Get to know Italo Calvino’s 10 books; The narrator of the invisible cities

A tall man with a straight face and eyes that were not particularly attractive, he always wore a hat, which he took off as a sign of respect and before starting a conversation He would give up. He was wearing a long coat that made him more well-dressed and well-groomed than before. He is Italo Calvino, the great Italian writer and creator of great works such as "Mr. Palomar", "If you travel one night of the winter nights", "Smoke fog", "One day as an election observer", "Argentine ant", "The tree-sitting rain", " Vicente was split in half" and... Calvino, who is one of the best Italian writers of the 20th century, was born in the city of Santiago de las Vegas, Cuba. His parents were botanists and their influence on their son's detailed knowledge of plants, environment and naturalism is clearly visible in his works. After celebrating his fifth birthday, he went to Italy and lived there until the end of his life.

BingMag.com Get to know Italo Calvino’s 10 books; The narrator of the invisible cities

A tall man with a straight face and eyes that were not particularly attractive, he always wore a hat, which he took off as a sign of respect and before starting a conversation He would give up. He was wearing a long coat that made him more well-dressed and well-groomed than before. He is Italo Calvino, the great Italian writer and creator of great works such as "Mr. Palomar", "If you travel one night of the winter nights", "Smoke fog", "One day as an election observer", "Argentine ant", "The tree-sitting rain", " Vicente was split in half" and... Calvino, who is one of the best Italian writers of the 20th century, was born in the city of Santiago de las Vegas, Cuba. His parents were botanists and their influence on their son's detailed knowledge of plants, environment and naturalism is clearly visible in his works. After celebrating his fifth birthday, he went to Italy and lived there until the end of his life.

Calvino stayed in Sanremo until he was eighteen. He went to Turin in 1941. In 1943, he joined the Italian resistance movement in World War II, the Garibaldi Brigade, and then joined the Italian Communist Party. In 1947, he graduated from the literature school of the University of Turin with a thesis on Joseph Conrad, a prominent English-Polish writer, and worked for the local newspaper Lunita, an organ of the Communist Party.

In this year, after the publication The book "The Way of the Spider's Nest" with the theme of the resistance movement, which brought him the Richene prize, met Natalia Ginsberg and Elio Vittorini, great writers of his country.

Calvino traveled to the Soviet Union in 1950. The notes of this trip were published in Lunitah newspaper and won him an award. In the 1950s, he tended to a more literary imagination, closer to admonitional anecdotes, in which social and political satire is accompanied by ironic irony. He published the books "The Missing Knight" and "Argentine Ant". In 1957, he unexpectedly resigned from the Communist Party and his letter of resignation was published in the newspaper Lunita. The novel "Tree Baron" was published in this year.

In contrast to the many difficulties faced by communist-leaning foreigners to enter the United States, he stayed in this country for six months at the invitation of the Ford Foundation and was influenced by the new world.

During the 60s, Calvino published the literary magazine Manabo together with Elio Vittorini. From this period onwards, without moving away from humor or denying his personal reading of the classics, he turned to graphic and science-fictional stories and works such as "Marco Waldo", "Cosmic Comedies", "Palace of Crossed Destinies" and "Cities He wrote Napida.

The loss of Vittorini, his old friend, in 1966 had a profound effect on him. After that, he traveled to Paris and met Roland Barthes, writer, literary theorist and philosopher. The works that were published in the 70s at the same time as his studies on classical literature at the Sorbonne University had a classical theme.

Calvino won the French Order of Honor in 1981, but four years later he suffered a cerebral hemorrhage in the city of Siena. Died.

Literary style

During his professional life, Calvino wrote in various genres and wrote short stories, novels, articles and scientific and literary treatises. He was a creative and innovative writer. His creativity in story writing was amazing from the subject of the story to the plot and how to pay it.

Roland Barthes compared him and Borges to two parallel lines and named Calvino as a postmodern writer.

The wonderful beginning of the novel "If You Travel One Night of Winter Nights" shows Calvino's mastery and ability of modern storytelling methods: "You are about to read Italo Calvino's new story, calm down, collect your attention and..."

Book "The Missing Knight"BingMag.com Get to know Italo Calvino’s 10 books; The narrator of the invisible cities

Humor And sarcasm and making fun of serious issues of society is one of the characteristic features of Italian writers. Luigi Pirandello, Dino Botsati and Italo Calvino are masters in this work. Even serious writers like Alberto Moravia and Inia Tsocilone are not exempt from this. This kind of attitude is in the nature of Italians. Like other poets, writers, actors and painters of his compatriots, Calvino saw the world through the lens of humor. As a result of the story of the Crusades, which lasted for many years and caused the death of thousands of Christians and Muslims, from his point of view, it becomes a ridiculous battle that has no result other than killing and wasting material and spiritual resources.

