Alexander Solzhenitsyn’s biography and books; The stubborn narrator of Stalin’s prisons

Alexander Solzhenitsyn is known as one of the most important writers of the last century. He was one of the most famous anti-Soviet activists and an outspoken critic of communism, helping to raise global awareness of the Soviet Union's repression, particularly the Gulag system. The 1970 Nobel Prize in Literature was awarded to Alexander Solzhenitsyn "for the moral force with which he has pursued the essential traditions of Russian literature". Country has become a controversial literary and political figure in the Soviet Union, as well as a critical figure in the United States for his criticism of Western values and regional priorities.

BingMag.com Alexander Solzhenitsyn’s biography and books; The stubborn narrator of Stalin’s prisons

Alexander Solzhenitsyn is known as one of the most important writers of the last century. He was one of the most famous anti-Soviet activists and an outspoken critic of communism, helping to raise global awareness of the Soviet Union's repression, particularly the Gulag system. The 1970 Nobel Prize in Literature was awarded to Alexander Solzhenitsyn "for the moral force with which he has pursued the essential traditions of Russian literature". Country has become a controversial literary and political figure in the Soviet Union, as well as a critical figure in the United States for his criticism of Western values and regional priorities.

Biography of Alexander Solzhenitsyn BingMag.com Alexander Solzhenitsyn’s biography and books; The stubborn narrator of Stalin’s prisons

Alexander Isayevich Solzhenitsyn, a Russian novelist and historian, one year after the beginning of the Russian Revolution on December 11, 1918, in a family of intellectuals Kazak was born in Kislovodsk, Russia. His father studied philology at the University of Moscow, but did not finish his studies because when the war broke out in 1914, he enlisted as a volunteer and became an artillery officer on the German front. He fought throughout the war and died six months before Alexander was born, in the summer of 1918.

His young mother took him to Rostov-on-Don, one of the largest cities in Russia, where she raised him and was always encouraged by him. to engage in literary and scientific works. Alexander studied at the University of Rostov-on-Don, graduated with a degree in mathematics, and took correspondence courses in literature at Moscow State University. He fought in World War II and rose to the rank of artillery captain, but was arrested by the Soviet intelligence service in 1945 for writing a letter criticizing Joseph Stalin. Although he was a loyal communist, he was sentenced to eight years in a labor camp. His criminal journey began with a stay in two prisons in Moscow. He was then transferred to a nearby camp where he moved lumber and then transferred to another camp called New Jerusalem.

Solzhenitsyn July 9, 1947 to special prison number 16 because of his talent in mathematics. It was transferred in the suburbs of Moscow. In April 1956, his sentence of eternal exile in the territory of Kazakhstan was suspended. He spent, wrote and rewrote. In December 1956, he spent a vacation with his ex-wife, whom he had divorced while in prison, and in February 1957, he married her again. Solzhenitsyn won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1970, but he refused to go to Stockholm to receive the prize, fearing that the Soviet authorities would prevent him from returning. Kurd, who revealed the dire suffering of Soviet Communism in some of the most powerful works of the 20th century, died late Sunday in Moscow at the age of 89 of heart disease. He was buried in the Donsky Monastery, which he had chosen 5 years before his death.

Inside the works of Alexander Solzhenitsyn

Solzhenitsyn, like many artists Another prominent one has tried to fulfill his role as a writer well. He has tried to analyze the various functions and definitions of art and the artist throughout history and to create a personal conception of the issues that his art should address and his responsibility as an artist.

Five of Solzhenitsyn's seven major works. It deals directly with the Soviet camp system and the lives of its prisoners. One of Solzhenitsyn's main themes is "the dividing line between good and evil that runs in the heart of every human being". He was one of the few great writers and thinkers who put the human spirit as the explicit theme of his writings. Solzhenitsyn was not only a superior anti-ideologist, but also a Socratic philosopher who worked hard for human self-knowledge. In his works, he categorically rejects the view that human beings are obliged to choose "survival at any cost". Solzhenitsyn never recommends moral or religious silence. This great Russian writer believes that in order to defend human freedom and dignity, radical evil must be confronted with force if necessary. In his historical novel The Red Wheel and elsewhere, he challenges Tolstoy's pacifism, which mixes love. In Volume 3 of The Gulag Archipelago, Solzhenitsyn honors all those who resisted communist totalitarianism and the heroes who dramatically liberated the Kangir camp for forty days in the spring of 1954.

Alexander Solzhenitsyn's works

In the space of about half a century, more than 30 million books of Solzhenitsyn's works have been sold worldwide, books that have been translated into about 40 languages. Alexander Solzhenitsyn, Nobel Prize winner in 1970 It became literature.

Encouraged by the loosening of state restrictions on cultural life that marked the de-Stalinization policies of the early 1960s, Solzhenitsyn submitted his short novel, A Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich, to a literary journal. Soviet leader Novy Mir sent. This novel was quickly published in the pages of that magazine and became very popular in the blink of an eye, and Solzhenitsyn became famous with this work. The impact of the book's simple and direct language and the apparent authority with which they dealt with the daily struggles and material hardships of camp life made this work a success. The book created a political sensation both abroad and in the Soviet Union, and inspired a number of other writers to write accounts of their imprisonment under Stalin's regime.

