Female heroes in Iranian cinema; From Tehrani’s gift to Alidosti’s song

The documentary called "Iranian cinema in search of happiness" by Armin Naderi, which was published last year, examines the evolution of "Hero" in Iranian cinema. and what features it has. This documentary, with an overview of the history of Iranian cinema since the introduction of the cinematograph device until the end of the 1390s, focusing on the new wave cinema, shows the Iranian hero in several periods, male and female heroes in Persian and new wave films, the post-revolutionary hero and holy defense, the hero It divides the era of construction and reform and the hero of the post-reform era, and interprets the dominant form of the hero. Talking about the role of women and heroines in Iranian cinema, which is examined in this documentary due to the historical course of this cinema, is not a new thing.

BingMag.com Female heroes in Iranian cinema; From Tehrani’s gift to Alidosti’s song

The documentary called "Iranian cinema in search of happiness" by Armin Naderi, which was published last year, examines the evolution of "Hero" in Iranian cinema. and what features it has. This documentary, with an overview of the history of Iranian cinema since the introduction of the cinematograph device until the end of the 1390s, focusing on the new wave cinema, shows the Iranian hero in several periods, male and female heroes in Persian and new wave films, the post-revolutionary hero and holy defense, the hero It divides the era of construction and reform and the hero of the post-reform era, and interprets the dominant form of the hero. Talking about the role of women and heroines in Iranian cinema, which is examined in this documentary due to the historical course of this cinema, is not a new thing.

If this documentary raises the argument that Iranian cinema in general It is impossible to create a hero who will ultimately end well with his own confusion, and it is only a breeding ground for passive or active heroes for a while or to be welcomed by death and destruction. Many important filmmakers of Iranian cinema have long been concerned about women, and in a culture that tries It makes the woman passive either by turning her into an object or by making her a holy figure, always with all the limitations they have created lasting female characters who try to distance themselves from passivity and determine their own destiny. This article tries to verify and analyze the image of the female protester and fighter by examining the evolution of the female protagonist in Iranian cinema.>BingMag.com Female heroes in Iranian cinema; From Tehrani’s gift to Alidosti’s song

Cinema before the revolution, after the initial efforts of the Armenian community, first under the influence of Western cinema and then Indian cinema, mainly showed hollow heroes. It produces that has no action towards its surroundings and its fate is determined by luck and emotions. These heroes are mostly called lampoons who are "sad" (which reaches its peak in "Ganj Qaroon") and reaching the beloved and returning to the arms of the family, that too in a surreal and so-called Indian way, is his most important achievement, not as a result of His efforts are considered luck and appreciation. There is no trace of a hero who reaches from point A to point Z through his own effort and effort, from failure to victory.

Iranian cinema is trying to escape from such heroes and get closer to life after this period. , produces active heroes, the most important of which is "Caesar". Qaisar is the first "anti-hero" and, according to some critics, the first "martyr" of Iranian cinema, and the beginning of a wave of films whose heroes fight against oppression and injustice with the knowledge of the fatal outcome. A hero who voluntarily accepts death. If we don't interpret this bitter ending from a mystical perspective that considers sacrificing the body as salvation, the hero of Iranian cinema in this period will not achieve happiness through activism. In none of these periods is there any news of a female hero. The heroes are mainly men from the lower class who protest against poverty and class differences.

The birth of the female hero in crossing the wartime hero

BingMag.com Female heroes in Iranian cinema; From Tehrani’s gift to Alidosti’s song

The post-revolutionary hero is still a martyr. That is, war conditions require that the only hero accepted by the ruling system and society is a martyr for the path of truth and freedom. The intellectual hero, for example, in Mehrjoui's "Hamon", is struggling with the crisis of identity and the meaning of life. Strangely, in this same period, we see the birth of the female hero. Except for the war-torn female heroine who is looking for her son, brother, missing wife or missing child, Nai "Bashu Gharibeh Koch" by Bahram Bayzaei, which, of course, did not get a chance to be released at the time of its creation, is an important example of a strong female heroine. Although it does not rise, it acts against the norms and unwritten social and cultural rules. Of course, in a metatextual sense, by sheltering a stranger, Nayi reflects the image of mother earth and Mr. Bayzaei intends to convey the universal anti-war message of unity and solidarity with this film during the war. "Tara's Guerrilla", which has a warrior female protagonist, gets into the revolution and doesn't get a chance to be screened, and in this way, the most important and powerful and progressive Iranian female protagonist is lost in history like the story of the film. Bahram Baizaei from BingMag

With the passage of the sixties and the leading male hero/martyr and the supporting female hero/in the shadow, Iranian cinema has an opportunity to talk about new social pains and concerns by entering the period of construction and after reforms. It is during this period that Dariush Mehrjooi, with a smart understanding of the prevailing conditions in the society, and a partial view of Western literature, chooses women as the main characters or heroes of his world. He made "Bano" before this era, which is prohibited, and now with the trilogy "Sara", "Perry" and "Lila" he puts a mirror of women in Iranian society in front of us. Among these three heroes, it is only Sarah who tries in the true sense of a hero, stands up and shows protest action. His heroic ascension is admirable and makes us empathize, but we know nothing. What fate awaits her after leaving home.