The author in The novel "Nonexistent Knight" narrates the life of Azhilov, a knight who has no external existence. In fact, the will and The voice of the missing knight from inside the white armor is more impressive than the other warriors. Azhilov, a strong-willed and honest knight, gets his armor when he defends the nun, he recounts adventures in France, England and North Africa to testify to the nun's chastity.

Calvino in this symbolic work to He has discussed ethics, chivalry and identity and mocked the Crusades with subtle humor, criticizing the blind-mindedness of Christians to participate in battles. The published source reads:

The least carelessness in the performance of services on the part of the people aroused in Azhilov a strong desire to check everything and catch them by the wrist when they committed mistakes or negligence. He was furious at any wrongdoing, or misbehavior... However, it was not his duty to pursue such pursuits at such an hour; If he did so, then it was his own behavior that could be considered inappropriate and even against the regulations. So Azhilov tried to control himself, and refrain from interfering in the details of the matters that he had to deal with the next day, such as the regularity of the place where the spears were placed, or measures to keep the fodder dry...

On these patrols, his ghostly white armor would suddenly turn green in front of the commander of a camp, or the guard officer, or the guards patrolling the wine cellar, in search of the remnants of the wines consumed earlier in the night... each time he stopped hesitantly. was doing Should he have behaved like someone who could only enforce discipline by his presence, or should he have turned back nonchalantly and continued on his way, like someone passing by who saw something that didn't concern him? Subjected to this indecision, Erg remains in thought, without succeeding in choosing one of the two tasks; He just saw that he was disturbing everyone and he wanted to do something to have a connection with his fellow man, even if it was small. But what to do? Start yelling and giving orders like a corporal? Or mockers, a few pranksters, such as those people who deliver in pubs, speak and pass? No: with a veil hidden behind pride, or a lack of pride derived from modesty, he uttered something like a good night, which could hardly be heard, and walked away, at the last moment it seemed to him that someone had spoken to him, in The result would come back a little and say: Huh? Then you would immediately understand that no one said a word to him, he would run away like a thief."

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The book "The Tree-dwelling Rain"BingMag.com Get to know Italo Calvino’s 10 books; The narrator of the invisible cities

How can one escape from people and live closely with them and for them? How can we turn our backs on people's lives and their long-standing conventions and search for a new life and a new order for them and with their own help? Baron Rondo, the main character of the novel "Baron the Tree-dweller", answers these questions. An answer not through preaching and theorizing, who learns with his own life, with his way of living, that everything is possible for a person. Only on the condition that he wants to and pays for it.

The main character of the novel escapes from the old traditions and unquestionable social restrictions and chooses a way of life that does not have the slightest harmony with people's lives. He leaves the hard and familiar ground under his feet and chooses to live in the top of the tree.

What prompts Cosimo to rebel and drag him to the world of trees is the boredom of the old social order and the creation of a new order that the behavior of humans and fix their relationship with themselves and nature. In this way, on the one hand, Baron leaves behind the old world to find a way to a new world and to know it, and on the other hand, by transforming his life, he shows a model of movement. Cosimo doesn't move away from Earth to escape it. He takes a distance in order to see and know the earth better.

In a part of the novel "Baron Derhatneshin" translated by Mehdi Sahabi and published by Negh Publishing House, we read:

"The winding road above Olive branches were a comfortable and uniform way for Cosimo; The olive tree is a hospitable tree, which, although it has a rough trunk, is pleasant to anyone who sits on its branches or passes by. On the other hand, its strong branches are few and there are no different types.

Fig is a tree that you should always take care of its branches so that they don't break, but it gives space for sightseeing. Cosimo sat under the arch of fig leaves, watching the sun pass through the veins of the leaf. He saw the green and round fruits that were getting bigger little by little, he could smell the juice that was flowing into him from the tail of the fruit. Fig is a tree that becomes one with man. Its juice and the buzzing of bees mix with a person's soul. It didn't take long for Cosimo to feel like a fig; It would be scattered and left.

