When it comes to the theater, some people like to see the play on stage and don't take time to read the play. But the only way to increase the imagination and strengthen the creative skills of actors, directors and theater art enthusiasts is to study different types of plays.
When it comes to the theater, some people like to see the play on stage and don't take time to read the play. But the only way to increase the imagination and strengthen the creative skills of actors, directors and theater art enthusiasts is to study different types of plays.
Teachers and experts believe that repeated study of plays written in the past centuries is an important and necessary part of learning and Elevating the subtleties of this art. According to them, after studying each play, a new window is opened for actors, directors, students and theater enthusiasts and they get to know different points of view and worldviews.
In this article, 19 classic plays are introduced for art lovers Theater, after studying them, get to know the worldview and artistic and philosophical views and subtleties of writing of the greats and founders of this art.
- 22 best contemporary plays in the world for theater lovers
1. The book "Cherry Garden"
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian society was about to undergo extensive changes. The families of tsars and nobles were no longer acceptable among the people, and the opposing youths were getting more united every day to get their rights. Finally, the widespread protests of the people in 1905 gave results and the rule of the tsars became a constitutional government. The class system of Russian society was transformed. The aristocracy was on the verge of collapse, the indentured and indentured slaves were freed after the 1860 contract and could progress. Also, a new generation of capitalists emerged who did not have aristocratic ancestors and had accumulated capital through hard work. The difference between this generation of capitalists and the aristocracy of the past was that they were always attached to the future and progress to make their past less pale. Unlike the new generation of capitalists, the aristocracy lived in the past and remembered the glory of the previous days. In this play, Anton Chekhov shows the Russian society of those years very well.
"Cherry Orchard" written by Anton Chekhov, the giant of Russian fiction and drama writing, is the life story of an aristocratic woman named Ranovsky. He inherited a large cherry orchard from his ancestors. Since the orchard is the only remaining asset of the Ranowski family, the cherry orchard will soon be sold by the bank to pay off their debts. But Mrs. Ranoski does not try to preserve her garden, although she considers it a family relic and a reminder of her childhood memories. Ranoski and his brother see the garden as a sign of their identity, but at the same time they are neutral about losing it and waiting for appreciation. Finally, the Cherry Orchard...
The play "Cherry Orchard" translated by Simin Daneshvar has been published by Qatre Publishing House.
In a part of the play "Cherry Orchard", we read:
Yasha: [to Lyubov Andreyuna] Lyubov Andreyuna, let me ask you something. If you go back to Paris, take me with you. Do not deny me this favor. Please take me with you. It is practically impossible for me to stay here any longer. [He looks around and says in a low voice.] What's the use of saying it, you see for yourself... It's a backward country, with people who don't care about morals, it's boring here, the food prepared in the kitchen is disgusting, besides Fierce, who roams everywhere and mumbles God knows what under his breath. I beg you, take me too."
Pishchik: My beauty, please dance a round with me... [Lyubo Andreyuna gets up to dance with him.] At the same time, my charming lady, I want to borrow you a hundred and eighty roubles... what I ask of you... [still dancing] is a hundred and eighty roubles.
[They enter the living room.]
Yasha: [Sings softly.] Do you understand the sufferings of my soul?
[In the living room a man in plaid pants, a gray bowler hat appears, waving his arms, jumping up and down and He shouts: Long live Charlotte Ivanova.]
Donyasha: [Stands to powder her face.] This young lady tells me to dance, there are many men and few women, but when I dance I I'm confused, my heart is pounding... And just a few moments ago, the postal worker Firs Niklaevich said something that took my breath away. From BingMag
2. Book "Dollhouse"
Beautiful young woman returns home with bags full of Christmas Eve shopping. She, who is cheerful and singing, in her own way pulls the husband out of his study. A conversation full of optimism about the future and life takes place between them. A cute wife sells and a cute husband buys. At this moment, everything shines and promises gives, but life is pregnant with events and soon it takes on another face.
"Doll's House", written by Henrik Ibsen, one of the world's greatest playwrights, is the story of a crude woman who suddenly sees a lot of marriage and a lie that takes her life. It opens the foundation. She sees that her husband, the father of her three children, is nothing more than a stranger who has always treated her like a child and his property. He finds out that his happiness was false and that he was not a free and equal person but a doll and his house was not a house but a dollhouse. This eye-opening makes him leave everything and step into the real world in search of the truth, himself and his values. .
In a part of the play "Doll's House", we read:
"Ms. Linde: Norajun, well, you just told me all your problems.
Nora: Puheh ... these minor things! (Slowly) The original work is still left.
Ms. Linde: The original work? What do you mean?
Nora: You look down on me, Cristina, but you shouldn't. You tell yourself that you have spent a lifetime for your mother.
Ms. Linde: I'm sure I'm not looking at anyone from above. But it's true; I am happy and proud when I see that I was able to do something so that my mother does not have to worry in the last days of her life.
Nora: You are also proud when you think about the hard work you did for your brothers.
Ms. Linde. : I think I'm right.
Nora: Yes, definitely. But let me tell you something, Christina. I also have something to be happy and proud of.
Ms. Linde: Well, of course. But what do you mean?
Nora: Hey! Do not speak loudly. Think, Torvald hear this! He shouldn't understand at all... No one should get a whiff of it, Cristina. Nothing but you.
Ms. Linde: Well, what is it now?
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"Macbeth" is one of the greatest tragedies in the world, written between 1600 and 1605 by William Shakespeare, an outstanding English poet and writer.
The story of Scotland's victory in the war against Norway due to Macbeth's bravery And the banco begins. On the way back, the two of them see three witches who give Macbeth the good news of the kingship and the kingdom of Cordo and strange news to Banquo that the kings will be from his generation but he will not sit on the throne.
Soon after the good news of the witches , a messenger from the king calls "Macbeth" a warlord, and apparently the witches' words are slowly coming true. Macbeth, like us, thinks that if the first good news happened, then I will be king one day. He shares this with his wife, Lady Macbeth. In the end, the two decide to kill the king and with a plan, they kill the king who was a guest of their house with the guard's dagger.
