Biography and books of Mario Vargas Llosa; Libertarian writer from Peru

Vargas Llosa is one of the most prominent Latin American novelists and one of the most fearless and outstanding writers of his generation. Along with other writers such as Octavio Paz, Julio Cortzar, Jorge Luis Borges, Gabriel Garca Mrquez and Carlos Fuentes, he is considered one of the great writers of Latin America. Many of Vargas Llosa's narratives have been translated into several languages, reflecting his international success.

BingMag.com Biography and books of Mario Vargas Llosa; Libertarian writer from Peru

Vargas Llosa is one of the most prominent Latin American novelists and one of the most fearless and outstanding writers of his generation. Along with other writers such as Octavio Paz, Julio Cortzar, Jorge Luis Borges, Gabriel Garca Mrquez and Carlos Fuentes, he is considered one of the great writers of Latin America. Many of Vargas Llosa's narratives have been translated into several languages, reflecting his international success.

During his career, he has written more than a dozen novels and many books and astonishing stories, and for decades has been a voice for American literature has been.

The biography of Mario Vargas LlosaBingMag.com Biography and books of Mario Vargas Llosa; Libertarian writer from Peru

Mario Vargas Llosa, author, journalist, essayist, university professor and politician, was born on March 28, 1936 in a middle-class family in the second largest city of Peru, Arequipa.

His father is Ernesto Vargas Maldonado. , a radio operator in an aviation company and Dora Usa Orta was the daughter of an old family in Criollo that split up a few months before Mario was born. Shortly after Mario's birth, his father revealed that he had a relationship with a German woman and Mario has two half-brothers, Enrique and Ernesto Vargas.

Vargas Llosa lived with his maternal family for a year after his parents divorced He lived in Arequipa until his maternal grandfather obtained a diplomatic post in the northern Peruvian coastal city during the administration of President Jos Bustamante Rivero, and the entire family returned to Peru.

His maternal family was headed by his grandfather. who was in charge of managing the cotton farm. As a child, Vargas Llosa thought that his father was dead because his mother and family did not want to tell him that his parents were separated.

Vargas moved to Lima in 1946 at the age of ten and met his father for the first time. ; It was there that his parents reconnected, and during his teenage years, Vargas began living anew in a middle-class neighborhood in Lima.

When he was fourteen, his father sent him to the Leoncio Prado Military Academy in Lima. . At the age of 16, Vargas began working as an amateur journalist for local newspapers before graduating. He withdrew from the military academy and completed his studies in Piura.

Vargas Llosa enrolled in the National University of Lima in San Marcos in 1953 to study law and literature. In 1955, at the age of 19, he married his uncle's sister-in-law, "Julia Urquidi", who was ten years older than him. He started seriously with the publication of his first short stories called "The Leaders" and "Grandfather". In 1958, after graduating from the National University of San Marcos, he received a scholarship to study at the Complutense University of Madrid in Spain. Studying there will receive a scholarship, moved to France. However, upon arriving in Paris, he found that his scholarship application had been rejected. Despite Mario and Julia's not so good financial situation, this couple decided to stay in Paris.

Their marriage did not last more than a few years and they ended in divorce in 1964. A year later, Vargas Llosa married Patricia Llosa, who is his wife to this day, and they have three children, Alvaro, Gonzalo, Morgana.

Vargas Llosa has lived mainly in Madrid since the 1990s, but almost He spends months of the year with his family in Peru. He also visits London frequently and sometimes spends long periods there. Vargas Llosa obtained Spanish citizenship in 1993, although he still holds Peruvian nationality. He often expresses his love for both countries. In his Nobel speech, he observed: "I love Peru from the bottom of my heart, because there I was born, raised, formed, and lived those experiences of childhood and youth that shaped my character."

Political activities Mario Vargas LlosaBingMag.com Biography and books of Mario Vargas Llosa; Libertarian writer from Peru

Vargas Llosa like many A Latin American writer, he has been very politically active throughout his career and, like many other Latin American intellectuals, he was initially a supporter of the Cuban revolutionary government, Fidel Castro. As a university student, he studied Marxism in depth and gradually came to believe that socialism was incompatible with what he saw as public freedom. The official break between him and the policies of the Cuban government happened with the so-called "Padilla Affair". Together with other intellectuals of that time, he protested the Cuban political system and the artist's imprisonment in a letter to Castro. Vargas Llosa has since identified himself with liberalism rather than far-left political ideologies. He is for the presidency The Republic of Peru ran in 1990 with the center-right Ferente Democratico coalition, advocating classical liberal reforms, but lost the election to Alberto Fujimori. which was launched by Reporters Without Borders.