The top of the fig tree, the top of the mulberry, is a good place; Unfortunately, trees are rare. The same can be said about walnuts. Perhaps there is no tree like a walnut tree. With what strength and confidence it shows itself to be a tree. With what perseverance it rises and becomes hard and heavy; The perseverance that can be found in its leaves... Any time When I saw Cosimo walking among the endless branches of the old walnut tree, as I imagined him walking in the rooms of the palace, I wanted to go and live there like him. He liked oak; He liked its grooved trunk, and every time he was worried about something, he would cut the thin leaves of its trunk with his fingertips." /p>

The book "Superpollution"BingMag.com Get to know Italo Calvino’s 10 books; The narrator of the invisible cities

Italo Calvino was a writer whose works are in no It did not fit the philosophical school or current and was special to itself. He believed that the things that literature can teach us are few, but there is no substitute for them: the way of looking at ourselves and our fellows, the ways of making connections between personal and public issues, valuing small and big things, considering limits and Limits for one's own and others' weaknesses, finding the relationships of life and the place of love and power in it, finding the place of death and the way to think about it or not. To teach sarcasm, humor and many necessary and difficult things. The rest should be learned from science, history and life.

In the novel "Super Pollution", the author narrates the life of a journalist who enters a strange city to work in a magazine called Palash, whose topic is fighting air pollution and preserving The environment is working. He starts writing articles about air pollution and its destructive effects on human mind, body and life... But he is unaware of its effect on his own mind and life.

After writing a considerable number of articles about nuclear radiation, death clouds and lab rats that are born with physical defects as a result, he feels that people Every day they become more indifferent to this pollution and even if he writes about the extinction of the human race due to pollution, it will not have an effect on them... This topic surprises and confuses him.

In a part of the novel "Over Pollution" which was translated by Arzoo Oghetiri and published by Khurshid Kitab, we read:

"In the cold of the night we were going; I was tucked into my coat with the collar turned up; Omar Bazalotzi walked slowly and spoke with a small cloud of steam coming out of his mouth and from his delicate lips. Every now and then he takes out a hand from his pocket to emphasize a part of his conversation; And at that moment he would stop, as if he could not go further until he had made that point completely clear.

I had lost track of his words; I thought that someone like Omar Bazalotzi would not try to escape from the gray smoke that surrounded him, but would try to turn it into a moral value, or better said, into an internal rule.

I said: pollution...

Pollution? Yes, I know Korda wants to be a modern day factoryrefining the atmospherego ahead and quote that to their workers. Surely he will not be the one who refines the atmosphere... the issue is related to the social structure... if we can change it, we will also solve the problem of pollution. We will solve it, not them.

He invited me to go with him to the meeting of union representatives of different companies in the city. I sat at the bottom of a smoky hall. Omar Bazalotzi sat at the president's table with other men who were all older than him. The air in the hall was not warm and everyone was wearing coats and hats.

Those who had to speak stood one by one by the table, all in the same way, in a neutral and empty way, with formulas to open the conversation and They addressed the crowd by using the materials that were suitable for them. From some of the mutterings that could be heard from the listeners, I realized that some controversial teasing was said, but they were all arguments in the envelope, and always started with an acknowledgment of the first objection. It seemed to me that many of those who were talking to Omar Bazalotzi Lage; With this young man who was sitting a little crookedly at the chairman's table and took out from his pocket a leather bag of tobacco with a fat and short English pipe and filled it with the slow movement of his small hands and while he put one elbow on the table and his cheek He was leaning on it, with half-closed eyelids, he began to peck at it.

The hall was filled with smoke. Someone suggested that they open the small window at the top for a few moments. The cold wind changed the weather, but soon the fog came in from outside and nothing could be seen from one end of the hall to the other. From where I was sitting, I checked the audience behind them, who were motionless in the cold of the hall. Some people were sitting with their collars turned up, a row of overcoat-clad figures at the president's table, and one person who was standing and talking and was as fat and fat as a bear, everyone was immersed in that fog, even their words and stubbornness were in The fog had settled.

In February, Claudia returned. For breakfast, we went to a luxury restaurant at the end of the park by the river. From the glass of the windows, we looked at the river bank and plants, which with the color flowing in the air, created a painting with ancient beauty."