After the king's death, strange events happen in the city, which everyone considers sinister, unaware. Because this ominous thing is the death of Duncan, the king of their country. When the news of the king's murder is revealed, Duncan's sons, Macduff and Malcolm, flee in fear of their lives. With this, everyone becomes more suspicious of them and "Macbeth" takes advantage of this situation to sit on the throne. This is where the second good news of the witches to "Macbeth" comes true, and suddenly Macbeth remembers the good news given to Banquo and hires three murderers to kill Banquo's wife and child. In a cowardly fight, Benko is killed, but his son quickly escapes. "Macbeth" and his wife carry a heavy burden of torment during this time, but each of them endures this torment in their own way. Finally, this torment of conscience brings them great madness. Macbeth claims to see Banquo's ghost and his wife kills herself seeing his bloody hands. Duncan's sons enter the war with "Macbeth's" army and "Macbeth" is killed by Macduff despite his great resistance, and at the end of the reign, it returns to its original owner, Melkem.
The play "Macbeth" translated by Darius Ashuri It has been published by Age Publishing House.
In a part of the play "Macbeth", we read:
"Banquo: Now you are the king and the prince of Cawdor and the prince of Glamis to those women who were promised by the fortune teller. They were. You arrived; And I am afraid that you have done something ugly and impure to achieve your goal; But they said that the kingdom will not reach your children and I will be the origin and father of many kings. If, as their prophecies about you show, the truth that came out of their mouths, they have made some truths about you good. Why can't they be comforts for me and fill me with hope? Silent mother, that's enough!
Shabpoors - Macbeth dressed as a king and Lady Mackeith dressed as the queen of "Lennox" enter, led by elders and companions.
Macbeth: This most honored guest. Ours.
Lady Macbeth: If we had forgotten him, there would be a void in our glorious feast and everything would be ugly.
Macbeth: Tonight we will spread a glorious song and I wish for your presence as well.
Banko: As Shahyar orders; My obedience is forever bound to him by an unbroken thread.
Macbeth: Do you have a riding song today?
Banquo: Yes, my dear lord.
Macbeth : Otherwise, we would have benefited from your good and precious vote in today's council; But we will use it tomorrow. Are you going too far?
Banquo: Shahryara, far enough to occupy my time until the evening: if my horse is not so sharp. Must be from the night. I'll borrow one or two dark hours.
Macbeth: Don't forget our feast.
Banquo: Sir, I will not forget.
Macbeth: We have news. that our bloodthirsty cousins have fled to England and Ireland. They do not admit to their rampant patricide. But they surprise the hearts of their listeners with tricks. Tomorrow, when we deal with the important government plan. We will talk about this again and reveal everything. sit down early; Goodbye until you return at night. Will Fliance accompany you?
Banco: Yes, my dear server! Time is tight."
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4. Book The Shrewd Widow
"The Shrewd Widow" is the name of a three-act play by Carlo Goldoni, an Italian writer, who was born in Venice in 1707 and died in Paris 94 years later. Voltaire, one of the most famous French philosophers and writers of the Age of Enlightenment, called him the Moliere of Italy, and he should be considered the most important comedian of the Renaissance in Italy. The one who codified the traditions of the Masque Theater in the form of a play and whose radical reforms gave life to Commedia Dollarit. Until today and after 200 years of Goldoni's death, the big stages of the world theater have never been devoid of his works. Renaissance comedy prevails. This comedy is a platform for presenting Gouldoni's hidden wishes and putting forth his long-standing wish, which is the unification of Italy, as well as the departure of female roles from the stereotype of passive and waiting lovers.
Among the other characteristics of this text is the removal of the mask (which is always The default face has been the face of the actors of Commedia d'Alarte) and pointed out its promotion as a leading element in the dramatic narrative. Here, the mask is not a decorative smiley as usual, but a tool to convey the story and actually a technical trick. Goldoni staged this play for the first time in 1752 during the annual carnival of Venice. We read a part of the play "The Shrewd Widow":
"The lobby of an inn in Venice, with a round table in the middle, on which everything from candles and candlesticks to napkins and glasses are arranged. At the end of the scene is Pishkhan with some servants working behind him. Lord Ronnie Beef, Dan Elvardo, Kenneth Bosconero and Musiole Blau are on stage. Musiolet Blau sings a song in French and the others sing along to the song.
Monsieur: Friends always laugh and be happy.
Kent. : It is true and fair that the food of this inn doesn't speak for itself.
Monsieur: You Italians, Mr. Count, the taste of French food has not penetrated your tongue to know what Mahshar cooking means.
Kent: Sir, why not? There is no such definition. By the way, we have a French chef here.
Monsieur: Yes, I know him. However, these French chefs go from here to there when they are in the middle of Italy. I think they are like the Italians... When you taste their cooking, it has nothing to do with Parisian taste... with all these qualities, friends, the corpse of a French chef is worth a hundred Italian chefs....
Lord: You French have the illusion of being the best. Gentlemen, leave these French people alone, they summarize the whole world in Paris. I myself am a genuine Englishman. Has anyone ever heard me talk about London? It's musk that you smell yourself, my friend.
Dan: Whenever Moussule Blau talks about Paris, I laugh...Madrid, ladies and gentlemen, is the bride of the world's cities. did you say Look how far the fame of Madrid has not gone.
Kent: My friends, this is being told by an authentic Italian. Wherever you are, wherever your heart is... When you have money in your pocket and happiness in your heart, wherever you are is paradise. Lord: Well done. Long live happiness...
Monsieur: After an elaborate dinner, there is nothing better than catching up with Safa friends. It was a very romantic night. I say there's nothing left until dawn, it's not bad to stay a little longer and chat again... I suggest we talk about that beautiful widow we met at night during the Eftir carnival. Do you agree?
Laird: She was a very dignified and modest woman.
Dan: She was charming and attractive."