Hodayeh Tehrani, the symbol of protesting female heroine in Iranian cinema

BingMag.com Female heroes in Iranian cinema; From Tehrani’s gift to Alidosti’s song

In the seventies, following the opening of the socio-political cultural space of the society and following the process of star making, more and bolder female heroes were born in Iranian cinema. Tehrani's gift becomes the symbol of Iranian female protester hero. He is with "Sultan" by Masoud Kimiaei, who now portrays his female characters on the same footing as his male heroes due to the changing circumstances and the emphasis on the role of students and student movements (we have seen this soft change in his cinema before in "Dandan Mar" , which previously had a masculine and traditional origin in appearance, but in fact, we are the defenders of the rights of whoever is oppressed), was introduced to Iranian cinema and very quickly became a popular figure of cinematographers and on the screen, and in fact, a superstar. .

Her bony and cold face was a very suitable choice for the role of a woman who has a problem with the injustices around her and, on the contrary, a traditional woman who is not willing to be silent or in the most radical possible state (as in "Sara" We witness it) the Turk, who is looking for revenge, and like Caesar, independent of the law and judicial system, to defend his right and security of life and mental health, he personally takes revenge on the cruel man. In this way, Fereydoun Jirani's "Red" creates the most important fighting and protesting female hero of Iranian cinema. And this is the beginning of a path for Tehrani's gift in the role of a female heroine who is independent, makes her own decisions, does social activities and political struggle alongside men and even more firmly than him ("Party" by Saman Moghadam), reflects the truth and is cruel and Injustice fights, and even goes beyond this in commercial cinema, in a film like "Irony Girl" by Asghar Hashemi, she appears in the role of a leading and powerful female protagonist who goes to propose to her beloved man.

Of course. Ms. Tehrani's image is slightly damaged with films such as "Denya" and "Shokran" in the role of a beautiful, independent but threatening woman who disrupts tradition and traditional life, but with "Kaghez Be Khat" Nasser Taqvai, in the role of Roya, a housewife tired of everyday life. In the shadow of the patriarchy that wants to create stories other than everyday life, it restores its tarnished image. And as the most important protesting heroine of Iranian cinema, she becomes a role model for the heroines of her later period, who are now teenage girls of the period of reforms and new civil liberties.

A female protagonist who is a fighter or a victim and a loser of the patriarchal system?

BingMag.com Female heroes in Iranian cinema; From Tehrani’s gift to Alidosti’s song

The seventies, according to Mr. Mehrjooi, is the decade of dealing with a class of society that has taken the place of the lower class, because the most oppression And injustice is directed at him now; Middle and upper middle class where women have an important place. Because she is literate, aware of her rights, works or has the ability to work, and apart from maternal and marital responsibilities, she sometimes seeks her own independent identity and sometimes has an independent identity. She is no longer the only mother, wife, sister and honor of anyone, she is a human being who is free and in search of freedom.

The angel and the dream of "Two Women" by Tehmina Milani are two sides of the image of a woman, one in the presence of laws. Patriarchy is destroyed and of course it does not stand up, and the other grows in the absence of patriarchy and has the power to take the hand of the victimized and ruined woman. These heroes and this concept of solidarity can also be seen in Ms. Milani's other films; The path that had already started in "Dige Che Khabar" which was also a noisy movie. Unfortunately, Ms. Milani's cinema continued to turn into a caricature of a fighting female hero, but the influence of "Two Women" in her era cannot be ignored. "Mah Mehr" by Ahmadreza Darwish and then "Atraz" by Masoud Kimiaei, she appears in the role of a knowledgeable and studious student girl; A girl who is sensitive to social changes in both films, against the family line of thought, has action and political activity and fights for love. In both films, it is the female protagonist who, although symbolic, is not the object of love and not just the lover who is the lover/beloved. From his early works, he shows that the female characters in his stories, from prostitutes to workers, are not supposed to be passive. Farimah Farjami and Atefeh Razavi in "Nargis" and Gulab Adina in "Zi Post Shahr" are all from the lower class, bold women among men, or they are irresponsible or the society leads them astray. They work hard for their lives and fight for their rights, and their baggage is love and hope, in the darkness.

