A critical approach to Roland Barthes’s literary opinions; From the bright room to the author’s death

Roland Gerard Barthes; (November 12, 1915 March 26, 1980) was a French literary theorist, essayist, philosopher, critic and semiotician. In his works, he mainly deals with the analysis of various semiotic systems, which are often derived from Western popular culture. Among the important components of his works are structuralism and poststructuralism, as well as the semiotic analysis of literary texts and cultural phenomena.

BingMag.com A critical approach to Roland Barthes’s literary opinions; From the bright room to the author’s death

Roland Gerard Barthes; (November 12, 1915 March 26, 1980) was a French literary theorist, essayist, philosopher, critic and semiotician. In his works, he mainly deals with the analysis of various semiotic systems, which are often derived from Western popular culture. Among the important components of his works are structuralism and poststructuralism, as well as the semiotic analysis of literary texts and cultural phenomena.

Roland Barthes, who can be referred to as the spirit of new criticism, is one of the prominent French semioticians and theory He is a prominent writer on literature, who was assigned the chair of literary semiotics at the Collge de France. Roland Barthes, a French linguist and literary theorist, is also known as the founder of New Criticism.

"Semiotics", which was first established by Ferdinand de Saussure, investigates the life of signs in society. But Roland Barthes founded semiotics as a science based on Saussure's theory. In fact, if Saussure presented semiotics in linguistics, Barthes has extended this science to all aspects of life and in all non-linguistic programs. The science of semiotics has new and completely different tasks from the semiotics presented by Saussure. Among other things, the task of this science is to investigate the extraordinary operation by which a message contains a secondary meaning. converts According to Barthes, the science of semiotics constitutes the basic and fundamental method of ideological criticism.

BingMag.com A critical approach to Roland Barthes’s literary opinions; From the bright room to the author’s death

A mythologist always wants to search and reveal "hidden meanings" behind normal and even mundane appearances, the movement that Barthes created was indeed the decoding and transmission of meaning, both in the field of literature and in other fields other than linguistics. This is why Barth's works are a testimony to the best researches in the field of semiotic knowledge and bearer of the most real theory in the field of literature. In other words, everything found in a writing is coded signs.

He became famous with the publication of the book "The Zero Level of Writing" at the beginning of the second half of the 20th century. With the publication of this book, the foundation of traditional French criticism collapsed and the "interpretive criticism" school took its place. Roland Barthes is considered not only the founder of new criticism, but also a critic of criticism.

He says: "Criticism, which is second-rate literature, evaluates literature, but so far it has not been said who evaluates criticism itself." is in charge Criticism is a scale, but how can you be sure of the accuracy of this scale? What are the criteria for this assessment?"

BingMag.com A critical approach to Roland Barthes’s literary opinions; From the bright room to the author’s death

His articles about this, a new chapter in criticism, "Criticology" is also open. For example, in order to know the critics of Brecht's works in France, he considers it necessary to use these knowledges: 1-Sociology, 2-Ethology, 3-Semiology and 4-Ethics.

Barthes not only in introducing Brecht tried in France, but also helped new storytellers. By studying different approaches of literary criticism, it becomes clear that each approach is more important to one part of the process of literature formation than other parts. At the same time, he has tried to make his approach complete by considering the issues of other approaches. The author, work, reader, message, text, subject, context, language, reality, society and some other elements are discussed and examined and each approach shows one or two parts compared to the rest and more, from That angle has looked at the problem.

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Barth is perhaps mostly because of his collection of essays in 1957 under the title "Myths", which It contained reflections on popular culture, and his controversial 1967 essay The Death of the Author criticized traditional approaches to literary criticism.

Biography

BingMag.com A critical approach to Roland Barthes’s literary opinions; From the bright room to the author’s death

Roland Barthes childhood and teenage years

Roland Barthes was born on November 12, 1915 in the city of Cherbourg in Normandy. His father, Louis Barrett, a naval officer, was killed in action during World War I in the North Sea before Roland Barrett's first birthday. His mother, Henriette Barrett, and his aunt and grandmother raised him in rural Everett and Bayonne. When Barthes was eleven, his family moved to Paris, although his attachment to his rural roots remained strong throughout his life.

Student Years

Barthes was a diligent student He was a scholar and spent the period from 1935 to 1939 at the Sorbonne, where he received his bachelor's degree in classical literature. All this time he suffered from tuberculosis, which often had to be treated in isolation in medical sanatoriums. His chronic and frequent physical problems interfered with his academic career, affecting his studies and his ability to take exams put. In World War II, he was exempted from military service for this reason.