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5. Book "Phoenician Women"
The play "Phoenician Women" is by Euripides, an ancient Greek playwright and poet. He is one of the three important tragedians of the golden age of Greek drama, whose old and new critics consider him to be a tradition-breaking, innovative and unconventional dramatist. He was born in one of the years of the 480s BC in the eastern part of Athens. There is little information about his life. His first play was staged a year after Aeschylus' death in 455 BC and he won third place. He achieved his first victory in 441 BC. It is said that he wrote more than 90 plays, but nineteen of his plays are available.
This play, with its well-known and diverse characters such as Oedipus, Jocaste, Antigne, Crean, Tiresias, Polonyx, Eteocles and Menuseos, is one of It is the most characteristic and complex of Euripides' plays. The Phoenician Women, first staged around 409 BC, tells the tragic history of the Laius family after the tragic fall of Oedipus, king of Thebes. In this experimental play, which has a more or less episodic structure, by moving away from the closed form of dramaturgy, Euripides wants to create an enchanting panoramic image of the city of Thebes.
In a part of the play "Phoenician Women", we read:
"The royal palace of Thebes, a building with two ashcoops, on the right side of this building is an altar with the last signs of smoke from burning The victims can be seen from its center. On the left side of it is a figure of Apollo. The palace doors open and Jocasta, who is very tired, walks out slowly with the help of a crutch. He wears a black dress and has short hair. He makes hair. This is where you sent down that evil ray; Cadmus, who married Harmonia, the daughter of Eroditus, and had a son named Polydros, and it is said that he himself had a son named Labdacus, who was the father of Laius. Now they call me the daughter of Menuseus; On my mother's side, Creon is my brother, my father named me Jocaste, and Shwem is Laius. Laius, who was still childless long after his marriage, begged the door of Phoebus-Apollo to give the family a son. But that God said: O ruler of Thebes and his horses, do not scatter eggs in that furrow against the will of the gods. Because if you have a child, it will destroy all those you raise, and your family will pass through blood. He realized what he had done at the door of the gods, so he handed the baby over to a shepherd and told him to sew his ankles together with long golden nails and leave him helpless in Hera's fields on Mount Kitron. Then the horse trainers of Polybus found the child and took him to their house and gave him to his wife. He pressed the child that I was born with pain and suffering to his chest and asked Shuish to let him raise that baby. My young son, when he had a red beard on his face and had heard or suspected the truth, went to the temple of Phobos-Apollo. to find out who his parents are. Livius, who became the father of my son, also went to see God to ask him if the child he had abandoned was still alive. They met each other in Phocis over a two-way street. The book "Euripides (Five Plays)"
None of the ancient Greek dramatists has as much to say to the modern reader as "Euripides". The main themes of his works: the oppression of women, the cruelty and futility of war, the helplessness and vulgarity of the conquerors, the conflict between freedom and order, faith and reason, dogmatic rules and reality, still occupy today's people. His plays remind us what it means to be human.
Aristotle called him the most tragic dramatist and others called him the first poet of democracy. Euripides was a tradition-breaking artist. He kept the core of the myth, but went his own way in the narration of the story and the processing of the characters.
The time of "Euripides" with the appearance of philosophers such as Socrates and Protagoras created a great leap in Greek culture and this transformation in its art. Time was reflected especially in the tragedies of Euripides. He was a skeptical thinker, he had an inquisitive mind and was not satisfied with conventional answers.
He doubted and criticized many of the beliefs of the people of his time, and for this reason, he was not very popular among his contemporaries. His greatness in the fourth century B.C. It became known and once again came into focus in the 20th century. The dramatists of Rome, including the most famous of them, Seneca, considered Euripides as their teacher and guide, and his legacy passed through him to The playwrights of the Renaissance era arrived.
In this collection, five plays, which are undoubtedly among his greatest achievements, have been collected. Each of these plays shows us an aspect of the thinking and human concerns of this great poet, and in all of them we get to know a poet who has elevated the language of poetry to an unattainable peak.
The book "Euripides (five The play)" translated by Abdullah Kothari was published by Ney Publishing.
In a part of the book "Euripides (Five Plays)" we read:
"Electra: Dariga Man, Dariga
Saddle, then, in which gathering shall I join, to clapping my feet and hands
Which wedding song will sing to my happiness
And which man will welcome me in the marriage bed?
Wives: It's amazing that you have softened your heart now
It's as if the wind has changed your mood
Peace, pity that this bright voice and this kind soul
You should have stopped a while ago because you didn't know and ran away from it
And you provoked this brother to do something so horrible
that he himself had no opinion or support for it.
Orestes: You saw how she bared her breast, then my blade passed over you. When you heard her cry, the cry of the mother who gave birth to you. p>
Orestes: put his hand on my cheek
And when he hung around my neck
he moaned: Oh, my son
And my hand became weak and the blade
released from my claw, fell He fell.
Wives: What a poor woman she was
And how did you endure
Looking at the blood that came out of her veins.
That your mother was the one who died
Right before your eyes.
Orestes: I put my cloak on my head and covered my eyes
And that blade stuck to the throat My mother drove me
Elektra: And I was the one who sharpened the fire of your anger.
And my hand was on that blade, next to your hand.
The housewives : What an ugly deed, what a horrible deed
This is what you did
And Yara did not say a word about it.
Orestes: Cover it up
Cover this wounded body with a proper garment
Cover the mother who was killed by the blade of her children."
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7. Book "Aeschylus/collection of works"
Two thousand and five hundred years have passed since the birth of tragedy, and it is not an exaggeration to say that these magnificent writings from the Renaissance onwards are the main sources of Western literature and inspire many There have been poets, writers and other artists from all over the world.
"Aeschylus" is called the father of tragedy, because he is the first poet who evolved this artistic form with his innovations, both in the treatment of themes and characters and in the way the play is performed on stage. .
The theme of Aeschylus's plays is based more than anything on the relationship between man and the gods. Many ancient human questions are raised in these writings: to what extent is a person responsible for his actions and to what extent is he condemned by the gods? What happens when the will and desire of a person conflicts with the will of the gods? What does the justice of the gods mean? And where does the destiny of a person lead when he starts to rebel against the power of many?