However, Solzhenitsyn's period of official support was short-lived. . With the fall of former Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev from power in 1964, ideological strictures on cultural activities in the Soviet Union intensified, and Solzhenitsyn faced first increasing criticism and then outright persecution by the authorities. After the publication of a collection of his short stories in 1963, he was denied the official publication of his works and published his works secretly. In the following years, Solzhenitsyn achieved international literary fame by publishing several ambitious novels abroad.

His next novel, Gulag Archipelago, which was published outside the Soviet Union, is a historical novel that won Germany defeats Russia in their first military engagement of World War I, the Battle of Tannenburg. In various parts of the work, he describes the arrest, interrogation, conviction, transportation, and imprisonment of Gulag victims carried out by the Soviet authorities over four decades. This work combines Solzhenitsyn's own historical account and autobiographical narratives with voluminous personal testimonies of other prisoners that he collected and memorized during his imprisonment. Pays tribute to a remarkable Russian woman named Anna Skrypnikova, who spent fifty years or more in and out of Bolshevik prisons and camps. We have briefly introduced:

1. Cancer WardBingMag.com Alexander Solzhenitsyn’s biography and books; The stubborn narrator of Stalin’s prisons

The semi-autobiographical book "Cancer Ward" with the English title "Cancer Ward" by Alexander Solzhenitsyn is the first It was published in 1966 and was translated into Persian by Saadullah Alizadeh. An important work by one of the most powerful literary voices of the 20th century, this book presents an extraordinary picture of life in the Soviet Union.

Solzhenitsyn was diagnosed with stomach cancer in the mid-1950s after his release from a concentration camp. and was treated there. This experience formed the basis of the book Cancer Ward, which shows the lives of a group of patients, doctors and staff at a cancer clinic in Kazakhstan over a period of ten weeks in early 1955.

The main character of the book Cancer Ward, Oleg Like Solzhenitsyn, Kostoglutov spent several years in the Gulag, was sentenced to eternal exile in Kazakhstan, contracted cancer and was treated in a cancer clinic. This book describes the profound effects that the experience of labor camps, deportation and then cancer can have on a person. As Oleg communicates with other patients and interacts with the doctors who treat him, he tells the story of his life and his future. It is considered to be both a deeply compassionate study of people facing terminal illness and a cancerous Soviet government. This book, which has been compared to the masterpiece of another Nobel Prize winner, "Magic Mountain" by Thomas Mann, explores the relationship of a group of people in the cancer ward of a provincial Soviet hospital in 1955.

The book "The Cancer Ward" is a political allegory and uses a polyphonic structure to emphasize the book's characters rather than the plot; Tumors kill, so how can a country stay afloat with the growth of labor camps and deportations? This ward, with its heterogeneous mix of patients from different ethnic groups and social backgrounds, is somewhat representative of Soviet society. Although there are different ethnicities, religions, worldviews and views on this department, but the patients have a common enemy and that is cancer.

This deep, controversial, enlightening and critical work is full of social and political commentary. which examines a diverse range of topics, such as illness, hope, liberation, free-thinking, exile, and the different perspectives of patients and doctors. This work is one of the most complete and almost accurate descriptions of the nature of the disease and its psychological and physical characteristics on the victims.

Amirkabir Publications has released this book. In a part of the book "Cancer Section", we read:

"Here I only address the ideological and aesthetic limitations of these works with brief and reasonable references. My prediction is that this new wave cannot simply continue directly And even if the golden age is past, it was realized in a much wider scope. The very fact that, as in the current situation, really outstanding writers directly and wholeheartedly pay attention to the basic social and human issues of their time, makes the qualitative difference between content and form necessary and mandatory. The sudden and rapid destruction of the conflicting areas of the classes that was the legacy of the Trarian era has very little in common, both externally and internally, in content and in form, with the overcoming of the Stalinist era, which has now become inevitable."

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2. Matryona's PlaceBingMag.com Alexander Solzhenitsyn’s biography and books; The stubborn narrator of Stalin’s prisons

The book "Matryona's Place" with the English title "Matryona's Place" is the most read short story of Alexander Solzhenitsyn, which is the first Bar was published in 1963 and was translated into Farsi by Abdolreza Natghi. This novel is considered as one of the best literary achievements of the author.

Alexander Solzhenitsyn had a unique talent in writing, which he used to depict the realities of the lives of ordinary people in the Soviet era. Unlike many other writers, instead of writing about the "bright future of communism", he preferred to write about the daily hardships that ordinary people in the Soviet Union had to endure. Set after the death of Joseph Stalin, it reflects the aftermath of his authoritarian regime and focuses on the life of an old peasant woman living in a poor collective village after World War II.

Ignatich is the narrator of the fascinating book Matryona's House. " Is. Ignatich's return to Russia in the summer of 1953 marked the end of a ten-year exile in Asia, which later turned out to be the result of a long period of imprisonment, and his experiences of exile and prison mirror those of Solzhenitsyn. Ignatich longs for the romantic lifestyle of pre-revolutionary Russia. For this reason, she looks for a job in the central Russian countryside and finds it in the form of a math teacher position.