His life from 1939 to 1948 was mainly devoted to receiving a master's degree in grammar and linguistics, publishing his first articles, participating in He studied medicine and continued to fight for his health. In 1941, he received an honorary M.A. from the University of Paris for his work on Greek tragedies. He started and organized several short-term training courses in higher education institutions in France, Romania and Egypt. During this time, he also collaborated with the Parisian left-wing newspaper "Mubarzeh", from which his famous book "The Zero Degree of Writing" was published in 1953.

In the year In 1952, Barthes joined the Institut de la Recherche Scientifique, where he studied lexicography and sociology. During his seven-year tenure there, he began writing a series of popular essays for the bimonthly magazine Les Lettres Nouvelles in which he critically examined the myths of popular culture (these essays were collected in the collection Myths, published in 1957). has been). Consisting of fifty-four short essays, written mostly between 1954 and 1956.

The Rise of Roland Barthes

Barthet spent the early 1960s exploring the fields of semiotics and structuralism while holding various faculty positions at leading universities across France. The result of this period of Barrett's life was more fruitful and more scientific productions than before. Many of his works challenge traditional academic views on literary criticism and famous literary figures. His unorthodox thinking led to a conflict with the famous Sorbonne professor of literature, Raymond Picard, who attacked French New Criticism (a label he mistakenly applied to Barthes) for being vague and lacking respect for French literary roots. In his book "Criticism and Truth (1966)", Barthes accused the old and bourgeois criticism of not paying attention to the nuances of language and selective ignorance of challenging theories such as Marxism.

In the late 1960s, Barthes for He became famous. He traveled to the United States and Japan and lectured at Johns Hopkins University. During this time, he wrote his best-known works; The 1967 essay "According to Whom?" and the book "Death of the Writer", which, given the growing influence of Jacques Derrida's deconstruction, prove to be a transitional piece in exploring the logical ends of structuralist thought.

Other critical works

BingMag.com A critical approach to Roland Barthes’s literary opinions; From the bright room to the author’s death

Barthet continued his collaboration with Philip Sollers in the avant-garde literary magazine Tel Quel . In that period, this journal published the same kind of theoretical research as what was followed in Barthes's writings. In 1970, Barthes presented what many consider to be his most astonishing work, an intensive and critical reading of Balzac's Saracen entitled S/Z. During the 1970s, Barthes continued to develop his literary criticism theory. He developed new ideals of novelistic textuality and objectivity. Barrett also served as visiting professor at the University of Geneva in 1971. In the same years, he also started his collaboration with the Higher School of Social Sciences (EHESS).

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In 1975, he wrote an autobiography titled Roland Barthes and in 1977 it was successful. He won a teaching position in literary semiotics at the College de France. In the same year, his mother, Henriette Barrett, who was very devoted to him, died at the age of 85. They lived together for 60 years. The loss of the woman who had raised him and cared for him was a serious blow to Bart. His last major work, Camera Lucida, is part essay on the nature of photography and part meditation on his mother's photographs. The book contains reproductions of many photographs, although none of them are of Henriette.

Death

On February 25, 1980, Roland Barthes walked the streets of Paris back home. , collided with a laundry van and his car was overturned. A month later, on March 26 of the same year, he died from injuries to his chest in this accident.

Thoughts of Roland Barthes

BingMag.com A critical approach to Roland Barthes’s literary opinions; From the bright room to the author’s death

The foundation of literature

Language - style - writing are the three basic categories that Barthes defines at the beginning of any other activity. Language of any kind (Persian, English, Chinese, French, Arabic, etc.), is an element in which the writer is born and lives. Therefore, it belongs to all humans and is a social category. The author does not have the right to choose in this regard, and this creates limitations in his field of activity.

The author is neither able to deny the existence of different meanings and concepts in the world of language, nor does he have the right to freely choose these concepts. Therefore, it can be said that the writer is somehow condemned to live in the world of language. The writing style is not a choice, but the nature and existence of the author and his content. Style is the result of an immediate rush, an intention It's the moment.

