dystopia literature and its examples; From “1984” to “The Handmaid’s Tale”

Nowadays, the concept of "dystopia" (Viranshahr or anti-utopia in Farsi) is not unfamiliar to anyone and this literary genre has made its way everywhere; From teenage movies and series to games, anime and even in everyday conversations. One of the factors of the entry of "dystopia" into popular culture (pop culture) should be considered "The Hunger Games" trilogy; A trilogy that shined in both literature and cinema, and similar dystopian books were written after it, and films and series were made. Now, despite the many fans that "Dystopia" has found, and every year several noteworthy novels are published in this genre (even inside Iran), we continue to see the continuous and strong sales of classic dystopias. In 2014, The Guardian magazine asked the question whether the book "1984", George Orwell's masterpiece, is a good story that is badly written, or a bad story that is well written. A book that was published decades ago (1949) is not only still debatable, but it is still at the top of the bestseller list. This story does not end with "1984". The rest of the dystopia classics, such as "Brave New World" and "It Can't Happen Here" are relatively equal in this attention and high sales. The sale of the book "The Handmaid's Tale" has also increased by 30% since 2016 (due to its successful series).

BingMag.com dystopia literature and its examples; From “1984” to “The Handmaid’s Tale”

Nowadays, the concept of "dystopia" (Viranshahr or anti-utopia in Farsi) is not unfamiliar to anyone and this literary genre has made its way everywhere; From teenage movies and series to games, anime and even in everyday conversations. One of the factors of the entry of "dystopia" into popular culture (pop culture) should be considered "The Hunger Games" trilogy; A trilogy that shined in both literature and cinema, and similar dystopian books were written after it, and films and series were made. Now, despite the many fans that "Dystopia" has found, and every year several noteworthy novels are published in this genre (even inside Iran), we continue to see the continuous and strong sales of classic dystopias. In 2014, The Guardian magazine asked the question whether the book "1984", George Orwell's masterpiece, is a good story that is badly written, or a bad story that is well written. A book that was published decades ago (1949) is not only still debatable, but it is still at the top of the bestseller list. This story does not end with "1984". The rest of the dystopia classics, such as "Brave New World" and "It Can't Happen Here" are relatively equal in this attention and high sales. The sale of the book "The Handmaid's Tale" has also increased by 30% since 2016 (due to its successful series).

This attention shows that literature that aims to warn about the future never gets old and At any moment, an issue in the real world may remind us of the dark stories and terrible futures that we have read in dystopian stories (in recent years, 1984 and George Orwell have been trending on Twitter by English-speaking users, who are each time influenced by the words of statesmen or the introduction of laws new). But the novels that depicted ruined cities and totalitarian governments are more or less a new phenomenon. Before the 1900s, the only writer whose works could be considered "dystopian" with a wink and far from strictness was the British writer and satirist named Jonathan Swift. But "dystopia", which is so important, where did it come from and when exactly did it appear in literature? Is there a certain pattern regarding the popularity of "dystopia" throughout history?

Origin of dystopia (ruin city or anti-utopia)

Before dystopia, the concept of utopia was born. Utopia is the sun and dystopia is the moon, yin and yang; They are two sides of the same coin. In 1516, Sir Thomas More wrote the book "Utopia" and wrote down the concept that came from his mind. However, Thomas More himself seriously believed that there can be no such thing as Utopia. This is evident even in the name utopia, which has Greek roots: u-topos means "no place" and eu-topos means "good place"; So utopia is a utopia that can never be real. Moore also came to the conclusion that such an earthly paradise is neither in our imagination nor in our reality.

Do you remember that we said that utopia and dystopia are two sides of the same coin? Now, if utopia is a place that cannot come true due to being too good and dreamy and idealistic, how is dystopia a place? Dystopia is a place where we don't want it to join reality due to its badness and darkness! (And be careful that dystopia has a place in "reality" (as we have seen examples of it in history and in the present), the opposite of utopia.)

Today, if we want to define dystopia, we can say "land or government The fantasy that life in them is unpleasant and bad from every point of view and in all aspects; Often under a totalitarian government or in a destroyed environment. The first time the word "dystopia" was used was in 1868, and the person who used this word was John Stuart Mill. In his speech in the House of Commons, John Stuart Mill said: "If we call these (it is not clear what place or government they are referring to) Utopia (Utopia), we are describing them too much; Instead, we should call them dystopias. Why and for what purpose John Stuart Mill used dystopia for the first time by negativeizing the word utopia is not very important for us, but in any case, until fifty years after this speech, that is, when the writers dealt with this word. and made it their own, the concept of dystopia did not reach the ears of the common people and did not enter the collective consciousness of the society. https://bingmag.com/picsbody/2208/22847-2.jpg" class="content-pics" alt="BingMag.com dystopia literature and its examples; From “1984” to “The Handmaid’s Tale”" title="BingMag.com dystopia literature and its examples; From “1984” to “The Handmaid’s Tale”" loading="lazy">

If you think about it, it makes perfect sense that the modern dystopian novel was born in the early decades of the 20th century. It was a time of political conflicts and global anxiety, and two devastating world wars were lying in wait for the people of that time to destroy them in the near future. Some say that Jack London's novel "Iron Heel" (Iron Heel), published in 1908, well predicted the growing international tension, the same tension that started the First World War with the assassination of the prince of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. But before the 1920s, we don't see a trace of the definition and birth of dystopia literature; This finally happened in 1921 with the publication of the book "We" written by Yevgeny Zamyatin. (Yevgeny Zamyatin was a Russian writer who, with black humor and futuristic vision, intended to warn about the Soviet government, which was not allowed to be published in the Soviet Union until 1988 because of this view.)

