In the 1940s, George Orwell published a novel depicting dystopian and nightmarish futures. Of course, the future is for its time, because now we have left that future behind.
In this novel, the world has changed beyond recognition in 1984. After the 20th century entered a horrific path, all remnants of the past were destroyed, and Orwell envisioned a world in which totalitarianism took precedence over the rest of the world. In this world, dead individualism and the nature of reality and history depend solely on the personal opinion of individuals. Has found, because many people have found links between the novel's dark society and modern societies.
Orwell never foresaw the advent of the Internet and the unique policies of the 21st century. But some people talk about his novel as if it were a prophecy of the future. For example, one of the elements of the novel that is often cited as an example in this regard is the absolute and constant surveillance of all citizens by Ingsoc, which is likened to the mass surveillance of today's governments over their citizens. The greater the number of these comparisons, the higher the popularity of the novel.
In this article, we do not intend to compare the world of today with the world of 1984. This article is just a summary of the politics, history, and geopolitical aspects of the world that Orwell portrayed in 1984. Given that this article fully describes the world and societies depicted in 1984, many important points of the novel are revealed in it. So be careful.
- Which translation of George Orwell's 1984 book should we
There is a risk of the story being leaked.
Let's start the article with a little historical background. The question is, how exactly does the world turn into such a nightmare?
In Orwell's novel, the twentieth century is just a long chain of tragedies that happen one after the other. In this century, within a few decades, the whole potential of humanity will be trampled underfoot and the brilliant path in which civilization was advancing will be diverted. Given that the novel was published in 1949, it is not surprising that this is the year in which the future will be laughed at.
It all started after the end of world War II and the beginning of the Cold War, because in this The period of the division of the world into different spheres of power can be seen. For those of us who live in the 21st century, we know the consequences of the end of the Cold War: the Soviet Union collapses, nuclear war never happens, and in Orwell's timeline, decades of tension between the United States and the Soviet Union never happen. Instead, world War III broke out in the early 1950's. Colchester) - Atomic bombs were dropped, but no atomic bomb fell on London. All we know is that Britain has been hit several times by atomic bombs. The bombing took place around 1954.
During the bombing, the Soviets invaded the heart of Europe and their army advanced to the heart of the Iberian Peninsula (near Spain and Portugal). The British Isles became Europe's last stronghold against the Soviet Union.
The Western world - the Commonwealth of Independent States - Britain, the United States, Canada, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand - came together to form a state called Oceania. Oceania then added South America to its territory.
After this, history becomes a little vague. What we do know is that internal tensions escalated due to the traumatic events of the war in Oceania and the Soviet Union. After 1954, Oceania became embroiled in a civil war. One end of this war was the capitalist system and the other end was a kind of internal ideology. In 1984, this war was referred to as The Revolution. This ideology prevailed and took the form of a single party: Ingsak.
we will pay. Before that, let's look at the situation in the rest of the world. There were simultaneous revolutions in China and the Soviet Union in the 1950s and 1960s. Neo-Bolshevikism united Russia and Europe and they became Eurasia.
China, after a decade of civil war, finally became Eastasia. became. The ruling ideology in China was "Obliteration of the Self". Wonderful name, isn't it?
None of the residents of Oshinia are aware of this short and unbelievable history that I told you about. This sentence is a good way to introduce you to this It is a dystopian world. In 1984, the world was divided between these three countries (Oshinia, Eurasia, Istisia). The three drawers at the head of the area known as the "Equatorial Front" are engaged in an endless war.
The tropical front includes North Africa, the Middle East, India, and Southeast Asia. The tropics are constantly gaining ground between the three superpowers.
Although the early history of the twentieth century on paper is only a few decades away from 1984, in practice their time span seems to be several millennia. Every pre-Ingsak history has practically played the role of a myth, and what exists is a society that has brought totalitarianism to its strongest rationale.
First of all, welcome to Britain. Of course, if you were a British citizen in 1984, you would not know it by that name. For you, Britain is Airstrip 1.
For many, Britain is a distant memory. The party's dominance over the minds of its people is so strong that even a simple truth like the name of a place has become a distant dream in their minds, so that people ask themselves, did this name even exist? Does anyone actually say it? Then they will forget the question altogether.
This is Oshinia's most prominent feature. In this country, control over information is so intense that facts are not equal to reality, and reality is anything that Big Brother and Ingsak determine. (Big brother is the name of Ingsak, the Sibylline leader, whose identity is unknown and it is not even known whether he is an outsider.)