In addition to this, Aeschylus has reflected the important events of his time in his plays. Seven surviving plays of Aeschylus are included in this book.
The book "Aeschylus/collection of works" translated by Abdullah Kothari was published by Nei Publishing House.
In a part of the book "Aeschylus/collection of works" we read:
"Klotmansara: Woe to me, woe to me
that nothing can stop the long-standing curse of this lineage.
Darygha, the one who I hid it so much.
I thought it was easy to bite.
Suddenly it was shot from a distance.
Woe to me that the days of all my lovers ended like this
And now Orestes, who walked wisely on his way
And kept his feet away from this poisonous swamp of hate.
It is as if there was a writing on the wind that could not be seen before.
Orestes: I wish that this house is glorious, that the seal of the gods is with it
Me He knew the good news and said welcome
that better than any bond is the bond between guest and host.
But what should I do
to disobey a friend I don't like it
and breaking a promise I didn't know Zavar.
Klotmnestra: No one blames you for our sadness.
And this news you brought will not diminish our friendship.
This news, if you If you didn't bring it, someone else would leave it
and this would have brought us to the same end.
But now it is time for our guests who come from a long way
to go to the dormitory and come and let this man and his friends go to our guest house so that they can wash off the dust of the road and get rid of fatigue. I am going myself to ask our Lord about this calamity and to call my friends to consult about this incident. Our mover can help Orestes in this hour
and you are undoubtedly lovers of this ancient lineage."
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8. Book "Trojan Women and Twistes"
The name of Lucius Anaius Seneca is known as a Stoic orator and philosopher. But Seneca was also one of the greatest playwrights of ancient Rome, and his works deserve more attention both because of their quality and because of their place in the history of western tragedy.
Seneca borrowed the theme of his plays from Greek mythology. and all of his plays, except for "Toestes", retell stories that we have already read in the works of Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides. But among these three people, Seneca paid more attention to Euripides and most of his tragedies are taken from the works of Euripides.
Seneca brought Greek tragedy to earth and gave his characters a completely human face and wrote magnificent and eloquent poetry in The narration of these enduring human tragedies was used. The theme of his works is above all love, hate and revenge, and he acts much more carelessly than the Greeks in describing the horrifying scenes.
There is no doubt about the importance of Seneca's influence on the Renaissance and post-Renaissance dramatists. He inspired the playwrights of the Elizabethan era and thus established a link between the two important periods of tragedy and playwriting in the West, and for this reason he is considered a lasting figure in the history of this art.
"Trojan Women" is a sad story of suffering that From the defeat of Troy and its destruction came upon the women of Troy. This work is undoubtedly Seneca's best tragedy. According to J. W. Duff, in no other work has he been able to compete so closely with the original Greek text. The virtuous women of Hecuba, Andromache and Polyxena maintain their dignity and courage in the face of death. Seneca has given these characters a stoic attitude, but this stoic attitude appears more natural here than in his other tragedies. Hecuba is proud of the fact that death finds everyone and ignores her. Andromache would have joined Hector before if he wasn't worried about the child, and Polyxena recklessly goes to death and blames death on marriage to Porus, whom Helen falsely He promised him, he prefers.
"Toustes" the painful and haunting story of Toestes is a part of the story of the royal family of Tantalus. It can be said with certainty that there is no more criminal family in Greek mythology than the descendants of Tantalus. The foundation of this lineage is based on infanticide and kinicide. The great ancestor of this lineage, Tantalus, killed his own son Pelops and cooked food for the gods from his son's flesh. The gods found out about this abomination and cursed him and gave Tantalus a reward that is mentioned in the same play. Then the gods resurrected Pelops and he reigned for a long time.
The book "Trojan Women and Tuestes" translated by Abdullah Kothari was published by Nei Publishing House.
In a part of We read the book "Trojan Women and Tuestes":
"Ulysses: by what sign are we to believe that these words are true?
Andromache: Oh, may the most terrible wrath of the conquerors fall on me
And he killed me with an effective blow
May I return to the soil of my homeland
And the weight of this soil may be light on the bones of my Hector
And this is how it is, I swear that my son is long dead and has no benefit from light
He is sleeping among the dead and has been buried in a grave
Also, according to the ritual that is allowed on other dead people.
Ulysses: Now that Hector's son is dead, the truth that all fortunes have been fulfilled and I will happily rush to the Greeks and bring the good news
that peace has finally come to safety.
Han Ulysses, tarry, what premature happiness this is
The Greeks will take your word easy
But what do you believe yourself? By the boy's mother ."
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9. The book of Antigone p> "Antigone" by Sophocles, the great ancient Greek playwright, has been considered as a psychological and love tragedy. Is this tragedy a study in the psychology of one or more "psychic" humans or lovers? It has been said that there are many signs in Antigone's personality that are the reason for her abnormality. Antigone hates her uncle, Creon. Apparently, he breaks up with him to follow the ancient holy principles, but this is just an excuse; Under this cover, the struggle of two incompatible characters can be seen. Antigone's relationship with her fiance Hymon, Creon's son, seems strange. Perhaps she hates the son because of the father.
Antigone, the rebellious daughter of Oedipus and Jocasta, is an unconventional heroine who is bloodthirsty and turns her opinions against the king of Thebes so much that few of her injuries They remain immune. Stubborn and determined but in the torment to which she is condemned, "Antigone" portrays her inner strength everywhere in this story.
"Antigone" is a true hero. He stands up for what he believes in, but with a posture It is ambiguous and difficult. Human law and the king's word require that his brother's body not be buried in the open air and exposed to wild animals without any funeral rights. For King Creon, this is symbolic justice for a traitor and a rebel, but God's laws and Antigone's mental judgment demand that she give her brother the death that all men deserve. "Antigone" buries the body and faces the consequences of this crime.
The book "Antigone" translated by Najaf Daryabandari was published by Age Publishing House.
In a part of the book "Antigone" we read:
"Watchman: their dirty hands? Miss. You can be a little polite... I'm polite myself.