If writers like H. With the exception of H.G. Wells and Jack London, before "us", stories that created an ideal society often had endings that made that society a utopia and, in other words, did not go to the dark side of that ideal. After the novel "Ma", a new movement emerged and the genre turned to another direction, to blackness. Yevgeny Zamyatin with "Ma" initiated many features that later conquered the dystopia genre and became popular; including the unfulfilled endings and very terrible destinies of the characters and of course the totalitarian regimes that suddenly become insane.

But perhaps the most important work of Yevgeny Zamyatin's "Us" on the dystopia genre was indirect. "We" inspired two of the best dystopian novels ever written, novels that have inspired many artists; The novels we mentioned at the beginning of the article are still talked about after decades and are at the top of the bestseller lists: "1984" by George Orwell and "Brave New World" by Aldous Huxley (Aldous Huxley), which was published in 1939. (Let's check the sales statistics of one of these books in Iran. Countless different translations of the book "1984" have been published, and there are few publications in Iran that have not translated this book. We are not only ignoring small and anonymous publications, Rather, we leave aside offset books or unofficial translations and PDFs that have been published for free with different translations, then we still reach a significant number: Cheshme's translation has been reprinted 24 times; Nilofar's translation has been reprinted 21 times; Majid's translation has been reprinted 20 times. reprinting time. This means that the total number of copies of these three publications, assuming that they had a circulation of thousands, is 65,000 copies, which in itself is a very large number for the Iranian book market. (unofficial)!)

Both "1984" and "Brave New World" were written under the shadow of one of the world wars, and both are about a future that is darker and more terrifying than what happened to people during the war. was, they warned. Of course, it must be said that the darkness of the worlds that these two books create side by side are of a different kind and the distance between them is wide. The things that George Orwell and Aldous Huxley feared and warned about were different.

Critic Neil Postman has eloquently and succinctly described the difference between "1984" and "Brave New World": "George Orwell was afraid that those in power would ban and remove the book. Aldous Huxley was afraid that the government would have no reason to ban books, because no one has anything to do with books and does not read books. Orwell was afraid of those who would deprive people of any information and knowledge. Huxley was afraid of those who would give people so much information that they would not be able to analyze the mass of data, become passive and turn to selfishness. Orwell was afraid of hiding the truth. Huxley was afraid that the truth would drown in the sea of irrelevant and contradictory data. Orwell was afraid of the captivity of society's culture. Huxley was afraid of the vulgarization of culture; That only a small amount of emotions remain in people's lives, that everyone is busy partying and drowning in the level of life. In short, Orwell's warning was that what we fear will destroy us. Huxley's warning was also about the fact that our desires will destroy us."

Despite the differences between "1984" and "Brave New World", they shaped the genre of dystopia and laid the foundation for the growth of this genre. provided In these young years of dystopia literature, if you look carefully at these two novels, you can see what issues will be inspired by them in later books and what will become important features and characteristics of this genre: political stance, the concept of free will, and Most importantly, the fear of government and the necessary power that governments have.

The most famous books of the dystopia genre in the 1920s and 1930s

1984 by George OrwellBingMag.com dystopia literature and its examples; From “1984” to “The Handmaid’s Tale”

"1984" begins with the sentence: "It was a very cold day in April, and the clocks struck thirteen times to announce the time." At first glance, this sentence does not give any information about the darkness accumulated in this book, but the two words "cold" and "thirteen" were obsessively chosen by Orwell, because they remind us of "winter" and "desperation" and their combination is perhaps the same cut. It is from the world of "1984" that Orwell wanted the reader to face in the first sentence of the book.

The story of "1984" brings us Winston Smith, one of the employees of the Ministry of Truth, who is constantly manipulating newspapers and everything that contains "truth", following the speeches of "Brother Big" (also translated as Nazer Kabir), they constantly change the truth from what was the day before, to what is according to the wishes and words of the big brother. Whisenton is the symbol of a dissident citizen in Orwell's world, a citizen who cannot express his thoughts except in his mind; A citizen who expresses his opposition loudly in his home will be immediately arrested; Because big brother sees and hears everything.

In Orwell's world, the world is divided between three powers, which, according to his own words, apparently inspired this idea from the Tehran meeting; The meeting of the leaders of the Soviet Union, the United States and the United Kingdom in 1944, where they decided on the future of World War II and the world in Tehran. The story takes place in a super-country called Oceania and in London.

The triple slogans of the ruling party in Oceania are the best representation of "1984" and the world created by George Orwell: "War is peace; Freedom is slavery; "Ignorance is power".

The story of "Brave New World" takes us to London in 2540. A time when a single government rules the entire planet and everyone worships a person named Ford. Unpleasant phenomena such as war, poverty, and suffering have been removed from human life, and everyone is satisfied with their lives at any time and in any condition. These are the descriptions of the utopia that people think they live in. A utopia that is actually ruined. If war and poverty have disappeared, concepts like family and study have also disappeared. The blue pills called Soma, which is a narcotic (although the government says they have no side effects), give people a false sense of satisfaction so that they never want to have a job other than what the government has determined for them, and in the direction they want. Take a step yourself. Breeding has stopped and people are coming out of factories that produce humans by genetic engineering. Factory humans have all their characteristics predetermined and are divided into these categories: alphas, betas, gammas and epsilons, which are the weakest of all. No one can get out of their social class and move up the ladder, and more importantly, no one wants to do such a thing...