Therefore, the style of writing, from the point of view of the origin of biology, is outside the field of art. It is a category that comes from within the author. Language and style determine the author's nature, while a writing is the result of the author's freedom of action. The author selects the text. The writing is the will of the author. It is the relationship that the author establishes between the society and the work of his creation. Therefore, language and style are the coordinates of the literary space in which the author flaunts his writing board. Therefore, it is a two-sided writing and represents a two-sided freedom. Writing, although on the one hand, is a deliberate and completely free act towards society, on the other hand, it is a reference to the heavy past of all the writings throughout history that surround that writing.

In order to express this From the point of view, Barthes has gone beyond even Sartre by stating the question of the author's social commitment. Barthes adds the necessity of aesthetic diversity found within literature to its ideological perspective. Every article contains an opinion. The art of rhetoric and the way of thinking, literature and myth, are all concepts that Barthes analyzed from the point of view of semiotics in the work of Mythology itself. In his other work called Zero Degree of Writing, Barthes shows that behind the apparent speech lies a secondary speech: what he later calls a kind of "implicit signification".

But this secondary part of speech can always be organized. and therefore requires some kind of study. Barth is looking for a system behind writing. Regarding his work Michele, he justifies himself as follows: "On small sheets of paper, I wrote exactly the sentences that I liked, under any title or even if they were repetitive. Then, by arranging these sheets, like playing cards, I would arrive at a general theme."

BingMag.com A critical approach to Roland Barthes’s literary opinions; From the bright room to the author’s death

Bart In another place, in the introduction of critical essays, he emphasizes that: "The meaning of a work is not formed by itself, the author is only the generator of semantic hypotheses and different forms of meaning. And it is the world that fills them from the inside. According to Barthes, the model of a correct commitment and a precise speech is a writing that raises questions about the world instead of only naming it. Literature competes with philosophy because it tries to raise real and general questions whose answers cannot be predicted in advance from the appearance of the question. For example, Brecht's theater is the best example of this idea.

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Brecht's plays present the world as a real and decipherable object, but at the same time, the meaning in them It remains suspended and undecided, and the play on the stage only presents a message from the objects (that is, the relationship between the signifier and the signified, that is, the process that generates meaning and not the meaning itself). What exists in between is a dead end in writing, which is also a dead end in society. As long as there is no single society, there will be no single universal language.

According to Barthes, as we read in critical essays, "literature is the institutionalization of a mentality", "the world exists and the author of the letter Literature is a myth, a secondary system consisting of meanings formed from words that contain a primary meaning. The raw and primary material of literature is language.

Truly realist works are works that are included in the category of linguistic issues and therefore are always aware of their unreality. The only issue that remains is the writer's confrontation with the society. Of course, from the internal angle, that is, from the point of view of the creation of the work and not from the external angle, which is the study of the work and is related to the reader. Thus, we witness a confrontation between the inner world and the artist's subjectivity and language conventions, and this confrontation leads to an impasse and an inevitable failure, which entails the search for an "impossible literature". Literature is a problem about language. However, language consists of signs whose meaning depends on the relationship between the signifier and the signified. The author "can only present signs without signifiers. The doors of the world are always open to the world of meanings, a world that at the same time deals with his omissions. Barthes analyzes myth based on Saussure's theory of "sign". At the same time, myth is a word, a message, and a communication system.

Like a sign, myth consists of two elements: signifier (form of meaning) and signified (concept). The word, the form of the sign and the signified, is the same concept, and it is the relationship between the two that conveys the signification. Barthes presents two interrelated semiotic systems. The Ruin system is a linguistic system and the second system is a myth. Therefore, myth is a word independent of time. A metamorphosis is the primary, historical, literal, and linguistic meaning. The sign of the linguistic system in Barthes' mythological system is the form of meaning.

Literature can be examined from two aspects: one as nature, the other as value. Is there a transcendental being that is not dependent on a certain time and era, or should we accept that the characteristics of literature change with different centuries? That is why it is very difficult and exhausting to provide a specific definition of dabiat. Bart in His first notes give importance to the historical existence of literature.

That is, art for all times, the signs in literature are on the one hand the reception of the work, and how to receive and accept the work, on the other hand, they are directly related to history. . The author never has the right to choose: he is forced to communicate art through his writing method. The literary form, which is always obliged to follow the taste of the people, has always been expressed as a social category.

BingMag.com A critical approach to Roland Barthes’s literary opinions; From the bright room to the author’s death

If we look at it from this point of view, literature never exists outside of the author's relationship with society, and the reason why literary language is constantly changing and evolving is because of its relationship with society, which is evolving. This is how Barthes founded the concept of "writing": "Writing, whose position is always at the heart of literary concerns and does not begin except with these concerns, inherently constitutes the ethics existing in the literary form. The writing is the choice of the social field in which the author decides to include the "nature" of his communication language.