During the uprising of Peruvian President Sandro Luminoso, Vargas Llosa was asked to join the Commission of Inquiry, a special group to investigate the massacre of eight journalists by the villagers of Ocuracay. were, join The main purpose of this commission was to investigate the murders in order to provide information about the incident to the people. After the conflict with the investigative commission, he published a series of articles to defend his position in this affair. /h2>

Vargas Llosa's style includes historical material as well as his personal experiences. He frequently uses his writings to challenge the failings of society, such as the demoralization and oppression by those in political power of those who challenge that power. One of the main themes he explores in his writings is the individual's struggle for freedom in an oppressive reality.

Many of his works are influenced by the author's understanding of Peruvian society and his own experiences as a native Peruvian. . He has increasingly broadened the scope of his writing and addressed issues originating from other parts of the world. In his articles, he has criticized nationalism in different parts of the world.

The book End Time War was the beginning of a fundamental change in his style towards topics such as Christianity and irrational human behavior. The book recreates the Canudos War, an incident in 19th-century Brazil that halted an armed millenarian sect for months. Vargas Llosa says this is his favorite book and his most difficult achievement.

Vargas Llosa's bold exploration of humanity's tendency to idealize violence and his account of a man-made catastrophe brought about by bigotry on all sides, the name It made him more and more popular.

The works of Mario Vargas Llosa

The works of Mario Vargas Llosa are considered as modernist and postmodernist novels. His first literary influences were Peruvian writers such as Martn Adan, Carlos Oquendo de Amat and Cesar Moro. As a young writer, he looked to these revolutionary novelists in search of new narrative structures and techniques to paint a more multifaceted and contemporary experience of urban Peru. He sought a style different from the traditional descriptions of rural and rural life made famous by the most prominent Peruvian novelist of the time, Jos Mara Argudas.

Vargas Llosa's first novel, The Dog Years, was published in 1963. . The story of this book takes place among the student community at the Lima Military School, and the plot is based on the author's own experiences in Lima. His vividness and skillful use of complex literary techniques immediately impressed many critics, and he received the Spanish National Prize for Literature for this work. Nevertheless, its strong criticism of the Peruvian military establishment led to controversy in Peru. Several Peruvian generals attacked the novel, claiming that it was the work of a degenerate mind and that Vargas Llosa was receiving money from Ecuador to discredit the Peruvian military.

Vargas Llosa's second novel published "The Green House", which was about a brothel called "The Green House" and the effect of its quasi-mythical presence on the lives of the characters. The main plot of the story revolves around a girl named "Bonifacia" who receives the vows of the church and becomes the most famous prostitute of "Green House". The novel was immediately acclaimed by critics and the first edition won the Romulo Gallegos International Award. This Vargas Llosa novel alone won so many awards that it placed him among the leading figures of the Latin American boom.

Some critics still consider The Green House Vargas Llosa's best and most important achievement. American literary critic Gerald Martin states that The Green House is "one of the greatest novels that has appeared in Latin America". (1986), Jerusalem Award (1995), Pen/Nabokov Award (2002), Irving Kristol (2005), Nobel Prize for Literature (2010), Carlos Fuentes International Award (2012) and Pablo Neruda Art and Restoration Medal (2018) for has received his authorship.

One of the other very important prizes that Vargas Llosa has received is the Miguel Cervantes Prize (1994), which is considered the most important prize in Spanish-language literature and is awarded to writers whose "work It has significantly contributed to the enrichment of the literary heritage of the Spanish language. including "Hero of Our Age" and "Captain Pantoja and the Special Service", both of which were adapted as a play by Peruvian director Francisco Lombardi and Sur Bez by Colombian playwright and director Jorge Ali Triana.

In the rest of this article, we have briefly introduced some famous books by this author.

Conversation in the CathedralBingMag.com Biography and books of Mario Vargas Llosa; Libertarian writer from Peru

The book "Conversation in the Cathedral" with the English title "Conversation in the Cathedral" by Mario Vargas Llosa was first published in 1969 and was translated into Persian by Abdullah Kothari.

Mario Vargas Llosa analyzes the mental and moral mechanisms governing power and the people behind it through a complex network of mysteries and historical references. Actually, this work is more than a historical analysis, it is an innovative and creative novel that deals with the identity as well as the role of a citizen and how the lack of personal freedom can forever scar a people and a nation.

The conversation in the cathedral has absolutely nothing to do with the great churches. The cathedral is the title of a time where two of the main characters of the story named "Santiago" and "Ambercio" go there after a chance meeting. These two men share a common destiny, but they are very different. It should be noted that the author uses different characters that can be identified with historical figures, but appear with other names.

In the book "Conversation in the Cathedral", the author exposes a corrupt government in the daily life of the characters. Currede and Santiago reveal the story of their dissatisfaction with the order of Manuel Odria. In the same way, various themes such as student repression, politics, homosexuality, prostitution, etc. are revealed.