"Brave New World" depicts a world where all illusions of equality and homogeneity between People have become popular and people have become empty of any deep thought and without knowing it, they have lost their free will. https://bingmag.com/picsbody/2208/22847-5.jpg" class="content-pics" alt="BingMag.com dystopia literature and its examples; From “1984” to “The Handmaid’s Tale”" title="BingMag.com dystopia literature and its examples; From “1984” to “The Handmaid’s Tale”" loading="lazy">

"Us" jumps forward a thousand years to depict the future of the Soviet Union and see what the utopia described by the communists will look like. Since the communists emphasized the value of the collective and we, Yevgeny Zamyatin cleverly names his novel "We". The story is in the form of a series of notes of an engineer, and at the beginning of the notes, the narrator or D-503 wrote: "I try to write down only the things that I see, of course, the things that we see. So let's name my notes "we". This in itself explains the reason for writing the novel. Yevgeny Zamyatin was worried about the future of Russia and the promise of the communists, and he clearly said that the only thing I write is the reality that I see in front of me, the truth that the Stalinist government could not tolerate and finally banned Zamyatin from writing. In the novel "Ma", people live in prosperity and are equal in wealth, but they live without religion, creativity and individuality, and they don't know what a wish is or how to imagine happiness... because what they want is the same wealth that the government gives them. given so that everyone can participate in it together.

Evgeny Zamyatin says in one of his famous articles: "True literature is created only when its creators are not hardworking and reliable salarymen, but madmen, recluses, atheists, dreamers, disobedients." And let them be skeptical."

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"It Shouldn't Happen Here" by Sinclair LewisBingMag.com dystopia literature and its examples; From “1984” to “The Handmaid’s Tale”

While all three previous books largely referred to and warned against totalitarian communist regimes, "It Shouldn't Happen Here" refers to Nazi Germany and how Hitler came to power in Germany, and about the rise of a dictator. And the fascist government is in America. The second difference between "It Shouldn't Happen Here" and the previous three books is the lack of science fiction elements. While "1984" and "Us" and "Brave New World" are full of futuristic and various technologies, "It Shouldn't Happen Here" simply seeks to portray a fascist and totalitarian America. Sinclair Lewis wrote this book just when Hitler and Mussolini and their ilk had infected Europe with fascism and just as the name of the book suggests. Apparently, he wanted to say with his story that this should not happen in America! So the time of the story does not pass in the future or a different world, only one of the American populist senators after he votes in the presidential election and Resolute (who then became the president in reality), with a coup d'tat and with the help of a violent military unit ( self-coup) takes control of the entire government and turns into a fascist and totalitarian dictatorship.

"It shouldn't happen here" was not very popular and never reached the fame of the three dystopias we introduced earlier, but in In 2016, when Donald Trump became the president of the United States, the name of this novel suddenly came to the fore again, and the similarity between Berselius, the dictator "It shouldn't happen here" and Donald Trump was brought up.

War and technology; Dystopia in 1950s and 1960s

BingMag.com dystopia literature and its examples; From “1984” to “The Handmaid’s Tale”

It is natural if you think that after the end of World War II and slowly Stepping into the era of peace, even pessimistic writers can breathe a sigh of relief and look at the post-war world with optimism and positivity, and even this enthusiasm finds its way into their stories. But by simply looking at the statistics of a site like Goodreads (which is the largest online community of book readers and has millions of users and registered books), we can understand that the number of books in the dystopia genre has been increasing after World War II.

BingMag.com dystopia literature and its examples; From “1984” to “The Handmaid’s Tale”

The traces of political stance can be seen in most of the ideas and themes of post-World War II dystopias. But the more important thing that happened was that the Second World War gave science-fiction writers the vision of the Third World War and even the apocalypse; The apocalypse that will happen at the hands of mankind and its terrible weapons. For example, "Player Piano" written by Kurt Vonnegut (Vonnegut himself fought in World War II and went through very terrible events. This experience can be seen in most of Vonnegut's books) which was published in 1952 and "the truth before The Penultimate Truth by Philip K. Dick, which was published in 1964. Although in science-fiction literature, dystopia and apocalyptic fiction genres have a clear boundary and are always considered two independent and separate genres, but often these two genres come close to each other to a significant extent and sometimes they are combined. Especially when it is in the middle of stories where societies have reached the end of the line and their governments are central elements. Ironically, it was during this period that the skepticism of the authors of this genre to advanced and new technologies suddenly took off. continued to grow. Some of the most important developments in the field of technology are:

  • The beginning of the Turing experiment (a test for computer intelligence)
  • The construction of the first satellite that was placed in a near-Earth orbit, called Sputnik. 1- (Sputnik I)
  • Invention of the first personal computer

As a result, the distance between dystopian worlds and science-fictional worlds became smaller and smaller until some places almost coincided. arrived. An early and very good example is the book Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? (Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?) by Philip K. It is Dick, which was published in 1968.