Antigone: Tell them to shut up. I am the daughter of Oedipus. I am Antigone. I will not run away.
Guardian: Yes, daughter of Oedipus! Prostitutes who collect them on night patrols say that they are the companions of the city police chief! The guards laugh.
Antigone: I'm ready to die, but don't touch them.
Guard: Tell me, what about the corpses, what about the dirt, aren't you afraid to touch them? Take a look at your own hands, you say.
Antigone looks at her handcuffed hands with a smile. His hands are full of dirt.
Guard: Did they take your shovel from you? Did you have to do this with your nails a second time? What a brave person! I will turn my head for a moment and ask you for a piece of tobacco. As soon as I put them in my mouth. While I was thanking you, he was scratching the floor like a baby hyena. In broad daylight! Just when I was arresting him, this bastard was struggling and wanted to climb over me! He was yelling and telling me to let him finish his work... What a crazy person
Second guard: Once, I also arrested another one of these crazy people. He was showing his subordinates to the people.
Guard: Bodus, tell me if we want three people to give a basic attack. Where should we go to celebrate?
Second guard: Let's go to Tordo restaurant, the red wine is delicious.
Third guard: Sunday is closed. Should we take our wives?
Guard: No, Dad, we have a lot of jokes between ourselves... If they are adulterers, they talk behind our backs. Apart from that, our children are also peeing. Bodus, tell me, did you think an hour ago that we would have such a desire to joke? .
Third guard: Flanshar from the third company, when he arrested the arsonist last month, his salary was doubled.
Second guard: Are you serious? If our salary is doubled, I say we should go to Tordo restaurant instead of Qasr Arab.
Guard: To drink? Are you not happy? In Qasr Arab, they give you twice the price of each bottle. For fun, okay, let's go. Listen to what I'm saying: first we'll go and warm our heads..."
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10. Book "Baris Gadonov"
The play "Baris Gadonov" is written by Alexander Pushkin, who is rightfully known as the father of the Russian literary language. The writings of this great writer at the beginning of the 19th century, when the Russian literary language was in a state of crisis and instability, not only made it stable and survived, but also brought it to the height of beauty and eloquence.
Pushkin in all literary genres. Rajih Zaman has created works that are considered masterpieces in their own way. His short poems, verse novels, short stories and plays are among the best examples of these artistic forms in Russian literature. They have a special place. His knowledge of theater was very deep and professional. His theatrical legacy is not so much in terms of numbers. The thought of reforming the Russian theater was in his head since he wrote the play "Baris Gadonov". In this work, Pushkin sought to return the theater from an aristocratic art for the nobility to its initial form (popular performances in the public squares of the city). The representation of art chooses what is known as the period of chaos. Boris Godunov, the Tsar of Russia, who has ascended the throne with the cowardly murder of the young crown prince, must on the one hand stand up against foreign enemies and open and hidden opponents around him, and on the other hand, must overcome the torment of conscience caused by his cowardly act.
The main issue is whether or not the tsar can find legitimacy with the people despite such a stain on his lap. Based on real events at a critical moment in Russian history, Pushkin created a work that was very important in the revival and growth of modern Russian theater. In this play, he abandoned many of the dramatic principles and rules accepted at that time and tried to give a new direction to Russian playwriting and theater.
In a part of the play "Baris Godunov", we read:
"Varatinsky: We had the duty to find out about the situation in the city together, but Apparently, there is nothing to monitor. Moscow is empty. All the people have gone to the monastery behind the bottle. What do you think, where does this chaos end?
Shuisky: Where does it end? It's not too hard to understand: people still cry a little and shed tears, Baris still slurps a little like a drunkard sitting in front of a glass of wine, and finally graciously agrees to wear the crown. And then... and then he will rule over us as before.
Varatinsky: But now a month has passed since he sat with his sister in the corner of the monastery and seemed to have turned his back on the world. Neither the official nor the representatives of the nobles have been able to soften him. He doesn't pay attention to tearful and wailing instructions, nor to the pleas and appeals of Moscow, nor to the opinion of the "Great Council". They begged his sister in vain to put Baris on the throne. The pious and grieving queen is as stubborn and inflexible as Baris himself. Baris himself must have instilled this spirit in him. What if the ruler is really fed up with the troubles of running a country and does not sit on the throne without a master? What do you think?
Shuisky: I think that the blood of the young crown prince was wasted on the ground. That means Dimitri could still be alive.
Varatinsky: What a horrible crime. I don't know, was it really Baris who destroyed the crown prince?
Shuisky: Who else could have done it? Who pulls Cheppogoff in vain? Who sent both Bitigovskys - father and son - with Kachalov? I was sent to Uglich to investigate the matter on the spot, when I got there the signs were still fresh. All the people of the city witnessed the crime. In return, I could have disgraced the criminal with just one word.
Varatinsky: So why didn't you destroy him?
Shuisky: I confess that at that time he calmed my mind with his calmness and His unexpected rudeness disturbed me. Haqbehan was staring into my eyes, asking questions, asking about details, and I repeated in his presence the same stupid words that he had read in my ears."
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11. "Wedding Book"
"The Wedding" is a play written by Nikolai Gogol, who was born in the village of Balshie Sarochintsy in Ukraine. After finishing high school, he went to Petersburg and hoped to get a job as a baker, but this city did not fulfill this hope. Instead, he met Iqbal in the field of literature. The collection of stories of Nights in the town near Dikanka aroused Pushkin's admiration. His later collection of stories titled "Mirgorod" and "Stories of Petersbogi" established his reputation as one of the greatest Russian writers, and many of the stories in these collections are considered masterpieces of the art of story writing. Gogol also paid attention to playwriting. He wrote the play "Arusi" in 1835, which narrates the life and atmosphere of aristocratic and landed families.
The play "Arusi" translated by Abtin Golkar was published by Hermes Publishing House.
In part of the play "The Wedding" we read:
"Scene 1/Podcalyocin alone (Podcalyocin, alone, with a pipe in his mouth, is lying on the sofa.)