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Italo Calvino was a versatile writer. In addition to novels, short stories, treatises and researches, he was a successful essayist and journalist. In addition to his many years of experience working in the newspaper Lunita, the organ of the Communist Party of Italy, during his stay in Paris, he sent numerous articles to Italian newspapers, which were well received by the readers. There are articles and reports that Calvino wrote about Paris museums and various phenomena including literature. In addition, the travelogues written by the author during his trip to the three countries of Mexico, Japan and Iran constitute the final part of the book. In general, this book can be considered a selection of essays, notes, travelogues and stories that the prominent Italian writer wrote in a narrative style during his stay in the French capital. Hale Nazimi published by Hermes Publishing, we read:

"It is a raised cornice, covered with stucco, which is surrounded by a perforated frieze like a net; Inside, there is a mid-empty frieze, which is spread over the frames of the frame with salami motifs. Patterns on which, on the upper horizontal side, a line with a flowing writing appears as if suspended. Beneath this is a hexagonal kanji, adorned with a decorative fluted border, supported by slender columns filled with carvings. On the sides, the entire work surface is full of decorations, decorated with filled and empty spaces and hollowed out like a sponge. The building of columns and the pointed arch of the prominent part of the corner is based on a hollow and carefully carved base; Also, the hollow part of the corner of the hexagonal arch, which is covered with plaster, is hollow. Here it is necessary to go back to describe details like this on a smaller scale and with more complex references and use all the previously mentioned vocabulary. But what can be seen inside this inner arch which is located in the heart of the other arches? nothing; Just a bare wall.

I am trying to describe a 14th century mihrab in the Juma Mosque or community of Isfahan. Mihrab is a recess in the wall that shows the direction of Mecca in the mosque. Every time I see a mosque, I stand in front of the altar and I can't get enough of watching it. The interesting thing for me is the design of the door, everything has been done to show the function of the door, while it does not open anywhere; A magnificent cornice design as if it is a place to store something very valuable, but there is nothing inside.

In Sheikh Lotfollah Mosque, the altar is located in a wall that is completely covered with azure and turquoise glazed terracotta; Beneath the arched opening opens deep into the wall an arched cavity of brilliant azure and gold, in the center of which is a mock-arched window of pale earthenware, surrounded by a geometric tracery of spiral lines, with a combination of several beehive cavities, Small vaults without floors that are stacked on top of each other. As if the smaller multi-layered altar opens the only possible way to infinity.

Around it, the white writing on the azure bricks covers the space with its balanced letters with parallel lines and quivering curves like whiplashes, with slanted lines. or a point is engraved and verses from the Quran stand out upwards and downwards, straight and oblique, forward and backward, and along all visible and invisible dimensions.

After watching the altar for a long time I feel I must arrive at a conclusion which may be as follows: the idea of perfection which art pursues, the knowledge and knowledge stored up in writing, the sign of satisfaction with every desire expressed in the celebration of the magnificence of ornamentation, all And everything has one meaning, it glorifies only one principle, it is the only guarantor of the last thing, and it is that which does not exist, its only characteristic is non-existence, it cannot even be given a name."

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The book "Mr. Palomar"BingMag.com Get to know Italo Calvino’s 10 books; The narrator of the invisible cities

The novel "Mr. Palomar", an ontological work, It is philosophical and partly symbolic. Mr. Palomar, the main character of the novel, is an extroverted man who is interested in nature and the outside world and the multiple forms of the world. The main character of the novel talks about life, the world and existence with himself. Palomar, who is not comfortable in life and finds himself outside the circle of influence and impression in human relations and public order, tries to draw conclusions from his observations and apply it in his behavior with others and the world in order to regain his peace. .

The author tried to create two characters "Mr. Palomar" and "Mr. Mohol". Mr. Palomar is associated with a famous observatory in California called Monte Palomar. Mr. Mohol's name is also associated with a plan to drill into the Earth's crust, which, if successful, could take humans deep into the Earth. Mr. Palomar is naturally inclined towards the sky, the outside world and the multiple forms of the world; On the contrary, Mr. Mohol has a tendency towards the depths, darkness and inner darkness. Calvino intended to write the dialogues of these two characters who were in conflict with each other. One of them is the details of life He sees the everyday with the universal dimension and the other whose only concern is to discover the depths and only deals with expressing unpleasant truths.

He started writing pieces for the character of Palomar. A character who is in search of harmony in a world full of suffering and screams. He published them in the Corriere de la Sera newspaper. In the various parts he wrote for the character of Palomar, he always predicted a part under the title "Conversation with Mr. Mohol", but this part never went beyond the title.

In writing this work, the Italian novelist always tried to observe the way To promote Mr. Palomar to the human world, to man himself so that he can reach a general conclusion at the end. While rereading the story, he thought that the novel "Mr. Palomar" can be summed up in two sentences: "A man goes step by step to achieve consciousness, but he has not yet reached it."