After the world witnessed World War II and war-mongering dictatorships, many writers became concerned about the power of totalitarian governments to suppress art, and it is natural that from this concern, stories have written and warned about such repressions. If we want to give an example of one of these books, we should mention "Fahrenheit 451" written by Ray Bradbury. In "Fahrenheit 451" we step into a future where books are burned, a future that Ray Bradbury thought was entirely possible. It is interesting that "Fahrenheit 451", which is a story against censorship and about the suppression of books, was actually both censored and suppressed in a funny way. In 2006, parents of one of the schools in the state of Texas (one of the most religious states in America) protested the presence of "Fahrenheit 451" in the reading list of the literature class and demanded the removal of this book. According to them, this book talked about things that are not suitable for high school teenagers. You might think that this problem has been solved over time, but even today "Fahrenheit 451" is banned in many American schools (that is, it is not on school libraries or reading lists). The unfortunate and ridiculous fate of "Fahrenheit 451" is actually tied to what Ray Bradbury was trying to warn about!

The most famous books of the dystopia genre in the 1950s and 1960s

The book "Orange" "A Clockwork Orange" written by Anthony Burgess BingMag.com dystopia literature and its examples; From “1984” to “The Handmaid’s Tale”

In "A Clockwork Orange" Anthony Burgess depicts Britain as a result of the combination of communism and It is capitalism. Even with his knowledge of linguistics and his mastery of both Russian and English, Burgess created a unique dialect of English, which is an amalgamation of English and Russian words; The name of this dialect is Nadst (Nadst dialect may confuse you in the first pages of the book and make you reluctant to read the book but if you tolerate it enough, you will gradually get used to it). Anthony Burgess tried to use all the skills and knowledge he had to create this dystopian story, and this includes his composing skills. Music is very important in the story of "Orange Cookie" and at least two of the important events of the story take place through music. It does not show us. The story is about one of these criminals who take over the city after sunset and show no mercy to anyone or anything. Alex is a 15-year-old boy, but he easily and with a clear conscience commits crimes that are unimaginable for 15-year-olds! The crime rate in "Orange Cookie" Britain is so high that the government can't keep the criminals in prison and the prison system is useless, so they have invented a process called behavior modification. In this process of reforming the criminal, that is, someone like Alex who commits a crime by simply drinking water, returns to society by losing a series of individual freedoms. That is, if they fall on his head and beat him to the wind, Alex cannot protect himself (he doesn't have the ability, not that he doesn't want to or the law forbids him) and even hearing the word violence makes him feel bad.

"Orange". "Cookie" is full of strange and sick twists and turns, and Anthony Burgess has clearly shown his disdain for American popular culture and indifference in his dystopian novel. The question that Anthony Burgess asks in "Orange Cookie" is: "Which is better, to let people choose evil for themselves, or to force people on the path of goodness and benevolence and take away their free will?"

The book "Spontaneous Piano" by Kurt VonnegutBingMag.com dystopia literature and its examples; From “1984” to “The Handmaid’s Tale”

"Spontaneous Piano" first It is a novel written by Kurt Vonnegut, and obviously, it was not praised as much as his other novels, for example, "Slaughterhouse Number Five" or "Homeless Man" and "Timequake", but it attracted a lot of attention and the path that Vonnegut was going to take in his next novels. It lit up well. The story of "The Selfish Piano" is about a world where a supercomputer does its calculations and the whole world is run by machines. A boring world that has paralyzed the characters with routine and lack of purpose.

But to understand more the works of this famous and admired American writer, one should know a little about his life. Vonnegut himself was a victim of World War II. He volunteered to go to war and was captured by the German forces in one of the battles along with five thousand other soldiers. If fighting and losing isn't enough to break someone's spirit, an attack by your own forces on a train carrying prisoners of war certainly is. The memory of the train attack was one of Vonnegut's worst memories. But the worst disaster that happened to him was the bombing of the city of Dresden by the allied forces. Vonnegut was one of the few prisoners who managed to stay alive in the basement of a shop during this bombing. But soon after, the Germans forced Vonnegut and the remaining prisoners to wander through the ruins of Dresden and collect the corpses.

Kurt Vonnegut's stories are known for being anti-war and often have a very powerful black humor that draws from bitter and horrific experiences. Writers are born.

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The book "Make room! Make room!" (Make Room! Make Room!) by Harry Harrison Make room! It speaks of the world drawn by Harry Harrison. First of all, it should be mentioned that this book was written in 1966 and the story takes place in 1999, that is, 33 years later. So we can say that fortunately we don't need to worry about this dystopia, because 23 years have passed since Harry Harrison predicted that the rampant population growth would lead to the creation of ruined cities. Make room! It takes place in New York, whose population has reached 35 million people and the world's population is 7 billion people (Harrison correctly predicted this one). Resources (especially food) are greatly reduced and everything is scarce. The story begins with a police detective who shares half of a room with an engineer (there is not enough space). They even have to produce electricity for their television and refrigerator by themselves with different innovations. But the story of "Make room! Make room! It never stays focused on a particular character for long; To show the terrible crowd of New York and the crowd, Harry Harrison has narrated his story in such a way that at any moment someone may punch someone else and steal the narration of the story!

"Make room! Make room! It depicts a dystopia where if a restaurant offers a discount, there will be riots, and a small percentage of society, the wealthy, own most of the resources. In the movie adapted from this book, people resort to cannibalism to solve the problem of food shortage, but the book itself "Make room! Make room!" It does not include such a thing. However, imagining such a world is neither difficult nor easy to live in, and maybe if we take it easy and leave aside the usual exaggerations of this genre. Let's see, Harry Harrison's prediction has really come true in some parts of the world.