Good When you think alone, regardless of everything, you see that you really have to get married. What does it really mean? Hey, live, live, eventually you'll get sick of yourself. Now I have returned to the month of fasting. While apparently everything is ready, this marriage broker has been coming and going for three months. To be honest, I am starting to feel ashamed. Hey Stepan.
Scene 2/Podkaliosin, Stepan:
Podkaliosin: Didn't this marriage broker come?
Stepan: No sir.
Podkalyosin: Too many stitches?
Stepan: Not bad. Now he's busy with gems.
Podkalyosin: What did you say?
Stepan: I say he's busy with gems.
Podkalyosyn: Don't ask what your master wants Fark for?>
Stepan: No, don't ask.
Podkaliosin: Didn't he say that your master is dreaming of marriage?
Stepan: No, he didn't say anything.
Podkaliosin: But You must have seen other frocks there. He probably sews coats for others.
Stepan: Yes, there are a lot of coats there.
Podkaliosin: But their fabric is probably not as good as mine.
Stepan : Yes, your fabric is more visible.
Podkaliosin: What did you say?
Stepan: I say your fabric is more visible.
Podkaliosin: Well, But don't ask why your master sews such a thin coat from Mahout?
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12. Book "room number 6"
The play "Room No. 6" by Anton Chekhov is a prominent Russian story writer who created more than 700 works. He, who wrote brilliant plays, is always known as the greatest dramatist in history after William Shakespeare. He narrates five patients who are in hospital room number 6 and only one of them is from the privileged class and the rest are professionals and businessmen. On one of the early spring days when there was heavy snow, two old bodies were found in the pit next to the cemetery. One of them is the body of an old woman and the other is the body of a child, which shows signs of unnatural death. The rumor of the discovery of these two bodies and the existence of an unknown killer is spreading in the city and...
The play "Room No. 6" translated by Ebtin Golkar has been published by Hermes Publishing.
In a part of We read the play "Room No. 6":
"In the yard of the hospital, there is a small shack surrounded by a mass of hollyhocks, nettles, and wild hemp. Its gable is rusted, half its gutters have fallen, the porch steps are rotten and covered with moss, and only a shadow of the plasterwork remains. Its front view is facing the hospital and the back view is facing the plain where the hospital's hedge is nailed, it has the same boring and cursed look that can only be found in the buildings of our hospitals and prisons.
If Don't be afraid of stinging nettles, let's go through the narrow path that ends in the hood and see what's going on inside. When we open the door, we enter the hall. Here, next to the wall and near the heaters, there is a mountain of hospital scraps. The mattress, tattered old robes, underwear, shirts with blue stripes, worn-out shoes that don't hurt anything, all this junk is piled up, messy and messy, rotting and the smell is suffocating.
On this ragged heap lay the sentinel Nikita, who always had a pipe in his teeth, an old retired soldier whose colors and marks had faded from his military uniform. He has a stern and sullen face, overhanging eyebrows that make his face look like a herding dog, and a red nose. He is not tall, he looks thin and his veins are protruding, but he has an attractive appearance and his fists are firm. He is one of those simple-hearted, kind-hearted, dutiful and childlike people who love order in the world more than anything else, and that's why they believe that they should be beaten."
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13. Book Richard III
The play "Richard III" by William Shakespeare, an English poet and playwright, written in 1592-3, tells the story of the rise and fall of the hated king. But Shakespeare depicted the face of this man with an ugly face and ugly character in such a way that his presence on the stage pushes all other characters to the sidelines. This merciless monster, who does not turn away from any lies, tricks or crimes on the way to the throne of England, penetrates to the depths of his victims with a devilish intelligence and a penetrating look, and targets the lust of one or the other's weak mind. This is why it easily deceives everyone and finally leads to destruction. But his desire for extravagance and his boundless pride will eventually lead him to scandal and ruin.
The play "Richard III" translated by Abdullah Kothari has been published by Nei Publishing House.
In a part of the play " Richard III" we read:
"Act I, Scene I
London, around the Tower of London
Richard, Duke of Gloucester enters. Monologue
Richard: Lately our unhappy winter
In the light of this sun, York has turned into a glorious summer
And dark clouds hang over our family
They have sunk into the depths of the ocean.
And our worn-out weapons are hung on the wall as a memorial.
Our relentless bloodshed to happy meetings
And our horrifying army to a rhythmic dance. He has paid his place.
Jang Dezhem Sima Azhang has opened his forehead
And he no longer sits on a stallion wearing a coat.
So that the enemy's body trembles.
Bell harmonizes with the pleasant sound of oud
He rushes to the women's dormitory. Not what I would say in my own mirror. ,
I, who was given to his body from above
and open to the temptation of this nature
crooked and unfinished and untimely repulsed
Half-built I have fallen into this house of sepanch,
I am so clumsy and abnormal
When I pass by the dogs limping, they fall down,
Once, in this luxury of peace, which is worth the innovation of the reeds
Such a happy memory I don't have time to waste
and I have nothing else to do but watch my shadow in the sun
and look at my curvy body.
So, Now that I don't deserve to be in love
so that I can be happy in the assembly of these days
I am determined to put an end to the evil
and seek disgust from the idle lord of these days.
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14. Book "Othello"
Why is the tragedy of "Othello" so alive after so many years? The reason is that Shakespeare, without emphasizing it, has placed the knot of events in a place that contains the point of disaster. It begins with passion and love and ends with jealous rage and violent deaths. "Othello" and Desdemona are so different - differences in race, age, origin and culture - that the disastrous end of their marriage should not be far from expected, but it seems that the love between them is strong enough to overcome all the differences. destroy But the story goes differently. Iago's words and actions mess everything up. Iago hates Othello and decided to destroy him by destroying Othello's love for Desdemona.
The play "Othello" translated by M. A. Beh Azin has been published by Nash Dat.
In a part of the play "Othello" we read:
"Second scene/Another alley. Othello, Iago, with some servants come in with torches in hand.
Iago: Although I have killed people due to my profession of war, I know that a man's conscience abhors the shedding of intentional blood. I am not even malignant enough to sometimes want to make things easy for myself. Nine times, ten times, I was tempted to cut his side with a sword.