This book is one of the important works of Vargas Llosa, which is a sad story of power, corruption and the complex search for identity in the 1950s. It is the dictatorship of Manuel Apollinario Audrey Amoretti. In this book, Vargas deals with the lives of characters from different social strata.

Santiago is the son of an influential politician who, like many idealistic youths in the 60s, rejected the corrupt and pragmatic world of his father "Don Fermin" and went to He works as a reporter in a newspaper and has turned his back on his family and their wealth.

Santiago goes looking for their kidnapped dog one afternoon at the insistence of his wife; In those days, dogs were caught as strays, as dog catchers were well paid per animal. Santiago meets Ambrosio in the pound; Ambrosio is a large black worker who used to be Santiago's father's driver and has fallen on hard times.

They start talking in the cathedral; The topic of their long conversation is the 16-year dictatorship of Odria. During this conversation, Santiago tries to find out the truth about his father's role in the murder of an infamous Peruvian figure and shed light on the workings of a dictatorship.

As the two talk about what happened in the years after They talk about their last meeting, the reader is faced with a magical journey through the history of Peru and meets a series of characters, both fictional and real.

"All week, Amalia was thinking, she was distracted. Carlotta had said what are you thinking, and Simola: A man who laughs to himself is thinking of the wrong he has done, and Signora Ortensia: Where are you, come on earth. No longer angry with Ambrsio, no longer angry with himself for going out with her. You hated him and now you're mad again, why are you so mad, he dreamed one night that on Sunday when he was going out, he met him waiting for him at the subway station. But that Sunday, Carlotta and Simola were invited to a naming party, and her holiday fell on Saturday. Where could he go? He went to see Gertrude, he hadn't seen her in months. When he got to the laboratory, the workers were coming out, and Gertrudis took him home to have lunch together. -5.jpg" class="content-pics" alt="BingMag.com Biography and books of Mario Vargas Llosa; Libertarian writer from Peru" title="BingMag.com Biography and books of Mario Vargas Llosa; Libertarian writer from Peru" loading="lazy">

The book "Sur Bez" with the English title "The Feast of the Goat" is the second novel by Mario Vargas Llosa, which was first published in 2000 and written by Abdullah Kothari in Farsi has translated.

In this novel, Vargas allows the reader to see the realities of an oppressive regime with a degree of detail not often used by his compatriots in Latin American literature.

Book The influential Sor Bez examines the dictatorial regime of Rafael Leonidas Trujillo Molina, nicknamed "The Goat" in the Dominican Republic, and portrays its consequences from two distinct perspectives of the same generation.

Trujjo during the occupation of the island by the United States with He was trained in the Marine Corps and graduated from Haina Military Academy in 1921. In 1924, after the withdrawal of the United States, he became the head of the Dominican National Police, which under his command became the Dominican National Army and Trujillo's almost autonomous personal power base. It exists for the island and its inhabitants. Although his regime was broadly nationalist, Daniel Chirot states that he had "no particular ideology" and his economic and social policies were essentially progressive. Urania" to his hometown Santo Domingo, a city that was renamed Ciudad Trujillo during Trujillo's power, begins and is narrated from three different angles that have a common axis. One of these sections focuses on the life of Urania, a fictional Dominican character. Another deals with the conspirators involved in Trujillo's assassination, and the third focuses on Trujillo's own life. The novel alternates between these storylines as it jumps back and forth from 1961 to 1996, with frequent flashbacks to the period before the Trujillo regime.

The story is largely based on Urania's memories and her inner turmoil. It deals with the events leading up to his departure from the Dominican Republic thirty-five years ago. In fact, Urania Cabral and her father Agustin Cabral appear in both the modern and historical parts of the novel.

Urania escapes from the crumbling Trujillo regime in 1961, claiming to study under nuns in Michigan. did In the decades that follow, he becomes a prominent and successful New York attorney, finally returning to the Dominican Republic in 1996 before finding himself forced to confront his father and elements of his long-neglected past.

As Urania talks to her ailing father Agustin Cabral, she remembers more and more the anger and disgust that led to her thirty-five years of silence. Urania recounts her father's descent into political scandal, while revealing the betrayal that lies between both Urania's storyline and Trujillo's own.

Rafael Trujillo, also known as the Goat, the Boss, and the Benefactor, is a fictional character based on the real dictator of the Dominican Republic from 1930 to 1961 and the official president of the Republic from 1930 to 1938 and 1943 to 1952. Vargas Llosa imagines the innermost thoughts of the dictator in the book Sur Bez and the last He recounts the hours of the goat from his point of view. Trujillo's character struggles with old age and physical problems of incontinence and impotence. Through fictional events and first-person narration, the author gives the reader an insight into a man who modernized the country's infrastructure and army during "sixty years of horrific political crimes".