The book "Fahrenheit 451" by Ray BradburyBingMag.com dystopia literature and its examples; From “1984” to “The Handmaid’s Tale”

Owning and reading books in the world of "Fahrenheit 451" is a crime whose punishment is predetermined and immediately executed: death by robotic dogs. In the world of "Fahrenheit 451", which Ray Bradbury says is his only science fiction work, dissension is considered a dangerous crime and the government leaders say that such people disrupt the order of society. The most important tool for dissidents and people who think for themselves is the book. Therefore, the fire guard has the duty to burn any book that is found. The story is about one of the fire guard men. A man who is tired of pills that bring artificial happiness and are addictive and finally realized that he is not satisfied with his life. Montag, the main character of "Fahrenheit 451" loves his job and has never hesitated to burn books, but once, just once, he picks up a book before burning it... and this is the beginning of Montag's journey.

Fahrenheit 451 is the temperature at which paper ignites and burns.

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The book "Do Andronids dream of electric sheep?" By Philip K. DickBingMag.com dystopia literature and its examples; From “1984” to “The Handmaid’s Tale”

The story of this book takes place in a post-apocalyptic world, a world that has been severely damaged after a nuclear world war and many species of animals or Extinct or endangered. It follows the life of a man named Rick Deckard whose job it is to "retire" robots (androids) and actually kill them. Rick is deeply involved in this question: What is the difference between humans and robots? And do we have any difference at all?

Book "Do Andronids Dream of Electric Sheep?" It is very important from the point of view of linking different genres of science-fiction literature. "Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?" and its film adaptation "Blade Runner" (Blade Runner) were both the starting point for the cyberpunk genre in literature and cinema. "Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?" It is a dystopian story in a science-fictional world full of various advanced technologies and robots, and it has the atmosphere of Noir detective stories and is connected with violence. Soon these became features of most cyberpunk works and a new subgenre for science fiction literature was born. (However, it should be noted that "Do androids dream of electric sheep?" itself is not in the cyberpunk genre.)

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Companies and poisoned bodies; Dystopia in the 1970s to 1990s

BingMag.com dystopia literature and its examples; From “1984” to “The Handmaid’s Tale”

At the beginning of the 70s, there was a time when the number of dystopian stories had decreased and They didn't make so much noise anymore, but in any case, the diversification of the dystopia genre started from that time and the platform of dystopia literature started to expand. If the genre of dystopia is a mirror to reflect our fears, in the 70's we see that the western society, especially the United States, gradually put aside the fear of war and found new concerns. In those days, people's conversations were full of environmental concerns and crises facing the planet (the Clean Air Act was passed in the 80s). This was while the attack of all kinds of advertisements on people and the rapid change of lifestyle, suspicions about the body and the presentation of new definitions about beauty and fitness, and most importantly, the economic recession, were the beginning of a new era of pessimism in society. These inspired some of the best dystopian novels to take the dystopia genre into brilliant new directions.

"The Handmaid's Tale" is a story in which women's bodies are turned into reproductive devices and no other value is attached to women in society. . When "The Handmaid's Tale" was published in 1985, it shocked the whole world with the world it depicted and, of course, warned and scared as it intended.

"Neuromancer" written by William Gibson. It was also published in 1984, and with the publication of this book, the cyberpunk genre was officially born and entered the field of science-fiction literature. "Nuromancer" became popular very soon, and cyberpunk is considered one of the most popular subgenres of science-fiction literature to this day.

Private companies, just like totalitarian governments, joined the widespread and comprehensive suppression of people and became the first-class enemy. People were converted. One of the dystopian novels that is a good example of the presence of private companies and their evil plans is the book "Snow Crash" written by Neal Stephenson.

At the same time, black humor was becoming more prominent and popular in the dystopia genre. found The proof of this truth should be seen in the book "Blindness" written by Jose Saramago and of course its sequel called "Seeing". Both of these books use an omniscient narrator for maximum black humor effect.

And perhaps the most important landmark book of this era is Lewis Lowry's short book called "The Giver" (1994). It was published (of course, this book has four volumes and here It means only the first volume of the collection). "The Giver" depicts a world in which no one feels any pain anymore, and this has caused many changes; The changes that came out of the heart of a ruined city. If we don't call "The Giver" the first dystopia for young adults, it is definitely one of the first and undoubtedly the best of the first. "The Giver" could fit into this genre before YA books became increasingly popular and practically became a separate genre. "The Giver" was the inheritor of classic dystopias and continued their way, and at the same time, it made the audience of the dystopia genre wider and encouraged the young audience to turn the pages of dystopian stories alongside the adult audience. "The Giver" and Louis Lowry can be seen as the beginning of the trend that later, in the next decade, the writers of the next generation and their books in the dystopia genre created.

"The Giver" by Louis LowryBingMag.com dystopia literature and its examples; From “1984” to “The Handmaid’s Tale”

"The Giver" is a four-part collection whose covers are respectively: "The Giver" , "In Search of the Blues", "Messenger" and "Boy". At first glance, "The Giver" takes the audience to a utopia, but as the story progresses, the reader gradually realizes that he is facing a ruined city. The dystopia created by Louis Lowry in the "The Giver" trilogy is based on the concept of equality. In a "forgiving" world, no one is hurt, but the pursuit of this real and deep feeling is also removed. The society depicted in the book, under the pretext of equality and order, is devoid of any color, memory (memorial), weather and even land borders. This is a society that has been stripped of its individuality and is built against individualism and having personal feelings.