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The historicism of literature is also related to the reader. A work is cultural not only because of the appearance of its writing, but also because of the effect it leaves on the recipient of the work. This is true and valuable for any art. The logic of this thought, of course, of its sociological type, directly leads us to the conclusion taken from Barthes's work called On Racine: "It is no longer possible to have a literature that is placed in its place again in history.

Barthes always studies Sartre: the writer is in danger whether he wants it or not, he is never without taking a position in a world in which he lives, he cannot pick up a pen. However, when Sartre emphasizes the ethics of the message, it is the appearance of the work that draws Barthes's attention.

Literature and Meaning

As it was said, the existential nature of literature is in working with the form of meaning, therefore, according to the definition, literature is formal. Literature is made in the container of writing, in a "science of text production" that no reading can finish. The problem is to know what kind of connections with meaning such an independent and independent action, which has no end other than itself, is prone to. It was written that we will find it. For LaBrouwer, writing means believing that by working on the structures of the face and changing them, we arrive at the production of a special understanding of objects, an initial slice of reality and, in short, a new meaning: the language of communication itself is a kind of It is an opinion.

The basic principle of any literature is this: rediscovering a meaning as a result of working on language. It is precisely because literature is concerned with appearance that it reopens the burning question of signification and meaning. Therefore, literature is never destructive of the connection with meaning, it is a passage of active, living thinking, born from the play of forms of meanings.

At such a level, literary consciousness and mathematical logic join together: in mathematics, power There is a rich and huge imagination. Great logical thinking models, thinking that is formed in a lively way and is exclusively based on forms and without regard to content. All of these are of interest to the literature.

Therefore, Barthes denies any validity to our traditional opposition between depth and appearance: a work is always formed in an inextricable separation from meaning. Each level of signification is only a semantic form for a higher level. In other words, "concepts are always forms." The analysis of the relationship between literature and meaning shows the effects of Jacobson's theory on Barthes's thoughts: according to Barthes, "Art, of any kind, from poetry to visual or love stories, is existence from the moment the gaze has no objective but the form of meaning. Finds. Of course, in the production of art, there is usually a (significant) concept () but this concept is ultimately conveyed indirectly. The signified appears because it is always on the surface level of the signified and the signified is placed under it, literature always has a vague and unknown meaning: the words are no longer connected to the content (theme) and as a result create an atmosphere of entertainment. A space where playing with signs and a multitude of readings is possible. The meaning of a work is not limited to its external meaning, and the communication function of the work does not destroy the literary meaning.

BingMag.com A critical approach to Roland Barthes’s literary opinions; From the bright room to the author’s death

This is where the specific nature of literary meaning and implication should be examined in a more detailed way. This elusive and unconnected meaning to the work, which is caused by the independent and independent use of communicative language, is nothing but "sign and symbol": literature, in fact, comes from the completely symbolic field of human activities.

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This is the same opinion that Barthes writes in his work The Zero Degree of Writing: "What sets writing in opposition to words is that writing seems symbolic and introspective, which clearly and dramatically moves towards The hidden domain of language has turned. (If the symbolic meaning is so necessary for the literary work, it is because Pa has gone beyond the world of external signs.

So we come to the conclusion: a work is truly literary only when it is a sign of symbols. Therefore, a literary concept (signified) is a secondary concept, that is, a symbolic concept. The problem is to know with what mechanism a work can provide such a special and special meaning.

To answer this The question should refer to the basic concept from Barthes's analytical point of view, that is, Roland Barthes's concept of "implicit implication" derived from the theories of Khalms Low, who bases his hypothesis on this matter.

From the point of view of the Danish linguist, the process of implicit implication can be represented by this formula: [C R E], where E means expression, C means content, and R means the relationship between the two. Therefore, the implicit implication of a primary system, which itself is the relationship between a form and It is the content, it makes an expression for a secondary system. Therefore, implicit signification itself is a communicative language in which the expression is a language.

In his book "Semiotic Elements", Barthes references to E. Khalmslu did it with full frankness, although he had previously mentioned the words of this Danish linguist in the "Modern Mythology" chapter of his mythology book. Implicit denotation makes it possible to provide a definition of both mythic and literary systems. What is important to know here is that literature expresses a mechanism of semantic load to the extent that it is presented as a secondary system, a system in which the form of meaning is a complete system itself.

