On the eve of the 40th Fajr Film Festival, we have looked at the first to tenth periods of this cinematic event to see What happened in the most important gathering of Iranian cinema during the 1360s.
This year, the Fajr Film Festival will mark its fourth decade. In recent weeks, the names of the 22 films that will compete in this event have been announced by the festival secretariat, and now in the remaining four weeks, most of the Film media are in a frenzy to predict and prejudge about each of these works. . This year, as in previous years, with the announcement of the names of the accepted works, there are margins about the absence of many of the left works, and without a doubt, these margins and news will not be less on the days of the event and after the announcement of the results. But now that fourteen years have passed since the most important Film festival in the country and only four weeks remain until the official start of Fajr, we decided to review every week a decade of Fajr festivals of previous years. Of course, the less paid margins, the phenomena of each period, and the overlooked works will have a special place in our case.
In the first week, we turn to the 60s. When the Fajr Film Festival was a new event and its rules were changed every year until it finally came to a codified form and image.
The first period of the Fajr Film Festival: 1982
Four years had passed since the victory of the revolution, many movies had been made, but due to the inflamed political atmosphere and the lack of a clear mechanism for Examining the films, the cinematic structure was not very well formed. But finally, with the advice of the Ministry of Guidance, it was decided to start a festival called the Fajr Film Festival in the Fajr decade of 1982. The history of this festival goes back to two old Iranian Film festivals, namely the Thanksgiving Festival and the Tehran Film Festival, which started their work in the mid-1940s. Of course, Sepas stopped soon and the Tehran Film Festival continued until 1977. On the evening of the 11th of Bahman, the Fajr Film Festival started with a message from the Prime Minister Mir Hossein Mousavi and the then Minister of Guidance Seyed Mohammad Khatami.
Structure: In this period, the films in There were two sections, amateur and professional. In the professional section, important films such as "Death of Yazdgerd" directed by Bahram Beizai, "Red Line" directed by Masoud Kimiaei, "Haji Washington" directed by Ali Hatami and were present. But the professional section was non-competitive, with only lesser-known films competing in the amateur section. In addition to these two sections, the first Fajr Film Festival in the atmosphere of the ideologies of the early years of the Islamic Revolution and with special attention to the Cuban like-minded country and the share of Indians and blacks in cinema, in 8 sections: competition, special plays, Cuban cinema perspective, Italian cinema From Neorealism to the Present, Children and Adolescents, Indians and Blacks cinema in Cinema, the Perspective of Iranian cinema after the Revolution, and the 8mm and 16mm Film Sections.
Main Prizes: After 10 The day after the festival was held, the jury, whose names were never revealed, announced that no Film would receive an award because none of them could be role models. Only some of the films in the amateur section were awarded diplomas.
Phenomenon: Some important films screened during this period of the festival, such as "Death of Yazdgerd" and "Red Line" , Remained in perpetual detention.
Margins: The first festival began in the hot days of war and domestic political issues. But the people and the fans of cinema, who had seen four years of cinema isolation, welcomed this event very much. In such a way that long lines formed in front of the cinemas and people waited from 6 in the morning until late at night to see the works of the festival. Sometimes these rallies were even violent and resulted in a number of shootings.
Ignored works: It can be said that all the works were ignored.
The second period of Fajr Film Festival: 1983
This period started while for that secretary It was not considered and the festival was organized as a council, with a combination of representatives of the Ministry of Guidance and the Foundation for the Underprivileged, and ideological thinking was still a prominent theme at the festival.
Structure: The first period, in which different sections of world cinema were present at the festival, began with the slogan of eliminating the cultural and economic domination of foreign Film over Iranian film, and no foreign works were present at the festival. This course also consisted of two sections: amateur and professional competitions. With the difference that this time the films also competed in the professional section and the Golden Plate was awarded to the winners as a prize. Another notable issue in the second period was the ban on the presence of prominent pre-revolutionary filmmakers at the event. The judges of this period were all important cultural figures of those years and the jury consisted of people such as Seyyed Mohammad Beheshti, Akbar Alemi, Manouchehr Asgari Nasab, Mehdi Kalhor, Mohammad Ali Najafi, Mehdi Hojjat and Sina Vahed.
Main Awards: during this period, the jury did not consider any Film worthy of receiving the Best Film Award. But the Crystal Simorgh Award for Best Actor went to Hossein Parvaresh for "Weakness" and the Crystal Simorgh Award for Best Director went to Khosrow Sinaei for "Inner Monster." One of the interesting events in the awards section was the awarding of the Diploma of Honor for Best Supporting Actor to the young and novice Parviz Parastavi for the Film "Diar Asheghan". Also, a Film by Abbas Kiarostami called "Hamsarayan" was seen at the festival and the Golden Plate received the best short film.