Ingsak controls everything. Ingsak sees everything. If we claim that Ingsak has changed society, we have not done anything about it. Ingsak destroyed society and made something new out of its ashes in which only he could thrive. Western civilization is basically dead. Now the only trace of civilization is the bedrock of the party's unchallenged rule. How did Ingsak manage to achieve such a level of domination? We do not know exactly.
It should be noted that when we say Ingsak is a party, we do not mean a party like the Democrats and the Republicans or even the Nazis. Ingsak is practically a community at the heart of society. The culture and laws that govern Ingsak are different from the culture and laws that govern ordinary people.
Oshinia is divided into three main categories:
Inner Party: The internal party is a very secret part of the party in which only the leaders and controllers of the country are present. This section includes 2% of the population.
2. Outer Party: The Outer Party is the bureaucratic part of the party that consists of loyal and educated employees. This section includes 13% of the population.
3. Workers (Proles): Workers or proles (commonly used in a derogatory way) include anyone who is not a member of an internal or external party. Workers are illiterate and naive people who live in poverty and are unaware of any ideals or ideas that will lead them to a better life.
The only thing that matters in Ingush is Ingsak. Given that workers are more illiterate than they care, and that their deception is easily watered down (by resorting to patriotism or creating a false crisis), the party only has to worry about its own stability in order to survive. That's why the party does not care about monitoring or controlling the majority of the people.
In this sense, Ingsak has a function similar to the human body. To stay healthy, the body needs to get rid of unwanted elements (like many viruses and bacteria). In the body of the party are also people who They have critical thinking power and are not completely loyal to the party. They play the role of viruses and bacteria.
Decades ago, in the 1950s and 1960s, a major cleansing took place within the party body. Ingsak single-handedly eliminated the threats left over from the old world in order to maintain its position as much as possible among the new fanatics. Given that the party destroyed a large part of the party's population and masses during the purge, it succeeded in monopolizing control over the facts.
For example, the party claims to have invented the airplane. Is. Now this claim has become a fact and everyone believes it. The Ministry of Truth's duty is to destroy any evidence that contradicts this claim and shows that the aircraft was invented by someone else. Party members who question this claim will either become communists or be sent to the Ministry of Love for correction and training. This lie is repeated so much that the evidence that it violates it is destroyed so much that the invention of the plane by the party becomes an indisputable fact among the people.
How this happens is a process and Orwell does it. Describes: Over the decades, Ingsak succeeded in normalizing elements that had been obsolete in the Western world for centuries, such as:
- Severe class divisions
- Extensive crimes by the government
- Severe censorship
The reason for the normalization of these elements was that anyone who disagreed with them, or died Or it was too insignificant. After normalizing these elements, the party provided a solid foundation for its future by raising patriotic and fanatical children. Ingsak's ideology is so deeply rooted that many children report their parents to the government for committing a crime (Thoughtcrime).
Ingsak recreated culture and coined terms that allowed only his party and its affiliates to exist. Intellectual crime basically refers to anything that is in conflict with the party's policy. If someone commits an intellectual crime, they may disappear by the Thought Police. When we talk about disappearing, we do not mean just being a communist. Have you ever seen when a schoolboy gets angry with a friend, they deliberately make him or her homeless? There is no homelessness in Oshinia. School kids completely forget that person existed. They even forget to forget themselves. The police think that the person never existed. All evidence of the person's existence is destroyed or altered, and no one has the right to point to the person's existence. The so-called person is unpersoned. If the family or friends of a person who has been impersonated in any way refer to him or her, it is an intellectual crime in itself, and they may suffer the same fate. If you were wondering how Ingsak managed to suppress popular discontent on such a scale, this is the way it should be. Newspeak). New speech is practically the same as English, but English that is tightly controlled so as not to utter a word that threatens the party's existence.
New speech from simplistic expressions such as Duckspeak, intellectual crime (Crime Think) and Black White. Dividing the language into smaller sections makes the discussion controllable or rejects. Thanks to the new discourse, Ingsak practically monopolizes political discourse, as he coined all the words for it.
In 1984, new speech is more than just a strange language. In this society, brainwashing is so deep and intense that it goes even to the level of personal thoughts. In this society, reality and history can be changed with a pen in the hands of an office worker. No one will know what that pen is writing.