The story is about a 12-year-old boy who is chosen to be the recipient of a memory. The recipient of the memory is the one who obtains the information of the world and life before the "unification" event, so that he can lead the society with the right knowledge in challenging and critical times. Being chosen as the recipient of the memory makes the main character of the story experience new emotions that are completely foreign to him and therefore, he will make changes...

"The Giver" has become very popular over the years and has spread all over the world. The world sold millions of copies. Also, "Mockingbird" is a permanent presence in the reading lists of many American schools.

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The book "Mockingbird" by Walter Tevis 2208/22847-16.jpg" class="content-pics" alt="BingMag.com dystopia literature and its examples; From “1984” to “The Handmaid’s Tale”" title="BingMag.com dystopia literature and its examples; From “1984” to “The Handmaid’s Tale”" loading="lazy">

"Mockingbird" is a story about people who neither have the ability to read nor want to. Many have said about this book that it is a strange combination of "1984" and "Brave New World" and many others have said that "Mockingbird" is the possibility that one day the world will be ruled by computers and robots and people will no longer want to read books or even read. Writing makes learning so much closer to reality that reading "Mockingbird" makes one think of this scary future.

The story begins with a robot who plays the role of the president of New York University. A robot whose lifespan goes back centuries and now he is tired of living and wants to commit suicide. In between, there is a teacher who somehow managed to learn to read by self-learning. When this teacher comes to New York and New York University, new things happen. The teacher says that he can teach others to read, but the robot, who did not like the teacher's ability and is afraid of the knowledge he gained through reading, decides to engage him in another task and if he makes a mistake, he will Throw him in jail...

Except for "Mockingbird" which has not been very lucky, the rest of Walter Tevis' novels have been bestsellers and have been adapted into successful movies and series. For example, we can refer to the book "The Queen's Gambit", a mini-series of the same name was broadcast on Netflix and became world famous.

The book "Cory" written by Jose. SaramagoBingMag.com dystopia literature and its examples; From “1984” to “The Handmaid’s Tale”

After the Corona epidemic and the whole world fighting with a deadly contagious virus, many science-fiction movies and books about such epidemics They warned, they were watched and read again, and if they were not famous, they became famous, and if they were famous, they became more famous. "Blindness" cannot be considered that type of work, however, "Blindness" is also about a strange virus that spreads rapidly and causes all people to become blind. This disease causes the person to go blind immediately and see everything in white (and not black, as in normal blindness). When the government officials find out that blindness is a contagious disease, they quickly quarantine all the known patients in a mental asylum and even leave the administration of the asylum to the blind patients themselves to prevent the disease from spreading further. This is where "Corey" proves to be a book in the dystopia genre. Very soon it is discovered that some patients of the sanatorium use things like food as a pressure lever and with this Pressure levers force others, take away their rights and force them to obey them. Chaos and chaos engulfs the quarantined sanatorium and soon leads it to the abyss of destruction. This sentence from the book sums up being blind in the world well: "The only situation more terrifying than blindness is to be the only sighted person in the crowd." In a world where everyone is blind and trying to take advantage of each other and follow some people without seeing where they are going, if you are sighted and see what is about to happen, you will definitely be paralyzed with fear.

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The book "Nuromancer" written by William GibsonBingMag.com dystopia literature and its examples; From “1984” to “The Handmaid’s Tale”

To describe "Nuromancer" for lovers of scientific literature - It should be said that fiction is similar to the stories of Philip K. It's a dick (as mentioned earlier, "Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?" started the road that "Nuromancer" ended up on) and, for fans of this genre, it's like the Matrix movies. But how is the book that introduced the popular and glamorous genre of cyberpunk to the world?

"Nuromancer" was the first novel that William Gibson published and is also the only novel to this day that won all three. The grand prize of science-fiction literature, namely the Nebula Award, the Hugo Award and the Philip Kay Award. It's a dick. The dystopia of the "Nuromancer" story is different from other dystopias, because this dystopia is not located in the physical and material world. Matrix is a world within another world, the expression of all the data of the cyber world that has become a unique world, something like today's vision of virtual reality and metaverse! The story is about one of the best hackers, the fastest data thief you can find. This hacker's access to the Matrix has been largely cut off, as his former boss injured his neural network (which connects everyone to the Matrix and VR) as punishment. But now there are mysterious people who want to give this hacker a second chance and open his feet to the world of the Matrix again, people who seem to be related to the US Army and open Henry's feet, the experienced hacker of the story, to an adventure that leads to the acquaintance of A strange and extremely powerful artificial intelligence ends.

The book "The Handmaid's Tale" by Margaret AtwoodBingMag.com dystopia literature and its examples; From “1984” to “The Handmaid’s Tale”

"The Handmaid's Tale" is a futuristic dystopia that maneuvers less on science-fiction elements (especially in an era when dystopias established a deep connection with such elements) and focuses more on the structure of society, discrimination, and the totalitarian rule of Gilead. In fact, even though "The Handmaid's Tale" won the award for the best science-fiction book by Arthur C. Clarke winner in 1987, author Margaret Atwood says her story is not science fiction. Of course, such claims are not uncommon, especially among writers of the dystopia genre, but in the end, these books have all the necessary elements to be in the science-fiction and dystopia genre, and books like "The Handmaid's Tale" have a great influence on the books after them and the writers They have put this genre and this alone proves that such books belong to science fiction and dystopia literature.