Literary language , in Barthes's book titled The Whisper of Language, it is defined as follows: Literature, like communicative language, is definitely a science of semiotics with implicit signification that carries meaning. In a literary text, a "primary system of meaning", which is the language itself (for example, French), plays the role of the form of meaning for a secondary message. The concept (meaning) of this secondary system, which is literature, is different from the concept of language (the first system). It is like this that literature begins only when the "complementary" effect for the coldness and dryness of the language finds its outward signification. This is the clear characteristic of meaning in literature: "Through words, writing creates a meaning that words did not have in the beginning." It has literary power. Writing notes from beyond the grave, which is an example of moderation and balance of words, gives the narrator's life the glow of a destiny: "It is the same language that allows him to poetically transform ugly and unpleasant things, such as boredom and unhappiness, from which he is very It speaks well, boredom that transforms into something else.

Works by Roland Barthes

BingMag.com A critical approach to Roland Barthes’s literary opinions; From the bright room to the author’s death

Roland Barthes is undoubtedly one of the most important literary critics of the 20th century who pioneered semiotics. "He was originally a literary critic and a philosopher, but his numerous works, which show a comprehensive view of social phenomena with intelligent prose, have also raised his face as a sociologist.

He was close to the Left and Marxists, but he soon distanced himself from them, and after teaching for a while at the French Institute of Higher Social Studies, he assumed the chair of literary semantics at the Collge de France in 1976.

Barthet published his first book. In 1953, he joined the ranks of the most prominent thinkers of the 20th century under the name of "The Zero Level of Writing". In his works such as The Zero Level of Writing (1953), Michele (1954), Mythologies (1957), About Racine (1963), Critical Essays (1964) and the book "Empire of Signs" (1970), he is a constructivist who pays much attention to linguistics and semiotics. and approaches anthropological analysis by criticizing the signs in human societies from everyday culture to sports and advertisements.

In the final stages of his life, he wrote books such as "The Author's Death" (1969), from " "Eshar Beh Matan" (1971), "The Pleasure of Text" (1973), "Criticism and Truth" (1966) and "S/Z" (1970)" turned to post-structuralism, which has ambiguous language and expression, poetry and in The format is piece writing.

Barth interacted with many intellectual devices in his life. Traces of Sartre, Brecht, Levi Strauss, Marx, Nietzsche, De Saussure, Husserl, Jacques Lacan, Russian formalists, German romantics can be seen in his works. Although he tends to the left in some of his works such as "mythologies", in "Zero Level of Writing" he uses historical and class analysis, and in "Criticism and Truth" he distances himself from structuralism and approaches hermeneutics.

But in total Barthes cannot be limited to any of these, and according to his own words, whenever he wanted, he could use existentialism, Marxism, Freudism, and structuralism at the same time. Roland Barthes, who considered it a type of new novel, deals with parts of his life, childhood, teenage memories and views. He was born in 1915. His father was killed in the war in 1918. He lived with his mother in the city of Bayon.

He was depressed most of the time. Roland Barthes lived like a child, like a child, after the death of his mother, his world ended. He wrote that he no longer has a passion for life and passed away a short distance away. His death was the death of a child. On February 25th, 1980, Roland Barthes was run over by a truck that was passing through the street.

The book "Myths" is one of the early works of Roland Barthes, which was written in the interpretation of the mass culture of the French people. The subject of this book is the criticism of various cultural manifestations, including sports, hobbies, types of food, and popular attitudes towards various issues.

Barthet, in his analysis of these phenomena and cultural manifestations, is influenced by the model of structuralism in linguistics (Saussure) and anthropology. (Lewi-Strauss) in order to reach the final structure beyond the cultural phenomena.

"He did not seek to discover meanings, but he wanted to discover the rules of meaning, that is, the possibilities that language provides for meaning, as Linguistics does not work in the sense of a sentence, but wants to know its formal structure, a structure that allows existence in this sense."

Barth, after publishing the collection of mythologies, in the very important theoretical article "Myth, Today" bases And he formulated and presented his theoretical styles in mythology, which may be considered a summary of all Barthes' achievements in the fields of criticism, literary theory, semiotics, and mythology. This book was translated into Persian in 1375 by Mrs. Shirin Dekht Dakhiyan.