In part We read from the novel "Mr. Palomar", which was translated by Arzoo Oghetiri and published by Khursheed Kitab:

"The sea is a bit rough and small waves are hitting the sandy beach. Mr. Palomar is standing on the beach watching a wave. But don't think that he is drowning in the praise of the waves. He is not overwhelmed and knows what he is doing: he wants to watch a wave, and he does. He is not praising because praising requires the right mood and the right state of mind and a series of right external circumstances; Although Mr. Palomar has no objection to praise, these three conditions are not seen in him. In the end, he does not want to look at "waves", only one wave is enough: he considers only one definite and limited object, to avoid misleading sensations while looking.

Mr. Palomar in the distance. He sees a wave that blooms, grows, approaches, changes color and shape, coils, breaks, fades and flows again. Here he can convince himself that he has done what he wanted, he can get his way and go. But it is very difficult to distinguish one wave from another wave that follows and seems to push the first wave to overcome it; It is just like trying to separate that wave from the previous wave that is pulling itself back to the shore. So there is only one situation left in which the front wave faces this wave to stop it. After that, if we consider each wave with its extension parallel to the shore, it is difficult to determine the boundary of this extension; Where waves are formed and left to their own devices and vary in speed, shape, strength and direction.

In short, you cannot describe a wave without considering the complex aspects that go hand in hand to make it. Shaped, watched. These aspects are constantly changing; Therefore, one wave is always different from another wave. It is also true that the waves are more or less similar, even if they are not very close and do not follow each other, because they are shapes and sequences of waves that are irregularly divided in time and space and repeat regularly. Since Palomar's intention at this moment is only to see a wavethat is, to take in all its simultaneous parts, without missing a single part of ithe gazes at the movement of the water as it hits the shore, long enough to capture the hidden aspects. . As soon as he realizes that the images are repeated, he realizes that he has seen everything he wanted and can stop looking.

Book "Disappeared Cities"BingMag.com Get to know Italo Calvino’s 10 books; The narrator of the invisible cities

Talking about cities alone may be boring It may seem obvious, but Calvino sewed a garment for the novel "Disappeared Cities" based on the name of the well-known Venetian traveler, Marco Polo. The story is narrated by this traveler while Qublai Khan, the Mughal emperor, is leaning on the king's throne and tries to find out about some of the cities of his empire with the unintelligible gestures and signs of this foreign man.

First, there is no possibility of verbal communication between Kublai Khan and Marco. Marco is not familiar with this foreign language, so most of the book consists of Marco's thoughts mixed with his memories of these cities. On the other hand, Marco is sure that everything he says about the cities is not understandable to the great Khan, because his signs and symptoms of the cities can provide a multifaceted perception, and the empty space between Marco's references and Kublai Khan's understanding can turn the facts from one side to the other. And this is the effective magic of the book that Calvino has brought to the whole world with Marco's footsteps.

There is no concrete visible cities in this novel. The author has engraved a woman's name on the forehead of all imaginary cities and has written this work piece by piece in very long intervals of time, like poems written on pages. However, one should not imagine that in "Disappeared Cities" Calvino intended to follow the footsteps of Marco Polo and show how and with what courage he reached the Chinese court from Venice in the 13th century AD and from there as the ambassador of the Great Khan from a wide area. He visited the Orient.

The dreamy tourist for the sad and depressed emperor who has realized the vastness of his empire and his endless power against order. A world that is collapsing has no value, it describes imaginary and invisible cities whose existence is impossible.

"The outgoing traveler, after three days of marching to the east, finds himself in the city of Diomira. A city with sixty silver domes, with bronze statues of all the gods, with streets paved with tin, with an auditorium full of crystal and a golden rooster that crows every morning on a high hill.

The traveler knows all these beauties. And he has seen them in other cities before. But the peculiarity of Diomira is that when a person arrives there on one of the early autumn nights, when the days are getting shorter and all the colorful lights in front of the delicatessens are lit together, he hears a woman's voice shouting from the balcony: Hey, to all Those who at that moment think that they have spent such nights and were happy are envious.

A man who has been driving horses for a long time in the land without water and grass and far away, one day the craving for the city hits him. He goes and goes until he finally reaches Isidora at the end; A city whose palaces have spiral staircases covered with seashells, where cameras and musical instruments are artistically crafted, where whenever the traveler is in doubt between two women, there is always a third woman; Where a cockfight leads to a bloody fight between bookies. When he was longing for the city, he thought about all these. So Isidora is the city of his dreams, with only one difference: in his dream, he was young and he was a part of the city. Now that he has reached Isidora, he has passed his age. In the city square, there is a small wall of old people who are watching the passing of young people. He is there, among others. Desire and desire are no more than memories.

