Press/1965)
  • Cartesian Linguistics: A Chapter of the History of Rational Thought - translated by Ahmed Taherian, Hermes Publications (1377)
  • Language and Knowledge Issues - translated by Ali Darzi, Age Publishing (1378)
  • Language and Thought - translated by Korosh Safavi, Hermes Publications (1379)
  • Language knowledge: its nature, origin and application - translated by Ali Darzi - Nei Publishing (1380)
  • Media Control - Abdolreza Shah Mohammadi - Fikrat Publications (2013)
  • Language Architecture - Translated by Mohammad Farkhi Yakta - Rozbahan Publications (2013)
  • Language and Mind - Translated by Korosh Safavi - Hermes Publishing House (2013)
  • On Nature and Language - Translated by Mohammad Farrokhiekta - Rozbahan Publishing House (2018)
  • Minimalist Letter - translated by Mohammad Farrokhi Yekta - Madid Publications (2019)

Book about Chomsky

  • Chomsky - Andrew Lines - translated by Ahmad Samii - Khawarzmi Publishing - ( 1357)
  • Syntax in the framework of Chomsky's linguistic account theory - Andrew Radford - translated by Seyed Mohammad Reza Hashemi, Ali Khazaifar - Tiho Publishing (2013)
  • Chomsky and the Linguistic Revolution - Reza Nilipour - Danje Publishing (2018)
  • Examination of language ability from Ibn Khaldoun and Chomsky's point of view - Ruhollah Sayadinejad - Mersal Publishing (1394)
  • Chomsky and Globalization - Jeremy Fox - Translation by Mohsen Mahmoudi - Mehrgan Khard Publishing (1394)
  • Chomsky in colloquial language - David Cogswell - translated by Mohsen Askari, Mehraveh Samadi Rahim, Nilofar Salehimanesh - published by Aftab Alborz (1395)
  • The Kingdom of Speech - Tom Wolf - Random House Publishing (2016/1395)
  • Decoding Chomsky: Science and revolutionary politics (Decoding Chomsky: Science and revolutionary politics) - Chris Knight - Yale University Publishing (2016/1395)
  • Chomsky's philosophy - Morton Winston - translated by Ahmad Reza Taqa - New Publishing 1398)

Filmology

  • (Manufacturing Consent) Forging Consent: Noam Chomsky and the Media -(1992)

Noam Chomsky himself did not see the film at the time, because he believed that the media could not convey the message of the film as well as it should: "If the media can get someone to speak, that's great, but it doesn't mean that the one who gave the speech is the leader; But that doesn't fit in the movie - what fits is people thinking the speaker is a jack-of-all-trades and asking, "How can I join your movement?" [] In fact, those in positions of power [] want people to think that great leaders set these things in motion, and then what everyone has to do is follow them. This is one of the ways to humiliate people [].

  • (The Corporation) (2003)
  • (Noam Chomsky Rebel Without A Pause) Noam Chomsky Peace Propaganda & the Promised Land: American Media and the Palestinian-Israeli Conflict (2004) (Lake) of Fire) Lake of Fire-(2006)
  • (Four Horsemen) Four Horsemen (Akhr al-Zaman)-(2012) holder of more than twenty titles and international awards among them Iran
  • (?Is The Man Who Is Tall Happy) Is the man who is tall happy? (2013)
  • (Requiem for the American Dream) - (2015)
  • (We Are Many) (2014)
  • (The Brainwashing of My Dad) How they brainwashed my father (2016)

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