Phenomenon: Mohsen Makhmalbaf, who had a
special place in those years He had in Iranian cinema
and had very different beliefs from today, with three films
"Ista'a", "Tobeh Nasooh" and "Two Eyes Bey" in the second
Margins: The first unforgettable margin of this period , Was a lack of attention to female actors. While most of the films of this period were made with female actors, they did not receive any awards. On the other hand, there were frequent power outages that overwhelmed the audience. But the most prominent margin was related to the disclosure of the results of the judging on the last night of the festival. Mirlouhi, an active director before the revolution, was made. Davood Rashidi playing the role of Khoja Mammad in this Film is one of the best works of this actor. But the different story of this film, which is about the struggle of Turkmen workers against oppression, his directing and acting was not seen in the festival.
The third period of Fajr Film Festival: 1363
Since Farabi cinema Foundation was established in 1983, the task of holding the Fajr Film Festival has been transferred to this foundation. . This significantly reduced the irregularities of the previous two periods.
Structure: In the third period, for the first time in the history of post-revolutionary cinema, the game The female actors were noticed. Foreign films also did not have a place in the festival, and only the professional and amateur sections of the first films, entitled "The First Works of Filmmakers", were added. One of the important features of the third period was the addition of different genres to the festival films. Along with war and adventure films, melodrama and comedy also entered the competition, marking the beginning of a new era in post-revolutionary cinema. There was still no written law for the members of the jury, and some figures such as Akbar Alemi, Mohammad Ali Najafi and Mehdi Hojjat were re-elected as judges. during this period, no Film that had been shown before the winter of 1983 was eligible to participate in the festival competition.
Main Prizes: "Scarecrow" directed by Hassan Mohammadzadeh was the first film. Which won the best Film award in the history of Fajr Film Festival. Yadollah Samadi also received the Best Director Award for "The Man Who Knew Too Much." Ali Hatami was praised only for his Film "Kamal Al-Molk" and the award for Best Actor went to Jamshid Mashayekhi for his role in "Chrysanthemums" and "Kamal Al-Molk". Parvaneh Masoumi, as the first actress after the revolution, won the Best Actress award for her role in "Chrysanthemums". Mohammad Reza Morsali and Jeeran Sharif also received the Best Supporting Actor Award for their role in "Scarecrow". It was an important event. Introducing young talents such as Rasoul Sadr Ameli, Kiomars Poorahmad, Mehdi Sabbaghzadeh and were other events of this period.
Margins: No poster was designed for this period of the festival and only changed Date of holding and adding details, on the poster of the second period, it was published as a poster of the third period.
Ignored works: None
The fourth season began with the Fajr Festival carrying the international prefix, but films Foreigners were not allowed to perform at this festival. The war was halfway through and still played a big role in all aspects of people's lives, but people still recognized cinema as one of their main hobbies.
Structure: In the fourth period The amateur section was removed from the Iranian cinema competition and later became a young cinema. during this period, the children and adolescents section was added to the Fajr Film Festival, which led to the presence of significant works in this genre to the festival. The judges of this period, like the previous three periods, were all cultural officials of the country.
Main prizes: In the best Film category, a rare event happened in the fourth period. Unlike the first and second seasons, when no Film won an award, the four Golden Tablets for Best Picture went to "Grandpa," "Bus," "Finish Line," and "Cold Roads." Also, the special jury award for the best Film went to Abbas Kiarostami for the feature documentary "The Primaries" and in the children and adolescents group to "Spring" by Abolfazl Jalili. The Best Actor Award was given to Hadi Eslami for his Film "Bus" in recognition of Iraj Tahmasb's performance in "The Finish Line". The best director of this period was Kianoosh Ayari Festival for the Film "The Light of the Demon". But again, the female actors were deprived of the first role award and only Mehri Mehrnia received the supporting role award. during this period, for the first time, Mehdi Asadi, who was only 12 years old in those days, was awarded an honorary diploma for playing in the Film "Spring".
Phenomenon: Although foreign films They had no place in the festival, but works from this period were introduced to foreign festivals for the first time after the revolution, and this changed the world's view of Iran and the young cinema of the Islamic Republic. Works such as "Runner" by Amir Naderi, "Cold Roads" by Masoud Jafari Jozani and "Madians" by Ali Zhakan, which won prestigious awards at the international level.
Margins: In the international section The Fajr Festival was a defined part called the perspective of cinema in Asia, in which only Mohsen Makhlbaf's Film "Boycott" of Iranian cinema was included.
Ignored works: The Film "Eagles" by Samuel Khachikian was present at the festival, and although it later became the best-selling Film in Iranian cinema by the standards of inflation, it was not very well received by the jury.
The fifth edition of the Fajr Film Festival The
year 1365 was one of the most difficult years of the imposed war
and the country was under heavy attacks in It was located in the
south and west of the country. Nevertheless, 92 films were screened
in nearly 900 chances in 10 days of the festival and were still
well received by the people.
Structure: An important event from the fifth period It was created in the competition structure of Iranian films and it was the announcement of the candidates. during this period, for the first time, the poster section was added to the Iranian Film competition. The Children and Adolescents section, which was added to it the year before the Fajr Festival, was held at the same time as this event.