The main themes of Sur Bez include political corruption. , mischievousness, memory and writing and power. Melbourne Age critic Olga Lorenzo states that Vargas Llosa's overall goal is to expose the irrational forces of the Latin tradition that lead to tyranny. Maria Regina Ruiz, in her treatment of the novel, claims that "power to the powerful." It gives the ability to create bans; Prohibitions that are reflected in history and their study reveals what is said and what is not said". The combination of these two elements is important in any historical novel, especially in Feast of the Goat, because Vargas Llosa chose to narrate a real event through the minds of real and fictional characters. The general details of the assassination are true and the killers are all real people.

Those in the regime are also a mix of fictional characters and real people. President Balaguer is real, but the entire Cabral family is completely fictional. According to Wolff, Vargas Llosa uses history as a starting point to construct a fictional account of Trujillo's "spiritual colonization" in the Dominican Republic as experienced by a Dominican family.

An English-language film adaptation of the novel In 2005, it was directed by Vargas Llosa's cousin, Luis Llosa. Starring Isabella Rossellini as Ourania Cabral, Paul Freeman as her father Augustin, Stephanie Leonidas as Ouranita, and Thomas Milian as Rafael Leonidas Trujillo. The film was shot in both the Dominican Republic and Spain. This novel has also been adapted for the stage by Jorge Ali Triana and his daughter Veronica Triana, directed by Jorge Triana. Unprecedented weakness comes to him. After all, he was always used to being active, he was not one to spend his time on something that has occupied him day and night since he set foot on Dominican soil, that is, remembering. "This girl of mine works hard, she repeats her lessons even in her sleep." This is what Senator Agustin Cabral, honorable Minister Cabral, Cabra of common sense used to say about you, and in front of his friends, you used to call him a girl who won all the awards, and his fellow students and nuns always looked at him with the eyes of a model student. Did you see that the boss was also talking about Uranita's academic success? "I really want you to meet my daughter. Since he went to Santo Domingo, he has won the prize for the most distinguished student every year. He will be very happy if he sees you and shakes your hand."

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Dog yearsBingMag.com Biography and books of Mario Vargas Llosa; Libertarian writer from Peru

The book "Dog Years" with the original title "The Time of the Hero" by Mario Vargas Llosa was first published in 1963. This book has been praised by critics around the world as one of the most outstanding Spanish novels of recent decades. Cunning, bullying and competitiveness have become more important, encouraged and praised. During the story, individual and collective values are tied together and the themes of guilt, indifference, denial and pessimism are well explored. The story is slightly varied.

The Dog Years book was also praised for its clever use of slang and taboo vocabulary and its complex narrative strategies. One critic, Armas Marcelo, praises the novel's hidden narratives because throughout the novel the reader is not sure who is speaking. Marcelo writes: This function of the concept of secrecy in the formal structure of the novel is undoubtedly one of the basic features and at the same time one of the most prominent stylistic features of this work. Leoncio Prado Military Academy in Lima, where the author once attended, is narrated. The story is about adolescence and young men's transition to manhood, and has themes such as masculinity, hierarchy, secrecy, and the military.

The novel describes the students of the Leoncio Prado Military School in Lima, who live in a hostile and violent environment. They try to survive and get out of the vicious circle of sadistic madness, military discipline, imprisonment and boredom. Their actions set off a cycle of betrayal, murder, and revenge that threatens the entire military hierarchy.

Starting the story of Dog Years, four students of this military school named Alberto Fernandez, Porfirio Cava, Boa And the Jaguars are rolling the dice. Their dice game determines which of them must steal chemistry test papers from a locked classroom. Kava loses the game and has to steal the test. Little do they know that a careless act while trying to copy the exam will lead to an irreparable tragedy and a shocking cover-up.

During the robbery, he accidentally breaks a window. The school authorities discover the theft and lock the students who were guarding in the barracks. They have to stay there until the culprit comes forward to take responsibility for the crime.

After a few weeks without a weekend off, Arana can no longer cope with being locked up and tells the officers that Cava stole the exam. As long as he is informed, he will receive leave. A few days later, during martial training, something unexpected happens to him.

The corruption of this school is a symbol of a bigger disease in Peru. This novel has a complex structure with non-linear chronology and multiple narrative voices. After the publication of this work, the Peruvian army burned hundreds of copies of the book in an official ceremony.

This novel was turned into a movie in 1985 by the Peruvian director Francisco Lombardi.

In part From the book "Dog Years" we read:

"The driver was still humming, but there was no more passion in his voice. He asked himself, what does it look like? And he felt the same intense concern that he had felt three days ago, when his mother had pulled him aside and told him on the phone, "Your father is not dead, we lied to you, from The long journey is back and we are looking forward to Lima." His mother said again, "We have arrived." The driver asked, "Did you say Salavari Street?" "Yes, number thirty-eight," said his mother. He closed his eyes and pretended to be asleep. His mother kissed him."

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