This phenomenon is called Doublethink. Dualism means having two contradictory beliefs and believing both correctly. Neither of these contradictory beliefs negates each other's correctness, and the correctness of both is accepted.
The best example of the dualistic belief in endless warfare in the book. The party tells the people that Oshinia has always been at war with Eurasia, even though Istishia was the country's main enemy a few years ago. The people themselves saw the bombing of their streets by Istisia, but everyone believes that this bombing was the work of Eurasia, because the big brother and the party say so. Eurasia is now Oshinia's constant enemy, and everyone agrees that Istishia has always been Oshinia's ally. But that fact may change at any moment.
Whenever there is a new change in the facts, the party rewrites history to suit the change. This issue is not debatable by the people. That's always been the truth. If the party says that the color of the sky is red instead of blue, people will believe that the sky It has always been red.
When we say they will believe, we do not mean to pretend. They will believe with all their being, from the bottom of their hearts and with complete certainty that the sky has always been red. It does not even occur to them that such a change has taken place. This phenomenon refers to another expression of the new discourse called "black and white."
You may be wondering: how can such things happen? Are they all stupid? If we want to look at population demographics, yes. Most people are stupid. But it is not so simple. The problem is that most people only know the world in which they live. Take North Korea as an example (you can actually attribute all the information in this article to North Korea - Kim Jang Il must have been impressed by this book!). If you have trained several generations of people to worship you, you can say whatever you want. Because no one has any information beyond what you have eaten all your life to question your career.
Another question that may arise is what exactly does Ingsak belong to? Fascist? Socialist? totalitarian? Does it have specific policies? What is its ultimate goal?
Ingsak is inherently a contradiction, and he himself comes from the heart of dualism. Ingsak is officially a socialist. One of the lessons learned is that the days before the revolution were awful, as citizens bowed down to the capitalists (literally). The party claims that the capitalists could have chosen any woman for all the embrace and no one could speak for them. But then Ingsak appeared and made the world better forever.
But despite these claims, Ingsak hates socialists and socialist policies, and everyone is directly aware of this, but no one sees a problem with it. , Because that is the power of dualism.
Ingsak's ideology is practically no different from the ideology of the new Bolshevism (which belongs to Eurasia) and the ideology of self-destruction (which belongs to Istisia). Practically all three superpowers are the same society. Their technological and social differences are not so great. However, these three superpowers do not recognize these similarities or simply ignore them. Their approach to this issue is ambiguous.
What is quite clear is the relationship between these three superpowers. This relationship is an endless war. War is the factor that turns the wheel of this world and allows all three superpowers to survive. War is a great excuse to distract people, control the illiterate masses, and maintain power by Big Brother. Ingsak considers it his duty to protect the people against the Eurasian army or Istisia in the East, and this protective role is a strong justification for its existence.
What is the war of these three superpowers?
Resources? It is unlikely, because they rule over a very large territory and have all the resources they need.
Power? This is also unlikely, because neither of these three superpowers can destroy the other. This is a pre-established truth.
So what? Head nothing. The answer is: nothing. The tropical front (mentioned earlier) and the polar front (Polar Front) do not belong to anyone. The tropical front is merely an economic dumpster to which the three superpowers send all their equipment and military forces too large to get rid of. These three superpowers are like a hot machine that is constantly pumping steam out of its pores due to hard work.
In this war, borders are constantly changing, countless soldiers fighting over territories that no one has. He does not want to be killed and the people of every country enslaved and constantly moved across borders to work to support this huge war machine that is constantly repeating this cycle.
All three countries are equipped They have nuclear weapons and can easily destroy each other if they want to. Attacking Britain or Europe, starting a war in Russia or China, and attacking centers of power are all possible, but they upset the balance of power, and those at the helm of the three countries love their power. . That is why they are constantly waging war in the jungle and desert to preserve what they have and to keep the fire of nationalism alive in the hearts of the people. And at its heart lies an important message that is important to our world today: information is important, and controlling that information is more important. This is the greatest lesson that can be learned from this novel. All Ingsak did was to keep the crowd loyal and stupid so that no one would notice their deception. This goal was so important that even those whose job it was to deceive the people should not have realized that they were deceiving the people.
Does this message apply to our world? This question is so controversial that I do not even want to give a cursory answer to it. But it is better to do it well in your own privacy Think.Buy a 1984 book from BingMag Buy a 1984 book from Book stories
Source: Alternate History Hub