Othello: It's better that he was.
Iago: After all, he wouldn't hold his tongue and cursed like that. Ugly and infuriating, he said about Hazrat Ajal that I could hardly refrain from the little abstinence that I know in myself. But, sir, are you really married? What, you can be sure that this nobleman is very popular here and even his words are valued twice more than the words of the ruler. He can force you to divorce, or he can provide any problems and disturbances that the law allows him in your work, and with the power he has in his hand, he can increase the pressure of the law on you again.
Othello. : Let his anger resort to anything. The services I have rendered to this government will drown out his cries of complaint as soon as he speaks. And what no one knows yet, but when I know that boasting is another honor on my part, I will make it clear, is that my existence originates from those who have laid claim to the royal throne. Therefore, I have the merit to be able to claim a position as high as what I have reached here. And you, Iago, know that if it weren't for the love of sweet Desdemona, I wouldn't exchange my freedom and lightness for the restraint and commitment of marriage for all the treasures of the sea. But, look, what are these flames that come from the other side?
Iago: It is his father who has awakened him, and those others are his friends. It's better for you to go home. The book "King Lear"
"King Lear", a famous and tragic play written by William Shakespeare, the greatest playwright in history, tells the story of a king who plans to divide the land under his rule between his daughters.
"King Lear" has three daughters named Goneril, Regan and Cordelia. Just like Fereydon, the great Iranian legend, whose sons are named Selam and Tor Bad, and whose youngest son Iraj is Niknahad, Goneril and Regan are the two eldest daughters of King Lear, and Cordelia is his youngest daughter Niknahad.
The author of "King Lear" and introduces him as an idealistic and good-natured but ignorant king. In this work, Lear appears as an ignorant clown, while the clown is more realistic than the king.
He divides his land among his three daughters and keeps only the name of the kingdom for himself. This is where his ignorance is revealed. The flattery and self-sweetness of Lear's two eldest daughters deceives him, but the freedom of Cordelia, who honestly expresses her true love, infuriates Lear.
The play "King Lear" translated by M. A. Beh Azin has been published by Nash Dat.
In a part of the play "King Lear", we read:
Gloucester: Are you sure it is your brother's handwriting?
Edmund : If the contents of it were agreeable, I would boldly swear that it was by him, but now, considering its content, I do not know it by him.
Gloucester: Is it his handwriting?
Edmund: It is his handwriting, my lord, but I hope his heart will not agree with his words.
Gloucester: He never spoke to you about it before?
Edmund: Never, my lord. But I have heard him many times that he believes that when the sons are fully matured and the fathers become profligate, it is right for the father to become the guardian of the son and entrust him with the management of his income.
Gloucester: You scoundrel! O scoundrel! This letter contains the same opinion. O hateful scoundrel! O evil-natured and cursed scoundrel! Worse than the scoundrels! Go, my son, find him, I will tie him up. O reprehensible scoundrel! Where is he?
Edmund: I do not know, my lord. But if you think it is good, until you have obtained a clearer proof of his intention, Kazem Ghaiz Say and act firmly; What, if you are rude to him by mistake and due to misunderstanding, your honor will be lost and his obedient heart will be broken. I am willing to bet on my life that his intention in writing this letter was only to test my love and affection for His Highness and there is no sinister intention.
Gloucester: Do you think so?
Edmund: If His Highness sees fit, I will hide you in a corner so that you can hear our conversations about this personally and by listening to it, your honor will be satisfied. I will do this without any hesitation this evening."
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16. The book "Hamlet"<"Hamlet" is perhaps William Shakespeare's most important play. In this work, he narrates the story of "Hamlet", a Danish prince who is kind, humble, well mannered, brave and scholarly. He cannot be deceived. He hates lies and hypocrisy. The only drawback is doubt. He knows that he has been betrayed and he must take revenge, but hesitance torments his soul.
Hamlet's character changes. He is a perfectionist. He knows his father as a perfect human being and a fair king. "Gertrude", his mother, is an honorable, selfless and family-loving person, but little by little, adventures happen that show other dimensions of life to Hamlet. The astonishment and disbelief of his father's death, his mother's remarriage, and his uncle Claudius's unjust ascension to the throne is a fatal pain for Hamlet. The main character of the play gets confused, he turns away from everything, even Ophelia, his lover, and as a result, he loses his way of life. This is where the characteristics of "Hamlet" are revealed and make his fate eternal.
The play "Hamlet" translated by M. A. Beh Azin has been published by Nashr.Dat.
In a part of the play "Hamlet" we read:
"Act II/Scene I/A room in the house of Polonius; Enter Polonius and Renaldo.
Polonbus: Renaldo, give him this money and these letters.
Renaldo: To the eye, my lord.
Polonius : But, Renaldo, it is wiser to inquire into his behavior than to meet him.
RENALDO: My Lord, that was my intention.
POLONIUS: Ah, well. You said, you said very well, look, sir, first investigate what the Danes in Paris are like, who they are, what they are, what their income is, where they live, with whom they sit down and get up, what they spend; Since you realized that they know my son with these introductions and these embeddings, get closer to your goal and pretend that you know him from afar. For example, say: I know his father, his friends, and to some extent himself. Do you understand what I say, Renaldo?
RENALDO: Yes, very well, my lord.
POLONIUS: To some extent himself; Although, you can also say, not so much, but if it is what I think, it is very young, arbitrary, it has this or that defect; And then attribute any fakes you like to him; Oh, but not the nasty things that stain his honour, mind you, sir, but those common slips and vagaries which we well know accompany youth and freedom.''
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17. The book "The Merchant of Venice"
The Merchant of Venice, a comedy written by William Shakespeare, the most famous playwright in history, is a fictional and simple story that is created by combining two main stories and two secondary stories. One of the two main stories concerns a loan that a "Venetian merchant" takes from a Jew to help his friend, Bessanio, and arrange his courtship and wedding with a rich girl named Portia, in return for which he gives him a document that if If it is not possible to pay it within the prescribed period, the creditor will give him some of his body flesh from any part he wants as a penalty. Because by accident, the debtor merchant is unable to pay his debt on time, so he goes to court, where Antonio is saved by Portia and Shylock is condemned.