Books translated into Persian
  • "The pleasure of the text", translated by Payam Yazdanjo, publishing house li>
  • "Roland Barrett", translation of Yazdanjo's Message, Center Publishing
  • "Lover's Speech", translation of Yazdanjo's Message, Center Publishing
  • "Zero Level of Writing", translated by Shirin Dekht Dakhiyan , Hermes publishing house
  • "Provost and me", translated by Ahmed Akhot
  • "Empire of signs", translated by Nasser Fakuhi, published by Nei
  • "Light room", thoughts About Photography, translated by Farshid Azarang
  • "Criticism and Truth", translated by Shirindokht Dakhiyan, Center Publishing
  • "Myth, Today", translated by Shirindokht Dakhiyan, published by Center
  • >"Introduction to the structural analysis of narratives", translated by Mohammad Ragheb, Rokhdadno publishing house
  • "Mourning memories", translated by Mohammad Hossein Waqif, publishing house of artist
  • "Fundamentals of semiotics", Roland Barthes, Farzaneh Friendship and others, scientific and cultural
  • "Lesson, Roland Barthes", Hossam Agbarchi, Nilofar
  • "Introduction to narratology", with Tzotan Todorf and Gerald Prits, Hoshang Rahnema, Hermes
  • "SZ, Roland Barthes", Sepideh Shukri Puri, Afraz
  • "Literary Semiotics", Roland Barthes, Nasser Fakuhi, Farhang Javid
  • "The message of the photograph, Roland Barthes", Raz Golestani Fard, center
  • "Criticisms and writings about theater", Roland Barthes, Maziar Mohimeni, Qatre
  • "Barthes and Cinema", Maziar Islami, Gam No
  • "Dominici, or the victory of literature" in the book of Cultural Studies [Roland Barthes and others], translated by Shahriar Vaqfipour, Talchun Publishing House. , Fekrno Publishing.

From Structural Linguistics to Semiotics

BingMag.com A critical approach to Roland Barthes’s literary opinions; From the bright room to the author’s death

Even though signs have a high research position in the western philosophical tradition. However, modern semiotics framework emerged based on the studies and thoughts of Ferdinand de Saussure.

Saussure wanted to establish and expand the field of structural linguistics as an independent field. Based on this, he believed that the foundation of the science of signs is also possible. In this regard, his opinions played a fundamental role in the emergence of structuralism and semiotics and made their intentions and efforts much clearer and at the same time revealed their connection with the study of contemporary forms of mass culture. divided into two parts. One is language as a set of related signs that is subject to a set of rules, and the other is parole, which is the verbal relationship between human beings or the individual use of language. Language as a subject of linguistics is the conventional meaning of the word, which deals with the rules and grammar of the language and is the underlying and fundamental structure of speech. Or the word and meaning are located. For example, according to Saussure, the word "book" is the signifier and the concept or mental form of the book is the signified. Together, the signifier and the signified form the linguistic sign, which is an arbitrary and contractual relationship.

If we understand language in this way, then other cultural systems will also be understood in the same way, and then we will find out that This concept has played an important role in Barthes' attempt to establish semiotics as a scientific study of sign systems. Focus on This point is necessary to understand the importance of the distinction that Saussure made between the signifier and the signified.

The linguistic sign consists of both of these elements and its meaning does not depend on an external example, and the relationship between the signifier And it means an optional relationship. There is no particular reason why the sign "book" should refer to this "book". There is no intrinsic or natural or fundamental reason that a particular concept must be linked to a particular phonetic image. It helped, but it should be noted that in culture, the relationship between the signifier and the signified is not optional, as in language. The reason for this is that according to the semiotic theories of Roland Barthes, there are certain factors that are related to the conditions and codes and ideologies that determine the relationship between specific signifiers and signifieds. Saussure's views are based on this axis that Language, almost like culture, as a system can only be understood and studied through relational terms, and the meaning can only be understood from the general and objective structure of the rules in which the components and elements obtain their meaningful nature from their position in the overall structure. The structure, whether in language or in other symbolic systems, is not empirically fixed, but must be discovered and specified in terms of the relationship of units.

Saussure to prove his theory is the basis of future efforts to expand the analytical ability of structuralism and Semiotics founded other systems such as popular culture, which later people such as Roland Barthes based Saussure's views on semiotics and mythology, which we discuss below.