Main Prizes: Best Film Award "Flying in the Night" by Rasoul Mollaqlipour, who was taking his first steps in the field of filmmaking in those years, and the award for best director to Abbas Kiarostami for the Film "Where is Khaneh Doost?" devoted. The Best Actor award went to Dariush Arjmand for the Film "Captain of the Sun" and the Golden Complementary Award went to Saeed Poursamimi for the same film.
Phenomenon: In the fifth season, Pouran Derakhshandeh With the Film "Relationship", she was the first female director present in the competition section of the Fajr Festival after the Islamic Revolution. She did not fight at home, which was accompanied by the fact that there was no winner or nominee in the female supporting role section, which led to many protests in the fringe sections of the festival.
Ignored works: "Basho Gharibeh Kouchak" was made by Bahram Beizai this year, but not only was it not allowed to be screened, but it was not even allowed to attend the Fajr Film Festival and remained in detention until four years later.
The sixth edition of the Fajr Film Festival : Year 1366
With distance from the years At the beginning of the victory of the revolution, the political atmosphere was a little more open and the role of world cinema in the festival was more prominent. during this period, for the first time, the festival's Film selection committee was introduced, which continued to work for many years with an almost identical composition consisting of Abdullah Esfandiari, Mohammad Hossein Haghighi, Mohammad Ali Hosseinnejad, and Alireza Shoja Nouri.
Structure: during this period, there were no significant changes in the structure of the festival competition section. On the sidelines of the International Film Festival, however, there were changes in the distribution of foreign films, with a special box dedicated to the works of Andrei Tarkovsky, a famous Russian filmmaker, receiving much attention.
Main Prizes: No Film was eligible for the Best Picture award during this period, but two films, "Little Bird of Happiness" directed by Pouran Derakhshandeh and "Kani Manga" directed by Saifullahudad, won the Special Jury Prize in this category. In the directing section, the golden plate of the festival went to Kianoosh Ayari, the director of "Beyond the Fire". The Golden Award for Best Actor went to Faramarz Gharibian, the actor in "Train", and the Golden Award for Best Actress went to Parvaneh Masoumi for "Dowry for Rabab" and "Glory of Life". Saeed Poursamimi also received the Male Supporting Award for his second year in a row for his role in "Gifts". The Best Supporting Actress award, however, went to a pre-revolutionary active actress; Anik Shafrazian for the Film "Land of Wishes". Acting signaled changes in the festival's ideological views. Also, the presence of Parvaneh Masoumi in 4 films and the awarding of the Best Actress to her for two films was a special event for female actors.
Margins: It was between the Farabi cinema Foundation and the Arts Center. As a result, no films from the field of art were present at the festival.
Neglected works: "Maybe Next Time" by Bahram Beizai was one of the most important films of this period. But except for the technical part of the film, the director, the actor and the script were ignored by the jury.
The seventh edition of the Fajr Film Festival: 1988
The imposed war ended six months before the start of the festival, and relative calm was restored in all parts of society. during this period, for the first time, crystal Simorghs flew for the chosen ones. From this period, Simorgh was selected as the symbol of the festival with a design by Ebrahim Haghighi, and the main prize was renamed from Golden Plate to Crystal Simorgh. The attention and participation of foreign filmmakers in this period increased to the Fajr International Film Festival, and this greatly increased the festival's prestige in the region.
Structure: In this period There were many changes in the body of the festival. Among other things, a section called Festival of Festivals was added to the event to review the selected works of other festivals, and a review of the works of Yasujiro Azu, Andrei Vaida, Sergei Parajanov, and Robert Bresson in the seventh edition was welcomed by the audience. Another change in the formation of the festival's news source was that it was first published in the form of a bulletin under the editorship of Ibrahim Nabavi, which is still valid today.
Main Awards: Crystal Simorgh Best Film "In the Path of the Storm" by Masoud Jafari Jozani was awarded, and the Crystal Simorgh went to Mohsen Makhmalbaf, the director of "Bicycle Run". Roya Nonhali, 24 years old, was the youngest actress to receive the Best Actress award for "Happy Wedding" until that day, and Fatemeh Motamedaria won Simorgh Blorin for Best Supporting Actress for her Film "Barhoot". Ezatullah Entezami won the Best Actor award for his role in "Grand Cinema" for the first time at the Fajr Festival during this period, and Mahmoud Jafari won the Best Supporting Actor award for his role in "Yellow Canary" and "Willow Branches". .
Phenomenon: Mohsen Makhmalbaf participated in the Fajr Film Festival with two films and received three Simorghs in various fields of directing, screenwriting and stage design. A record set for the first time at the festival. It reached its peak in the seventh period. Were the most important and unappreciated works of this period of the festival.
The eighth period of Fajr Film Festival: 1989
In the history of Fajr Film Festival, the title of one of the most interesting periods can be given to the eighth period. A period in which prominent veteran and young directors were together and a number of unique works in the history of Iranian cinema such as "Mother" Ali Hatami, "Hamoon" by Dariush Mehrjoui, "Close-up" by Abbas Kiarostami and competed together in this period. The sections related to international cinema had also significantly improved in terms of quantity and quality in the festival compared to the previous year.
Structure: In this period for the fourth consecutive year of the festival . .
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