In the light of the Soviet propaganda to create a new country, the reader can see that Matryona's personality and way of life are greatly It is in contradiction with the old model of the Soviet Union. He lived in a very old rotten house infested with cockroaches and rats and could only eat potatoes or oats for every meal. She worked all her life on a collective farm, but after she became ill and unable to work, the government did not provide her with any pension, and she has not received a single pension in the twelve years since her husband's death. .

The life of other people in the village was not much better, because they were not able to have a proper family to provide for their lives due to being communal. The villagers, who were trapped in difficult conditions and poverty, became aggressive and greedy and turned against each other for the least benefit.

Whenever one of the neighbors or the people of the collective farm needed someone to work on the farm. He always offered his help. I think it was part of his life based on the principles of old life, when life in the village was prosperous and every peasant willingly helped his neighbor. In fact, the life of the villagers was a struggle to survive the winter and find food to eat, leaving no room for abstract ideological concerns.>

"Finally, they said that I can go to a small area called Visokaye Pele (high plain). Hearing his name was enough to fill me with joy and ecstasy. His name was Yasmani. He is Sukaye Pele. Located on top of a hill in the middle of the ravines and a number of other hills, surrounded by the forest, with a pond and dam. It was right where life and death are both sweet. There, I sat for hours on a tree trunk and thought to myself that I wish I didn't need subhanah and nahar at all, and I would stay here and at night, when the sound of the radio is not heard from anywhere and the world is silent, I would listen to the sound of the leaves of the trees hitting the roof of the house. I was listening."

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3. One day in the life of Ivan DenisevichBingMag.com Alexander Solzhenitsyn’s biography and books; The stubborn narrator of Stalin’s prisons

The book "One day in the life of Ivan Denisevich" with the English title "One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich" by Alexander Solzhenitsyn, which was first published in Novy Mir literary magazine in 1962. After its publication, this book faced strong criticism from the rulers of Russia due to its frankness in expressing the reality of concentration camps.

The book "A day in the life of Ivan Denisovich", the story of the prisoner of the labor camp, Ivan Denisovich Shukhov. And it depicts his struggles to maintain his dignity against communist oppression. This work is one of the most extraordinary literary documents that provides an unforgettable portrait of Stalin's concentration camps in the Soviet Union and beautifully shows the impact of political decisions and war on people's lives.

Ivan Denisovich Shukhov is a He was a political prisoner who was sentenced to 10 years of hard labor due to being captured by the enemy during World War II. Labor camp The Stalinist prison where Shukhov is imprisoned is designed to physically and mentally torture the prisoners. The living conditions in this prison are unbearable, the mattresses have no sheets, the prisoners eat only 200 grams of bread per meal, and the guards force the prisoners to take off their clothes for body searches in sub-zero temperatures.

One of the An important aspect of the Stalinist work camp that the novel describes is that the prisoners are condemned for activities that do not seem criminal to us. Although Shukhov does not think or talk about religion for most of the novel, his final conversation with the devout Baptist Alyosha suggests that faith can be a means of survival in the oppressive camp system there.

The fact that the camp It is a "special camp" designed to punish political prisoners, suggesting that the purpose of the camp was to align insurgents with the ideologies of the Soviet government. Shukhov says that from the outside, all the team members looked the same; They all had the same numbered black jackets, although there were big differences from each other. Since the prisoners are deprived of all material possessions and external signs of identity, maintaining strong principles and personal dignity becomes the means by which some characters survive in the camp and maintain their identity.

Shukhov passively. He does not accept this attempt to dehumanize him. He shows that the way to preserve human dignity is not through rebellion, but through the development of a personal belief system. In fact, the Soviet camp system may treat Shukhov like an animal, but he deftly fights back and refuses to give in.

In fact, although the prison camp system by its very nature seeks to destroy Berdan expresses feelings and actions based on morality, Shukhov and his other prisoners maintain their humanity through actions and small rituals; While eating, no matter how hungry Shukhov is, he insists on taking off his hat before eating, despite the extreme cold. This practice, left over from his upbringing, gives Shukhov the sense that he is behaving civilly. Overall, Solzhenitsyn shows through the character of Shukhov and his actions that humanity can survive even in the most difficult conditions. These values are highly ineffective. Belief and faith is another concept through which the characters survive the horrors of camp life, find meaning in their lives and maintain a sense of identity.

Solzhenitsyn, after the publication of this novel, He was accused of supporting non-Soviet ideological positions and was expelled from the Union of Soviet Writers.

In a part of the book "A Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich", we read:

"This new site is a wasteland and It is knee-deep in snow, and to begin with, the prisoners have to dig holes and build fences and wire around it to prevent their escape. After that, construction begins, and most importantly, they have no means of heating for a month, even They don't have as much heat as a dog's tulip. You can't even light a fire in that open space, if you can, where will you find fuel? The only way is to save and dig. The foreman went with a worried face to clarify this issue. Maybe send the slower group there? Of course, you can't solve the problem by hand, you have to bribe half a kilo and sometimes a kilo of blood fat to the chief delegate of affairs."

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