There are two ways to talk about the city of Dorothea: one is to say that it is a city with four aluminum towers next to seven gates, with a movable bridge in front of each gate over a moat that Its water flows into four Sabzefam streams, passes through the entire city and divides it into nine neighborhoods. Each neighborhood has 300 houses and 700 chimneys, and since the lucky girls of one neighborhood marry the youths of another neighborhood, their relatives exchange the products that they only have in their possession, such as oranges, caviar, astrolabes, and lollies. and purple and purple rubies; And based on these data, the necessary calculations can be made to estimate all that is expected from the city in the past, present and future.

Secondly, according to the words of Shatrabani who took me there, it can be said: in the prime of youth. I arrived there early one morning. I saw a large crowd hurrying from the alleys to the market; The women had white and beautiful teeth and looked straight in the eyes. Three soldiers were playing on a platform and around, wheels were turning and colorful announcement cloths were waving in the wind. Before that, I had seen nothing but the desert and caravan roads. That morning, in Dorothea, I learned that there is nothing in life that does not await me. Since then and with the passing of many years, my eyes have returned many times to the expanses of the desert and the vastness of the caravan roads, but now I know that this was only one of the countless roads that lay in Dorothea that morning."

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The book "If you are a traveler on one of the winter nights"BingMag.com Get to know Italo Calvino’s 10 books; The narrator of the invisible cities

Despite the fact that postmodern works are not usually considered as literary masterpieces, but the novel "If one night of the winter nights of a traveler" is an exception to this rule, and book lovers and critics consider it one of the masterpieces of this They know the literary style.

The book contains twelve chapters and ten half-finished stories. One of the characters in this strange story, called "Book Reader", buys a new and beautiful book that starts like this: "Calm down. concentrate. Throw away all other thoughts. Let the world around you fade away." Unfortunately, after about thirty pages, he realizes that his book has a problem and there is nothing in it except the first part that is constantly repeated throughout the book. He returns to the bookstore and finds out that this book was written by Bazakbal, a Polish writer. He chooses a book by a Polish author, but it turns out that this work is also written by another author...

The narrator's search for the "correct" book or the "perfect" book or the "original" book leads him to amazing adventures. . To the extent that he goes to a dictatorial country to find the continuation of one of the stories, where he meets Ludmila's sister, who now appears in different roles and clothes with different fake characters.

In another story, he goes to university. And there he meets a professor who specializes in language and civilization in decline, and a young man who regularly goes to the university but doesn't read anything, on the contrary, he makes sculptures from books and organizes exhibitions. At the same time, this search is an excuse or a platform for analyzing the phenomenon of writing, reading and storytelling. The relationship between storytelling and thought and conveying a message.

In a part of the novel "If one night of the We read "Winter of the Traveler" translated by Lily Golestan and published by Age Publishing House:

"You are starting to read Italo Calvino's new story, if you are a traveler on one of the winter nights. take it easy Be careful. Remove all other thoughts from your head. Let the world that surrounds you hide behind a cloud. Besides, the TV is on as always, so you better close the door. Immediately tell everyone: No, I don't want to watch TV. If they don't hear you, say it louder: I'm reading a book, I don't want anyone to disturb you.

With all this noise, maybe they didn't hear you: say it louder, shout: I'm reading Italo Calvino's new story I read. Or if you prefer, say nothing, hopefully they'll leave you alone. Choose the most comfortable position: sitting, lying down, squatting, lying down, lying on your back, lying on your side, lying on your back, in the sofa, on the sofa, on the couch, on the couch, in a sofa, or in a bed, if you have one, and of course, on the bed or in bed You can even put your head on the ground in a yoga movement and of course take the book upside down.

It is true, finding the best position for reading is not easy. At that time, they read books while standing in front of a chair. Standing was a habit. Also, when they were tired from riding horses, they rested like this. No one has ever thought of reading a book while riding. In any case, you should sit straight on the saddle, or put the book on the horse's mane, or attach the book to the horse's ears with a special saddle and harness. Feet up is the first condition to enjoy reading.

Well, what are you waiting for? Stretch your legs, put them on a pillow, or two pillows, or on the arm of the sofa, or on the top of the sofa, on the tea table, on the desk, on the piano, or on the map of the five continents. But if you want to put your feet up, take off your shoes, otherwise put them back on. But don't stick to one hand of shoes and one hand of books.