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Betrayal of the young generation; Entering the new millennium

BingMag.com dystopia literature and its examples; From “1984” to “The Handmaid’s Tale”

Today, the youth genre includes any type of book. From the genre of dystopia to science-fiction, horror, fantasy, romance, etc., books of the young adult genre include books whose audience is mostly between the ages of 16 and 21, as well as the main characters of the stories. Today, such books have become abundant in dystopia literature and have drawn younger readers to the heart of the ruined cities. Of course, most of these books are multi-volume novels (often triplets) instead of their classic ancestors, which were single novels. Series like "Labyrinth Runner" (Maze Runner), "Divergent" (Divergent) and "Ready Player One" (Ready Player One), which of course are many, but we will suffice with these examples. These books have not only taken over bookstore shelves, but are constantly being turned into glamorous and successful Hollywood movies. For example, "Divergent" movies have sold more than 7000 million dollars worldwide. And of course, it should be remembered that the popularity of movies always ends with more fame for books and more sales.

But how did this trend find its way into the dystopia genre? Where did it start? As mentioned in the previous section, The Pardoner series became popular among teenage and young readers and initiated a movement in dystopian literature that flourished with The Thirst Games. "The Thirst Games" and its success played a huge role in increasing the number of such series and encouraging writers to write dystopias for young audiences. The young audience can find concrete themes in dystopia literature and easily relate to them. Themes like self-knowledge and standing up even when the whole world (or a system) is against you. In general, the re-emergence and growth of the new flow of dystopia literature in the millennium of 2000 and the following decades are mostly attributed to the September 11th incident (Twin Towers) and, of course, the rest of the similar geopolitical events.

However, the role "The Thirst Games" is bold in changing different aspects of the genre. The AV Club magazine wrote in one of its articles about this: "The novel "The Giver" is the inheritor of the forgotten traditions of the dystopia genre. Traditions that are not seen much anymore. In the past, we saw characters who suddenly realized what a ruin they were living in, wanted to escape from dystopia and the toxic society it created and go to a safer place. But now it is not enough to run away. In today's dystopia literature, the characters must learn military tactics and be able to fight against the dystopia that imprisoned them. The characters of today's dystopian story must be familiar with the violence that shakes tyranny and oppression and causes them to fall, and put an end to dystopia and its rulers in bloody action scenes."

So the product of today's dystopia literature is stories With more dangers and excitement, the characters are immersed in various conflicts and battles, and there is no chance to be passive or run away; the only way forward is war. In any case, the principle of dystopia continues with strength in these books. What defines dystopia, that is, imagining the worst possible world, is the main focus of these stories, and although the genre has moved away from classic dystopias, it has not yet forgotten its origin. In today's dystopia stories, we often see that these stories have a very small window of hope. The hope that tells us that it is possible to put an end to this cruelty, this darkness, and passed through dystopia, passed through the ruined city and reached human life. And now with the resurgence of classic dystopias like 1984 and Brave New World alongside new dystopias, it shows that many of us are still eager for dystopia literature. We have gone to these books to get answers that we cannot get in the real world, and of course to the comfort that such terrible worlds are not real. Today, most of the book-reading community (if not all of them) have realized the importance of dystopia literature, and most importantly, now the dystopia genre has a variety of books to offer for different tastes and readers, and the platform of this genre has become much wider and more diverse than before. p>

The most popular dystopia books from 2000 to 2010

The Hunger Games book by Susan CollinsBingMag.com dystopia literature and its examples; From “1984” to “The Handmaid’s Tale”

This series has three volumes, which are respectively: "Thirst Games", "Catching Fire" and "Mockingjay". However, recently another book has been published that deals with the past of this story, called "The Ballad of Songbirds and Snakes". The story of "The Thirst Games" (or Thirst for Fight) takes place in a post-apocalyptic world. Panem is a country in North America where a wealthy minority rules its people. Except for the capital of Panem, the remaining twelve regions that make up this country are deprived of the simplest technologies and necessities of normal life and live in absolute poverty, to the extent that something like bread is rare and far from reach for the people of these regions. This is despite the fact that the capital is full of technology and human blessings, and at first glance, it is an eye-catching image of the future of the society. But everyone who lives in the capital and all the beautiful things they have, including their glittering and expensive clothes, are obtained from the sweat and blood of the poor people of the other twelve regions. People who are forced to work with oppression and fear and do not protest. The last time people protested against the capital and discrimination and wanted to make a revolution, instead of 12 regions, Panem had 13 regions, and the 13th region was bombed, and because of this, the people's uprising stopped due to the fear of bombing. became. But the residents of the capital did not want to leave this work of the people unpunished. So the thirst games were launched. From each region, one girl and one boy between the ages of 12 and 18 are chosen by lot to fight each other to the death in the thirst games. The thirst games are filmed from the beginning to the end, and people across the country witness the results of these bloody struggles. In fact, the thirst games are designed to entertain the people of the capital and the rich minority of Panem, and it is also always a tool to suppress and subjugate the people of the other 12 regions; It reminds them that they are weak, but if they obey and work hard, they will be rewarded in the end. The winner of the Thirst Games, the one who kills all opponents and survives, gets food and various resources as a reward for his region. This is the capital's way of encouraging submissive people.