Semiotics Roland Barthes

BingMag.com A critical approach to Roland Barthes’s literary opinions; From the bright room to the author’s death

Semiotics is the study of anything that can be studied as a sign. A sign is anything that can be taken as a meaningful substitute for something else. That thing no longer needs to necessarily exist or be present somewhere at the moment when a sign announces it. "Therefore, semiotics is basically a discipline that studies anything that can be used to tell lies"

The subject of Barthes' semiotics is to investigate the way of producing a system of meaningful signs. According to Barthes, reality is always constructed and understood in specific cultural frameworks that are bound to specific interests and interests.

Barthes semiotics is not based on the fact that there is an underlying universal structure in the system of signs. Given that semiotics can better analyze social and cultural changes. The signs and symbols they refer to are historically and culturally specific. However, semiotics emphasizes that these signs and symbols create meaning and provide interpretation and understanding for humans of what is happening around them. Therefore, according to Barthes, semiotics is not only in the concept vector. It is an ideology against which the truth of science is evaluated and measured, but it also contains the promise of a scientific method in understanding mass culture. The science of semiotics believes that material reality can never be taken for granted and its meaning can never be imposed on humans.

Reality is always created and understood by humans through a specific semantic system. This meaning is never innocent but serves a specific purpose that semiotics can illuminate. Our experience of the world is never pure or neutral, and systems of meaning make them comprehensible. There is no such thing as pure, bare, objective experience of the real, objective world. There is an objective world, but the ability to understand it depends on the codes of meaning or sign systems such as language." According to Barthes, codes and signs are not fixed in the world, and historically and socially, they depend on specific interests and goals that come from They are derived, they are limited. In that they are never neutral. Meaning is not something that is considered fixed and unchangeable, semiotics deals with the creation of meaning or what Barthes called the process of becoming meaningful.

When we turn to his analysis of myth, this point And his general assumptions will become clearer. "Myth, from Barth's point of view, is a kind of language or system of signs, which, although bound to history and society, shows itself to be general and universal. Therefore, the special task of myth is to transform history into nature. "Like what was said about the transformation of bourgeois class culture into nature and human nature. In fact, Barthes means the same ideology in Marxist expression, which as a set of thoughts and actions supports the status quo and promotes the accepted values of the ruling class. According to the claim of the authors of that style, it reflects the reality with the utmost accuracy and clarity. This style, which emerged in the 18th century in the legal community, was famous for its clarity and precision in expression and became a universal model or standard for all types of writing. The only correct and logical style in writing became an inevitable and natural style in writing that reflected the reality in a very simple way. Bart this way He challenged authorship and writing by writing "the zero degree of writing" and the reason for this, according to Barthes, is the presence of broader social forces and class interests on the formation and changes of writing styles.

For Barthes, French classicism regardless of Its deceptive appearance is neither neutral and universal nor natural and inevitable, on the contrary, it is found only in its historical and social context. While from the point of view of semiotics, that style as a myth or a framework of signs cannot reflect reality, but actually produces reality and tries to shape people's understanding of reality.

In terms of Barth, each myth as a system of signs has a separate appearance and interior. Signs are inherently and potentially multi-meaningful and can have different meanings depending on the type of text in which they are included, as well as the historical conditions and cultural orientation of the reader or viewer. It is possible to see a single image that is a set of signs; interpreted from different perspectives. But we should not forget that meaning is not inherent, but is a product of the system of signs and semiotics deals with a deeper meaning.

Generally, according to Barthes, modern culture is a collection of myths in which the historical It has become inherent and natural, and people consider and consume this culture not as historical things but as objective and natural things. According to Barthes, although different meanings can be inferred from the cultural phenomenon according to different interests, at the same time, semiotics deals with a structural understanding of culture and reveals the ideology hidden in it, because the myths of modern culture serve to secure the interests of the bourgeoisie and with They justify or deny their own existence by the de-naming mechanism. "For example, the myth of nationality guarantees the anonymity of the bourgeoisie as the dominant class. Bourgeois ideology itself must deny the existence of the bourgeois class as the dominant class.>BingMag.com A critical approach to Roland Barthes’s literary opinions; From the bright room to the author’s death

Both Barthes and Lvi-Strauss have used Saussure's double model and the distinction between signifier and signified and language and speech. Instead of emphasizing language, Lvi-Strauss has noticed other manifestations of culture such as kinship and myths.

Structuralism and semiotics Strauss is looking for the underlying structures that explain all the apparent dispersion in the realm of human culture. This model of underlying structures, invisible, generative, relational and unconscious but real and universal, is based on a logical network of binary oppositions. This model emphasizes that all cultural forms represent different empirical combinations of binary oppositions.