Adjust the light so that it doesn't tire your vision. Do this immediately, because once you're warmed up, you won't be able to move. Sit so that the screen in front of you does not fall into the shadow: like a mass of black letters on a gray background, like an army of rats. But be careful so that strong light does not shine on the book and by its reflection on the raw whiteness of the paper, there are not many shadows of the letters, like the rays of the southern sun on the facades at noon. From now on, try to predict everything that is going to distract you from reading. What else is left? are you peeing This is up to you.

You are not going to expect anything special in this book. You are a person who does not expect anything from anything due to the principles of your life..."

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The book "Why you should read the classics"BingMag.com Get to know Italo Calvino’s 10 books; The narrator of the invisible cities

"Why you should read the classics?" It is a book containing treatises and articles about some of the classic writers of the world; Authors whose works were known as "classics" in Calvino's life occupied his mind. . From 4th and 5th century writers such as Xenophon and Nizami to 20th century writers such as Georges Perc. With this description, there is no doubt that there are also well-known authors such as Charles Dickens, Balzac, Tolstoy, Hemenigouy, Chekhov and Mark Twain.

Calvino considers classics to be books about which it is constantly said: "I have I will read it again." This category of works are books that leave a special impression and remain unforgettable, hidden in the labyrinth of memory, in the collective or individual unconscious. The famous Italian writer considers every rereading of a classic work as a new discovery, like reading it for the first time. From this point of view, a classic work is a book that "never says everything it has to say." Books that leave behind a trace of the culture or cultures they have passed through and always create a cloud of critical discourses. Hempartian published by Ghatre publishing house, we read:

"- Today, when reading Anabaz, it feels strongly that we are watching an old war documentary, the kind that is re-broadcast on the cinema or TV screen from time to time. will be The fascination of the black-and-white film, with its sharp contrasts of light and rapid movement, directly engulfs us from beyond parts such as what follows below: from there in a plain covered with heavy snow, three stages and We went through five houses. The last stage was difficult: the blizzard, which literally burned everything and froze people, was blowing directly in our faces... To protect our vision from the impact of the snow, we put a black thing before our eyes as we marched. we took. And as for the feet, you have to shake them constantly, never rest, and don't untie your shoelaces at night...all these inevitable misfortunes caused a few men to stay behind. by seeing The place that had a dark spot, because there was no sign of snow, they thought that the snow had melted. And of course it was so, and because of a spring that was boiling in a valley. The reports of the mountain warriors, on the one hand, emerge from the contrast between Italy, poor and full of wisdom, and, on the other hand, full-scale madness and massacre. According to the reports of the war generals of the fifth century, there is a contrast between the status of the locust herd, to which the Greek mercenary army has fallen, and the classical, philosophical, civil and military virtues that Xenophon and his followers try to align themselves with. adapt it And we conclude that this interpretation does not in any way cover up other sad and heartbreaking aspects: Xenophon seems sure that he was able to reconcile these two situations. Man can degrade to such an extent that he is nothing but a locust and at the same time apply a set of rules of discipline and hierarchy - in a word, "style" - to this state of being a locust and be satisfied with it; He can more or less not talk about being a grasshopper, but only talk about the best situation. From Xenophon's point of view, modern morality is drawn with complete technical efficiency, with all its limitations.

- In this search to give style and norm to this biological movement of greedy and violent people in the mountains and plains. It is Anatoly in whom all dignity lies: a restrained, non-troublesome, and essentially bourgeois grand secretary. We know that it is possible to be successful in giving a principled and great appearance to the worst actions; Even when these actions are not dictated, such as those that occur in a forced situation. The army of the Greeks, which moves in a spiral form through the mountain passes and the river banks and through countless ambushes, and is unable to know who will be sacrificed or oppressed, and even in the cold of massacre. is surrounded by the full-scale enmity of indifference and destiny, it inspires us with a symbolic anxiety that maybe we are the only ones who are able to understand it."

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The book "The King Listens"BingMag.com Get to know Italo Calvino’s 10 books; The narrator of the invisible cities

This collection contains 20 short stories, one of which is called "Shah Gush Meikand". The narrator of the story paints the face of the king whose most important job since the coronation is to sit motionless on the throne. The narrator says that maybe the palace is full of enemies, and it has become more difficult to distinguish a friend from an enemy. The city is moving like an ocean. But in the palace, everything is quiet and peaceful, and maybe this order of the palace indicates a coup. The danger is mostly caused by silence; But the narrator gives the king strength of heart that all this is due to his imagination. The king's palace is built on crypts where someone was buried alive. There is a sound, the sound can indicate the movement of a human being. There is a valve on the outside. Enemies attack the palace. While escaping, the king encounters a prisoner. He eventually escapes outside the palace and breathes a sigh of relief.