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The book "The Number One Ready Player" by Ernst KleinBingMag.com dystopia literature and its examples; From “1984” to “The Handmaid’s Tale”

"Ready Player One" paints a world that is tangible, imaginable, and very, very close to us. Ernst Klein takes us to 2045 in his first published novel. At this time, there is still no news of incredible technologies and developments that change the course of history. The image presented of the world is exactly what we expect from the next 20 years. The only differences in the world of "Ready Player One" are perhaps inflation, the unemployment situation and the creation of new settlements for the underprivileged, which has partially changed the image of America. But human life in 2045 cannot be compared with our life in 2022. Because virtual reality reached its peak in those years and penetrated into all aspects of human life, just like our relationship with the Internet. In fact, people cannot live without virtual reality in 2045. Not only virtual reality itself, but also its related technologies have made such significant progress that even school classrooms are held in virtual reality worlds (which have the same rule as our own applications and websites) and for each activity there is a special world and maybe several worlds. has it. Do you want to exercise? You can experience the reality of every sport by purchasing clothes and feel the warmth of your friend's hand from your opponent's fist through these technologies. This technology has also transformed video games and now the games have become more real than real life and, as a result, more complex and engaging. and its various worlds. The one who, with his death, tells the whole world that he has hidden a secret egg inside one of these worlds, and whoever can find it will have all his wealth. So far, neither the world depicted nor the story seem dystopia. There is no desolation and tyranny, but the story is not that simple. The dominance of virtual reality on human life and the unlimited power of private companies that produce these technologies and accessories, control them without people knowing. If this immeasurable control over the lives of citizens and the wealth that questions the government's budget is not enough, you should know that the head of a corrupt and tyrannical company has made a plan to find that egg to own all the virtual reality worlds and thus start his dictatorship. Slow down...

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Never let me go book by Kazuo IshiguroBingMag.com dystopia literature and its examples; From “1984” to “The Handmaid’s Tale”

"Never Let Me Go" was first released in the UK in 2005 and immediately attracted attention. This book has been nominated and won many literary awards and has been nominated by many magazines as the best novel of 2005 or one of the best of the year. It does not intend to fight tyranny, nor will it happen in the future. "Never Let Me Go" takes us back to 1990s Britain, but not the Britain we know. In "Never Let Me Go", cloning starts from humans and is completely legal. Society thinks that clones are soulless creatures that are created to be consumed, just like cows that are bred in cattle ranches to eventually be our food. Clones are also grown so that their body parts reach humans and have no other purpose. Or rather, clones are not allowed to have a purpose for their lives. This is what the story is about. About people/clones who don't know why they are alive, what they live for and how they can change this process. They are not looking to rebel or change the status quo, they just want to taste real life and know that they have a purpose other than being torn to pieces and dismembered. Because, contrary to popular belief, clones have souls and feelings just like normal people.

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The Road book by Cormac McCarthy BingMag.com dystopia literature and its examples; From “1984” to “The Handmaid’s Tale”

On the "road" of dystopia and post-apocalyptic genres more than ever Others merge together. "The Road" shows us a world destroyed by disaster. In the novel, the nature of the catastrophe is never determined for sure (but it was probably a nuclear war), maybe because the author wanted to say that it doesn't matter how the end of the world looks like, and if we let the wars continue and the greed of governments increase, eventually one day they will destroy the world somehow. Kurdish and these people are unfortunate and poor who have to pay the price. The story of "Jade" is the story of a father and son who travel through the remnants of the world from the apocalypse in order to reach a better place. But when no animal survives, when the birds disappear and the trees are dry, in a world where even the sky is no longer the same color, is there still a safe place left? Are people still the same? Since the food resources are limited and running out, the surviving humans have killed each other and are cannibals. They roam in the ruins of cities and roads and kill and eat every defenseless person they see. Cormac McCarthy leaves no room for hope in "The Road" for the survival of humanity and the revival of the earth, but maybe there is still hope for this father and son, maybe.

Buy The Road book from BingMag Buy The Road book from Fidibo The book "Uglies" written by Scott WesterfieldBingMag.com dystopia literature and its examples; From “1984” to “The Handmaid’s Tale”

Scott Westerfield is an author who has proven himself in various genres of science-fiction literature and It has achieved many successes. The "Leviathan" trilogy of this author has been recently translated and published in Iran, which is in the genre of alternate history and steampunk. But Scott Westerfield's dystopia collection called "Ugly" has four volumes, and the names of these four volumes are: "Ugly", "Beautiful", "Special" and "Additional".

Three hundred years after That our modern world is becoming inefficient and collapsing due to over-reliance on fossil fuels is a world emerging from the ashes of the previous world. A world where when you reach the age of 16, the government uses a plastic surgery to change your appearance according to the government's standard of beauty and make you so-called beautiful. After their operation, the beauties go to another part of the city to have fun and enjoy life for a few years without any responsibilities or worries. After a few years, the time for another action comes and the beauties get jobs and social status and start a new life.

The main themes of "Ugly" are concepts such as beauty and society's standard of beauty, individual identity. Poisoned and dystopian societies and lost humanity are also important concepts of these books. The story of "Ugly" is the story of a girl who, just when she reaches the age of 16 and her plastic surgery is supposed to make her beautiful, she is afraid of the consequences and regrets it. But in a world where everything is in the hands of the government and people's lives are predetermined from the beginning to the end, is it possible to be rebellious and rebel against the standards of society and the laws of the government?

Source:ELECTRIC LITERATURE

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