The other main story is related to the three chests of gold and silver. And it is a lead that Portia's father left for his daughter and bequeathed that his daughter is allowed to marry anyone who chooses the right box. All the suitors are wrong except Bassanio, who was the favorite of this girl.
The play "The Merchant of Venice" translated by Aladdin Pazargadi was published by Scientific and Cultural Publishing House.
In a part of the play " "Merchant of Venice" we read:
"Portia: Truly, Nercia, my thin body is tired of this wide world.
Nercia: Dear lady, if your sufferings were as abundant as your happiness. It was like that. As far as I can tell, those who are over-prospered suffer as much as those who are in famine. Therefore, being in an average position should not be considered a humble happiness. Those who are in excess of blessings reach old age sooner. But the people who only enjoy enough blessings live longer.
Portia: These are thoughtful words and they were well spoken.
Nercia: But it would be better if it was followed.
Portia: If doing what is good, it would be easy to recognize the good, the altar became a church and The huts of the poor were transformed into palaces of princes. The ascetic who follows his words is a good man. I can easily teach twenty people what goodness is. But I can't be one of those twenty people who follow my word as easily. The brain can make rules about blood, but someone who is quick-tempered and hot will set aside these cold rules. The madness of youth is like a rabbit that runs away from the wires of good advice, but this argument is not the way to show me how to choose a husband. Oh this word choice. I can neither choose the one I want nor reject the one I hate. The will of a living daughter is thus restricted by the will of a deceased father. Nercia, isn't it unfortunate that I can't choose one and discard the other?"
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18. The book "Romeo and Juliet"
William Shakespeare in the romantic and tragic play "Romeo and Juliet" which he wrote in 1597 narrates the passionate love of two teenagers in a world full of violence and conflict between generations. The families of Romeo and Juliet are not only against this love, but they fight each other and try to kill a member of each other's family in the streets of Verona. Every time a member of these two families is killed, his relatives somehow try to avenge his bloodshed from the killer. Because of this enmity, if Romeo's family sees him with Juliet, they will surely kill him. When Romeo is sent into exile, it seems the only way Juliet can avoid marrying someone else is to end her own life. As if in the violent and bloody world of this work, lovers can only meet each other after death.
The play "Romeo and Juliet" translated by Abolhassan Tahami has been published by Negh Publishing House.
In a part of the play "Romeo and Juliet", we read:
"The two servants of the Capulet family, Sampson and Gregory, talk to each other about the superiority of their family over the Montague family, when two members of the Montague family, Abraham and Balthazar, They are approaching. The prince of Verona has forbidden the conflict between these two families, and any one of them who initiates the conflict will be severely punished. So Sampson decides to provoke Abraham into starting a fight. He bites his thumb at Abraham, a gesture that is considered very disrespectful to Abraham.
But when Abraham asks why, Sampson says that he did not mean to disrespect Abraham. Abraham notices his mischief and starts a fight. Gradually, the number of people in both families increases and the conflict increases. Enter Capulet, Lady Capulet, Montague, and Lady Montague. Capulet and Montague also want to join the conflict. The prince approaches and shouts angrily: O rebels! O enemies of peace! O those whose fire cannot be extinguished. Put down your weapon and listen to your prince. The conflict between you has taken the peace from our streets. So whoever causes a conflict will be sentenced to death. Capulet, come with me now, and you, Montague, come to me in the afternoon.
All disperse except Montague, Lady Montague, and Benvolio. Montague first asks how the conflict started. He then says that he hasn't seen his son Romeo for a while and asks Benvolio if he knows about him.
Benvolio: He was wandering in the sycamore grove. When I walked up to him, he moved into the thicket until he was out of sight. When I saw that he was satisfied with his solitude, I stopped looking for him.
Montague: Even when he is at home, he locks himself in his dark room. I want you to follow him to get rid of him to help us.
Romeo joins them and Montague and Lady Montague leave. R. Meo wants to discuss something with Benvolio. He tells of his love to a girl who does not love him. The book "Julius Caesar"
"Julius Caesar" is a play written by William Shakespeare. The play opens with a feast, in which the common people of Rome celebrate Julius Caesar's triumphant return from defeating the sons of his military rival, Pompey. The tribunes, insulting the people for switching their allegiance from Pompey to Caesar, try to end the festivities and destroy the commoners, who return the insults. At the Lupercal festival, Caesar holds a victory parade and is warned by a soothsayer to "beware the positions of March", which he ignores. Meanwhile, Cassius tries to convince Brutus to join his plot to kill Caesar. Although Brutus, who is a close friend of Caesar, hesitates to kill him, he Agree that Caesar is abusing his power. They then hear from Casca that Mark Antony has offered Caesar the crown of Rome three times. Casca tells them that each time Caesar has refused more reluctantly. He hopes that the audience will insist on accepting the crown...
The play "Julius Caesar" translated by Abolhasan Tahami has been published by Negh Publishing House.
In a part of the play "Julius Caesar" we read: Flavius: Go home. Bodybuilding creatures. Go home.
Is it a holiday today? Don't you know if it is not permissible for tradesmen to travel somewhere during their working days without the sign of their trade? Tell me. What's your occupation?
Citizen I: I, Sir, greetings.
Marolelus: Where is the leather apron and the line?
What are you doing here with your cleanest clothes?
Sir, what is your profession?
Shergan II: To tell the truth, Sir, compared to the noble profession, I am nothing but... the same noble profession.
Marolelus: But What is your profession? Answer directly!
Shahregan II: A professional server whom I would gladly hire. It's nothing but a repairer of the souls of bad, bad clogs.
Marolelus: Say his name, man, talkative man, tell me what your profession is.
Second Citizen: No, please don't break your nerves with anger. . Because I can only sew that other thing of yours if it tears.
Marvellus: What else will you sew me if it tears? What do you mean by this statement, Mardek Daghel?"
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