In a part of the book "The King Listens", translated by Farzad Hemmati and Mohammad Reza Farzad, we read:

"From time to time a train moves parallel to the coast, I'm on that train and I'm leaving there. Because I don't want to stay in my sleepy and backward village, I sit on the train like a child sitting on the wall of a bridge at the foot of a mountain and see the license plates of cars outside the city. I am leaving now, goodbye village.

There are other cities in the world beyond my village. Some of them are by the sea, some of them, I don't know, maybe in the depths of the plains, some of them, I don't know, maybe on the banks where the railway lines end, after breathtaking excursions, in the heart of the endless expanses of nature. Every once in a while I get off in one of these small towns and I always have the look of a traveler who has set foot there for the first time, with newspapers in his pocket and his eyes burning from the dust. At night in my new bed, I turn off the light and listen to the trams. Then I think of my room in our village, which is so far away at night that it seems impossible that two places so far apart can exist on earth at the same time. While I'm not sure about this, I'm sleepy. In the morning, on the other side of the window, there are many things to watch: if it is Turin, the endless streets that have no end, if you look from the top of the balcony railings, you will see the streets and the two rows of trees disappearing on the other side of the white sky. And if it is Milan, the houses that turn their backs on the foggy fields. There are definitely other cities, other things that can be watched. Finally, one day I will go and see them.

But in every city, the rooms are the same, it's as if the women in the guest houses send the room furniture from city to city until they know that I am coming. Even my make-up box on the marble dressing table looks like I left it there and saw it for the first time when I walked in. Condition It is inevitable, as if they are not mine at all. After years of living in other rooms that are exactly the same, I can stay in one of these rooms for a long time without being able to feel that the room is mine, without seeing any sign of myself in that room. Because my suitcase is always packed for the next trip and no city in Italy is the city of choice, no city offers me a job. Even if you find a job, no city is that good, because there is always another and better city where you hope to work forever. For this reason, I put my knick-knacks in the drawer just as they were in my suitcase, ready to be repacked."

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The book "Six notes for the next millennium"BingMag.com Get to know Italo Calvino’s 10 books; The narrator of the invisible cities

On June 6, 1984, Harvard University officially from Italy Calvino invited Charles Eliot Norton to give a series of lectures on poetry. These lectures were to be given in the academic year 1985-86 in Cambridge, Massachusetts. The wording of the poem represented all the forms that were somehow related to poetry - literary, melodious, visual - and the choice of subject was completely free, and the very breadth of the subject had weighed him down, but as soon as he received suggestions, he began to think about it, and Very soon, this work became a mental preoccupation.

After a while, he collected information for eight speeches and thought about them, and practically from January 1, 1985, he only worked on these speeches and did nothing else. The title of the eighth speech was: "On the beginning and on the end of the novel" but it was never found.

After thinking a lot about the title of the book, Calvino liked the word "note" more. He had finished five speeches in September 1985 on the night of his journey. The sixth speech - which has not yet been found - the compatibility of the name Dasha and Maidan, which had references to Herman Melville's book "Bartleby the Editor". He had left it in the file on his desk to put in his suitcase when he died of a cerebral hemorrhage.

In a part of the book "Six Notes for the Next Millennium" which was published with the translation of Lily Golestan by the Center Publishing House, we read:

"I would like to dedicate the first speech to the contrast between lightness and weight and to speak about the value of Yabki. Not because weight is less valuable to me, but simply because I have more to say about style. I have written novels for forty years, I have discovered different ways and accumulated many experiences, now it is time to give a general definition of my work. I have tried to lift the weight sometimes from people, sometimes from heavenly bodies and sometimes from cities. I have mostly tried to remove the weight from the structure of the text and language.

In this speech - both for myself and for you - I am trying to say why the value of style is more than its forms and I say that among the texts of the past Which one do I consider to be the best example of style? I show where I place this value in the present and how I draw it in the future.

First, I will talk about the last point. When I was still starting out, it was an absolute requirement for every young writer to be a representative of his time, and while I was full of good intentions, I tried to adapt myself to the unbridled energy of the events of this century."

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