BingMag.com Female heroes in Iranian cinema; From Tehrani’s gift to Alidosti’s song

Unfortunately, in the symbolic world of "Sakgashi", the price of sacrifice in the way of love, truth and truth is weakness and exhaustion of the soul. Golrokh Kamali fulfills what he considers to be his human and mythological duty with a kind of committed extreme self-destruction, and in the end, he is betrayed and played and again a victim, not even seeking revenge. Leaving is an inevitable option before him. And it is true that the guardian angels take revenge from the impostor man who is a symbol of oppression instead of him, and the humiliation and killing of the oppressor like a "dog" is actually the reward of his sufferings and the injustice done to him, but when We look at him, we do not see a trace of salvation. We see a failed hero whose seemingly triumphant end is not going to make him a phoenix rising from the ashes. His end is not even like the angel of "Two Women" who hopes to start his life again with the book.

He is disillusioned and must probably spend the rest of his life alone to heal his deep wounds. This is more or less the fate of all the female heroes of this period of Iranian cinema and of course the following periods. Although the working mother of "under the skin of the city" continues to strive for her rights and freedom, she does not have a clear picture of the future in her mind. The wealthy bride who abandons her wedding ceremony in "Protest" to join her begging lover, although hopeful, seems more like a fantasy of the filmmaker's longing and compassion for the end of love than reality. On paper and in reality, the society of that period swallows these female heroes. .jpg" class="content-pics" alt="BingMag.com Female heroes in Iranian cinema; From Tehrani’s gift to Alidosti’s song" title="BingMag.com Female heroes in Iranian cinema; From Tehrani’s gift to Alidosti’s song" loading="lazy">

Iranian cinema in the 80s goes to the heroine of a teenage girl who now has to face the society in the period of civil liberties. A society that, although it is progressing on the surface, still tradition, with all its limitations, stands firmly against it and sometimes knocks it off its feet. In this period, in a few cases, the hero of the action finally sees the savior, but still, it is not possible to imagine a bright future for him. For example, what will happen to a girl from the lower class who has a child as a teenager and now has to raise her child alone without family support and without a job and a certain income? How can a girl in sneakers who looks for love on the street and finds it nothing but illusion and deception ever trust in love again? A girl longing for freedom and happiness, who inevitably becomes a street and prostitute, is there any other way than ruin waiting for her?

Rukhshan Bani-e-Etamad in the beginning of the nineties in one of his most angry and bitter films, "Tales", by depicting The future and the fate of all the heroes of his stories, even those wounded fighting women, partially answers these questions. The future is more bitter than the past, and the only point of hope is the liberation of one of the female protagonists (the heroine of "Khunbazi"), who, of course, paid the eternal price and is now suffering from AIDS.

BingMag.com Female heroes in Iranian cinema; From Tehrani’s gift to Alidosti’s song

Iranian cinema in the 90s, due to the lack of its greats, either does not have a female hero or is still faced with completely failed or ultimately failed heroes. The cinematographers of this period, those who are concerned about women's issues, by delving into the past, again deal with an issue such as rape, which is a symbol of male assault on women, in some cases, the active female hero who fights for her rights and the injustices that have been and will be done to her. , creates but has no purpose and is ultimately defeated by the harsh patriarchal society. For example, in a symbolic way, in Hamid Nematullah's "Vein of Sleep", who previously explained his task in "Boutique" with the fate of women in a violent society, we can see the future of Leila, who is without exaggeration the blackest image of a woman in front of society in Iranian cinema. Is. (We could have hoped for "Savage Killer", which is currently under arrest.

In the most important works of this period, the works that achieved success in the international arena, not only something even similar to the image of a female fighter born in the seventies We do not see that we are on the side of a hero who is not actually a hero and has no identity. There is no news of an active hero at all, let alone a hero who achieves victory through action and effort. Even filmmakers such as Jirani in this era have a female hero. brings the vanquished to the screen. The last image recorded in the mind is of Tehrani's gift in "Chaharshanbe Soori", whose silent struggle has turned into lamentation and his hope is a lie. In his last film, Dariush Mehrjoui deals with the issue of banning music for women, but For various reasons, from social and economic conditions to the general state of cinema and of course the quality of the film, the film is not successful in creating a hero who rightfully fights for the injustice that has been done to him and conveys his message to the audience. Censored, in portraying an impressive and inspiring female protagonist, who To be a role model for her audience and society, to create an action, she is still in the stage of creating a true image of such a woman. The question that comes to mind here is that the Iranian woman in the frame of Iranian cinema will finally see the day when she herself, independent, aware, active and united, will achieve freedom and happiness without being a victim or victim.

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