Strauss's structuralism has become the basis of many studies in popular culture, which are based on the influence of Levi Strauss's ideas on Roland Barthes and their perception of We pay myth. Lvi-Strauss considers myth to be a language that must be retold in order to understand it. According to him, myth is a part of human speech, in order to preserve its characteristics, we must show that myth is both a category of language and something that is part of it. It is that the myth has a third reference that combines the coordinates of the two linguistic and speech references"

While myth is a type of speech (speech) according to Barthes, of course, it is not any kind of speech and language requires special conditions. To become a legend. In this way, myth is a communication system and a message that is defined by the way of expressing that message.

In his opinion, anything can become a myth and no myth is eternal, because human history is the reality in the form of speech and It often turns into a myth. Therefore, the realm of myth other than speech can be writing or other forms of communication that contain messages. Like photography, cinema, report writing, sports, etc., they serve the mythological speech.

Another difference between Lvi-Strauss and Barthes is in the concept of myth. According to Lvi-Strauss, myth always refers to events that are said to have happened "before the creation of the universe" or "in the initial period of their formation" or even much more than that. But what gives the myth practical value is that the special pattern of its description is timeless and eternal. This pattern describes the present, the past and the future.

In his opinion, anything can happen in a myth, as if the chain of events in it does not follow any logical rule or sequence, but despite this, the same Myths, which are apparently arbitrary and conventional, appear with the same characteristics and often with the same details in different parts of the world, the reason for their similarity should be considered to be the same functioning of the human mind everywhere, and the primitiveness and advancedness of societies does not have an effect on it, but primitive thought. It just uses another system in notation, which can be understood through structural analysis, and by collecting and combining all traditions, a myth of order can be found behind disorder. The second-order level means that its purpose is to distort the facts and make many affairs, domination, and power appear natural. Therefore, myth is not only associated with primitive cultures, but in modern societies, it is a floating myth with different durations and even Very small half-lives are constantly being made and paid for.

The mentality of today's societies has the ability to make myths out of everyday political, social, artistic, etc. events, while the mythic nature of the product of this process of birth remains hidden. Therefore, in the opinion of Roland Barthes, unlike Lvi-Strauss, signs are not conventional, but are intentional and motivated, but they constantly hide their motivation.

"In Lvi-Strauss' terms, myth has no place in the time of the machine gun [that is, a history for it cannot be determined] but some of the characteristics of that belief or legend are common, and especially the difference between nature and culture, which governs normal human experiences, has disappeared in it."

But according to Roland Barthes Myth is formed precisely when history becomes nature. In fact, according to Barthes, it disappears in the myth of culture and is represented in natural forms. It is as if there was no history and culture at all, which is the result of time, and everything came into being naturally from the very beginning and must continue like this, and there is practically no escape from it.

But the influence of thought Levi-Strauss' structuralism on Roland Barthes should be sought in the method of structural analysis of myth. Lvi-Strauss' style of structural analysis of myth became the basis of Barthes' work in the structural analysis of literary texts. According to Levi-Strauss, if a meaning is found in a myth, this meaning does not exist in the individual elements that are involved in the composition of the myth, but this meaning should be found in the way these elements are combined. On the other hand, although myth belongs to the category of language and is considered to be only a part of it, language in myth represents special coordinates and these coordinates are found only at the level of linguistics superior to the usual level of language. Barthes also divides the text into reading units (lexis) and examines their relationships with each other. With this difference, Barthes, unlike the constructivists, does not seek to find all the meanings and aspects of the work, but selects a symbol of it and presents his speech about it. It is a form and its subject is the various forms of emerging meanings. From Barthes' point of view, this knowledge will not give a definitive interpretation for symbols; Rather, it will look for all kinds of possible interpretations for those symbols.

Final point

One of the roots of cultural studies should be found in a very small and compact book. Let's look at the mythologies of Roland Barthes. The present book is actually a kind of semiotics of everyday life.

His attention to cultural and social phenomena and his subtle and nuanced look at the phenomena occurring in the modern world has connected him with social sciences. Roland Barthes, with his emphasis on cultural phenomena as symbols and the multi-meaning interpretation of these symbols, can help us in interpretive anthropology. It is Saussure. Although he had a different understanding of myth and provided a unique definition of myth within the framework of the semiotic system, he based his methodology model on the opinions of thinkers such as Saussure and Lvi-Strauss.

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